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  • Hot air balloooning
    if you cant get the air any hotter then you need to be able to heat more air so the answer is a bigger bag of nylon With this in mind you can lift theoretically any amount of weight given a big enough balloon At balloon meetings all around the country you will see balloons of all sizes typically in normal conditions a balloon of 21 000 cubic foot will carry 1 person 77 000 cu ft will carry 3 persons 120 000 cu ft will carry 6 persons all the way up to 20 persons carried under a 400 000 cu ft balloon This is the largest balloon currently operating in the UK At Head in the Clouds Balloon flights we fly a 6 person balloon as we feel this is a nice personal friendly group without the bus ride feel you get in larger balloons Now when should a balloon fly that will depend on the experience of the pilot and the conditions he is comfortable with Beginners obviously have to be very careful of flying in conditions they have no practical experience of So the first limiting factor is the windspeed at ground level This should ideally be in the range 0 7mph Above this and the inflation can get rather tricky with the balloon wallowing around from side to side the landing also will be problematical in higher windspeeds In low speeds the balloon basket will touch the ground maybe bounce a few times and then stop upright In speeds of over 10mph the basket will tip on to its side and drag along until it is emptied of hot air This is done by pulling on a red line which opens a deflation panel in the top of the balloon In higher windspeeds you need a much larger space to land the balloon as it is going to drag along the ground for some distance and you would also want to miss any upwind obstacles such as trees by a greater amount as any turbulence associated with high winds may pull you down into them Second factor is precipitation rain and snow Flying in precipitation more especially heavy rain will make the balloon envelope heavy and less responsive to the heat you are introducing in short it will want to fall out of the sky Coupled with this precipitation tends to be linked with stronger gusty winds and turbulence which will make the balloon difficult to control Third factor is visibility You need obviously to be able to see where you are going to be able to land safely In fog conditions you are unable to see the ground and there may be anything down there you may come down through fog and be lucky enough to find a normal field However there may also be trees houses or electricity power lines Landing on any of these will make you very unpopular and may even be fatal For the same reason it is best to

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/ballooning.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Capsize at sea - sea safety
    and I were wearing buoyancy aids and were therefore getting support in the water and some insulation too no doubt I am sure that this was part of the reason why Kris got hypothermia so badly Not only was he using up more energy by hanging on and treading water to keep himself afloat but he was also for some time holding onto the leeward side of the boat The moving boat and the wavecrests were ducking him under and he swallowed quite a bit of water Furthermore he had become panicky when his legs got tangled in ropes I told Kris to inflate his life jacket but he could not presumably because he was becoming hypothermic Rob was closer to him but could not do so either because he was not familiar with the lifejacket Crewsaver and did not know that there was a jerk to inflate tab tucked away inside Luckily I have the same make of lifejacket found the tab and pulled it to inflate the jacket Our companions in the other boat indicated that the lifeboat would be coming and later indicated that it would be with us in five minutes In the meantime the situation was now stabilising but serious Kris was in a worse state than either Rob or I but neither of us realised just how serious he was The other Wayfarer sailed very close by and grabbed Kris to try to drag him away and pull him on board but he clung onto our boat A couple of yachts had sailed towards us and thankfully kept their distance They were not very manoeuvrable and would need expert handling in order to save us without injury One of them stood by and liaised with the coastguard by radio their masthead aerial was more efficient than the handheld on the Wayfarer Meanwhile we three were re enacting a scene from the film The Cruel Sea asking each other if we were OK and keeping up morale Kris kept telling us to breath deeply Personally I did not feel cold I felt like a battery that was slowly running out of power After a while when we were on top of a wave we could see a boat approaching It did not look much like a lifeboat to me and I had visions of an amateur helmsman with twin screw diesels making mincemeat of us in short time Luckily it was a dive boat on charter to a team from the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst with a senior diving instructor and oxygen equipment on board Saved by the Cavalry At the first pass they threw a line which Rob got hold of and used to pull himself to the boat They had to circle round again to get a line to me which took a few minutes This time they asked us both to use the line Kris and I had a hotel doorway conversation You go first Kris No you go first Richard No you go No I m quite warm really Oh alright then I m not going to hang around here any longer I passed the line to Kris so that he had hold of it and then pulled myself to the dive boat I got myself up the ladder unassisted through the open transom onto the cockpit sole However once in the boat and safe I could not support the weight of my torso with my arms and had to paddle my body across the floor with my arms and legs It was a minute or two before I had the strength to sit up Meanwhile Chris was close behind me and had to be pulled on board by the crew They gave us both coffee from a thermos flask Kris started throwing up and then lapsed into unconsciousness and started to convulse The crew administered oxygen from a mask and got him into the wheelhouse Rob was cold but standing and jumping up and down to keep warm He was the oldest of the three of us but appeared to be in best shape We had been in the water for between 45 minutes and one hour By now the dive boat was heading back into the Solent and the Lymington inshore lifeboat arrived They pulled alongside at about 20 knots and one of the crew stepped on board After checking us out he was concerned about the condition that Kris was in and decided to call the helicopter I have noticed before that life threatening situations such as car crashes often have a third person element to them ie you almost seem to be a spectator as well as participant I suppose that this results from the combination of shock and adrenaline that helps you to respond quickly and make important decisions with more detachment The next few minutes were very like being in a scene from a film The dive boat was steaming to windward off Yarmouth at about 20 knots with the lifeboat close by on a parallel course A huge Sikorsky chopper pulled up only 40 feet or so above the water directly behind us and dropped a winchman on his wire who grabbed the pushpit and stepped aboard Rob and I were first to go up in a double sling followed by Kris and the winchman The view was great Inside the helicopter was huge I guess big enough to carry 20 people Rob and I crawled to the back as instructed it s all done in sign language because of the noise which made the experience even more unreal and Kris was attended to by the crewman and winchman He was completely unconscious again His convulsions were so strong that he was having to be restrained by both of the crew By now it was a fine sunny day and I could see rows of neat homes and gardens below us on the Isle of Wight Such a stark contrast to our predicament only minutes beforehand I hoped that Kris was going to be OK His condition was very worrying An ambulance and crew crew awaited us on the hospital lawn As we walked out of the helicopter it felt like a scene from MASH They had to stretcher Kris of course Rob and I both had visions of hot baths but our core temperatures were normal and we got blankets and a cup of tea instead Survival myths of being warmed up in bed with nurses are just that I am afraid Kris s core temperature had dropped to 34 degrees it should be almost 37 and he got the full treatment hot saline drips oxygen insulating blankets Warm air pipes disappeared under his bed clothes I did not like to ask where they went The main thing was that he was stable and now conscious again The Spanish doctor was very good He asked Kris what he was wearing and advised him that in