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  • Semantic Web Technologies Explained
    to design a number of standards by which software applications could become interoperable The result of this was the development of Service oriented Architecture SOA a collection of interoperability standards that allow loosely coupled software services to interconnect regardless of platform or operating language Furthermore markup languages such as XML and XML based formats such as SOAP and WSDL extended this ability to include web services allowing applications to exploit services over the Internet Development of the Semantic Web Though the development of XML and its various formats was an important advance in the development of interoperable web technology the limitations of the language are all too evident The primary problem is that XML is not descriptive enough about the information it describes for it to be adequately computer understandable While the foundations for connectivity have been laid out in SOA standards and XML there remains the simple problem that though computers can discover services and connect to them they have no way of understanding what these services actually do For that we require a new language Semantic Web Technologies In an effort to enable computers to understand semantic web services there have been developed several technologies that will pave the way including Resource Description Framework RDF and Web Ontology Language WOL RDF is a metadata model typically based on XML that assigns data with a semantic metadata description that can be understood by computers The RDF model is based on the RDF triple a method of describing data using a subject predicate object expression For example a computer would have no way of understanding the statement The couch has the colour red as computers cannot use semantics to draw conclusions as to its meaning However by describing the statement as subject predicate object it is possible to tell the

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/semantic-web-technologies.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • What is Serial Attached SCSI?
    Protocol for managing new point to point connectivity 3 The SATA Tunnelling Protocol that lays down the rules for interconnectivity between SATA devices SAS allows users to choose between low cost SATA drives for storage of routine data and high performance SCSI drives for mission critical data and applications The cost of deployment is determined by the final application The SAS backplane offers the solution provider and the end user a choice of drivers which means that storage configuration can be done in the most effective manner for a given application The serial point to point connection offered by SAS gives the kind of performance that storage systems expect SAS has at its disposal the experience acquired over 20 years in the development and running of parallel SCSI which at present covers the majority of the enterprise disk market The entry of SAS offers a robust and cheap alternative that meets the demand for heavy I O applications such as databases and web servers The advantages of SAS over SATA drives include provision for speeds up to 3 GB s as against 1 5 GB s in the current generation of SATA drives The next speed increase in SAS is slotted at 6 Gb s SAS features a full duplex architecture that enables simultaneous bi directional data and command transfer SATA drives operating at 7 200 rpm cannot match the capacity and performance of SAS drives running at 15K and 10K rpm A single fast high speed port is formed by linking multiple high speed physical links as a result of the wide port capabilities that SAS features SAS also offers dynamic load balancing This allows all the controllers to take part in processing the I O requests Overload on one controller and a skew in I O requests is

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/serial-attached-scsi.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • Serial Storage Architecture Explained
    server communications in larger computers Although HPPI was capable of being run over fibre optic cable this was expensive at the time so it was more normal to use a fifty strand twisted pair cable This made it bulky and limited the number of devices that could be attached as well as the distance between them and the server Data Security and SSA Data security in the form of fault tolerance was a prime driver for the development of SSA The design was bi directional meaning that data could be sent in both directions at the same time also known as full duplex communication It was intended to be implemented in a loop so that data could flow to its destination in either direction The design also meant that a break in any one of the cable cores would not stop data flowing The implications of the protocol design meant that SSA also allowed hot swapping In the event of a disk drive failing it could be replaced without any of the other components being shut down This also allowed a disk array to be expanded in a modular fashion with initially 126 devices capable of being connected in an SSA environment Resilience was also improved with SSA capable of linking devices up to twenty five metres apart Quick and Efficient Data Access A pure speed increase was one of the many benefits of SSA With two ports on each SSA device and each port capable of running a 40MB s exchange in each direction the aggregated bandwidth of SSA was 160MB s This was at a time when Ethernet was running at 10MB s and the relatively new SCSI fast and wide offered 20MB s SSA also spread the data among the devices in a fair fashion to counteract

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/serial-storage-architecture.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • What is Service-oriented Architecture?
    computing is practicality It is no longer practical for an enterprise to use disparate applications to perform each task While the setup cost of such a system would be far greater than the setup of a network of inter linked applications the time it would take to perform even the most basic business process would mean that the enterprise could not compete in the market Implementation of SOA The basis of a service oriented architecture lies in the development of loosely coupled services that is software components that can communicate with other applications without having to know their technical details While there are many definitions of a service oriented architecture there are four particular components that everyone agrees on Service Consumer The service consumer is an application component or other software module that requests a service from a separate application The service consumer finds the service provider in the service registry sends a service request and executes the service function Service Provider The service provider is a network accessible application or software component that provides a service to the consumer The service provider publishes its contract in a service registry to make itself discoverable to service consumers Service Contract The service contract is a specification of the way in which a service consumer can access the functionality of a service provider The service contract informs the service consumer of the acceptable format of a service request The service contract is stored in a service registry allowing service consumers to discover and utilise the services offered by the provider Service Registry A service registry is a network accessible registry that accepts and stores service contracts from providers and makes them discoverable to service consumers With these components in place it is possible for service consumers to easily find services that can

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/service-oriented-architecture.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • Silicon Graphics Workstations Explained
    Silicon Graphics Workstations are high end engineering microcomputers manufactured by the company Silicon Graphics Inc SGI or Silicon Graphics Inc is based at Mountain View California It was once among the leading manufacturers of high end servers workstations and visualization systems Early SGI products like the IRIS 1000 handled only graphics display and needed the support of a 32 bit computer Subsequent developments had SGI move into the substantially more powerful RISC microprocessors These powered later SGI workstations and made them the world s premier hardware for 3D graphics work Whether the 3D work was advertisements or movies the ubiquitous SGI workstation is what was generally used in its creation SGI and SGI workstations also played a large part in the evolution of OpenGL a standard widely used in most graphics related hardware and software today The increasing power of home desktops and their ability to handle large and complex graphics applications has hit SGI s core business and eroded profitability on graphics workstations It is expected that SGI s re invention as a company that builds reliable and scalable enterprise hardware like servers should see them in good stead in the future The term SGI workstation may eventually become synonymous with cutting edge server hardware Note The changes in SGI s main market eventually pushed the company to file for chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in May 2006 Some sample SGI workstations from 2006 Silicon Graphics Tezro This high performance workstation platform sets new standards for desktop performance and dependability for multiprocessing visualization and digital media The Tezro is designed to deliver advanced performance needed by scientists engineers designers film producers etc It is powered by up to four MIPS processors in sophisticated high bandwidth architecture Silicon Graphics Fuel This visual workstation offers a good price to performance ratio and

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/silicon-graphics-workstations.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • Software Deployment Explained
    run by the companies which created it has ushered in new ways of combating the problem of software piracy Although traditional anti piracy measures such as registration keys and the like had been bypassed fairly easily when the software was running on isolated machines a central server is capable of detecting the use of duplicate keys and can deny access to online facilities to any software it deems to be pirated Microsoft for example has striven to make regular online updates a core part of the normal functioning of its Windows operating system yet updates are denied to users whose copy of Windows is considered not genuine Makers of game software have been able to shore up profits by incorporating online features into their games features which users of pirated copies of their games will be unable to take advantage of Indeed Valve Software makers of the phenomenally successful game Half Life decided to use their hot property to push the adoption of the online anti piracy system known as Steam Steam is a game portal which requires users to create an account before being able to play any games which are bound to it including games which the user may have purchased in a shop Although it proved controversial and unpopular with many users it does seem to have established itself as an enduring part of the software distribution landscape and now features many games created by companies other than its creators Valve From distributing software updates online it is of course a small step you would think to distributing the software itself online In fact although online software purchases are now made routinely the traditional disk in the shop model has proved surprisingly resilient The bulk of online software sales are accounted for by low end shareware applications created by small companies with little to no marketing clout When Blizzard entertainment makes of the popular online role playing game World of Warcraft introduced an expansion pack for the game it was initially made available only through conventional retail outlets The company had been distributing patches for the game often hefty in size for some time before Yet even with that background in online distribution it was reluctant to embrace an exclusive online roll out for an important new product Blizzard executives realised that they probably could not cope with the high levels of demand which had been anticipated After the initial surge of purchases in the shops however online purchase options were made available some weeks later Many other significant innovations in software distribution have or are being attempted following the rise to mass popularity of the internet For example some believed that rather than having to be installed permanently on a user s computer applications could just be downloaded on the fly whenever needed Java applets which ran within a browser after being downloaded from a web page were probably the most popular implementation of this idea They failed to gain any traction as serious alternatives to

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/software-deployment.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • SPARC Explained
    SPARCblade SPARCLE More info Sun Microsystem s SPARC Microprocessor Definition SPARC derived from S calable P rocessor ARC hitecture is a SPARC International Inc trademark for a Sun Microsystems computer processor It is a RISC based microprocessor design SPARC Scalable Processor ARChitecture processors can be found in computers ranging from notebooks like the SPARCbook from Tadpole to supercomputers like the Enterprise servers from Sun and Fujitsu These RISC based processors run operating systems like Solaris OpenBSD and NetBSD SPARC processors were originally developed in the mid 1980s by Sun Microsystems SPARC processors were originally used for single processor machines before their eventual mainstay the SMP or multi processor machines The scalable processor architecture went on to become the leading platform for high end server applications Sun is the biggest user of these processors and it also sells SPARC based processors and motherboards to other systems OEMs The processors are not made by Sun They are manufactured by other semiconductor companies The intellectual property rights in SPARC architecture were transferred to SPARC International Inc which was set up in 1989 to handle various SPARC related intellectual properties It is an independent non profit organization that promotes the SPARC architecture and maintains standards compatibility and interoperability and it regulates licensing of the trademark The SPARC architecture is fully open and non proprietary It is open to all manufacturers of components and systems as well as software developers who are interested in developing SPARC systems It has been licensed to many manufacturers including Texas Instruments Cypress Semiconductor and Fujitsu Web servers from Sun based on SPARC processors had the highest market share before the dotcom bust Most of Sun s revenue still comes from selling SPARC based servers but the company has lost market share to IBM and others in the Unix server

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/scalable-processor-architecture.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • SQL (Structured Query Language) Explained
    from the start using SQL queries these designs or schema can be very complicated and the proper design of complex examples is a specialist area in itself The SQL language is used to ask the database questions about the data stored inside what is the value of the element stored in this index or what is the relationship between these sets of data Manipulative commands such as Please insert this data or please update this record as follows are also issued using SQL queries properly the commands which actually alter the stored data are referred to as the Data Manipulation Language DML A Data Definition Language DDL allows SQL queries to create and administer the data structures the tables of data that constitute the database The actual syntax used is a little more strict and regimented than these natural language phrases suggest but in effect this is the type of communication that will take place between a relational database and the person or device querying it using SQL SQL is standardised by ANSI American National Standards Institute but many dialects exist and while the principles remain largely the same between different implementations some of the detail does differ Uses There are many differing ways in which databases can be created and used and SQL is just one way of them Its standardisation though as well as the omnipresence it enjoys throughout the computing industry means that it is the natural choice for most users and applications Popular dialects of SQL are used in amongst others Microsoft applications Microsoft Access the widely used Oracle database system and MySQL a very widely adopted free implementation For SQL queries to be used on a database it must be formatted to be compatible and this must be done from inception Retrospectively changing a data

    Original URL path: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/structured-query-language.htm (2016-02-08)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-28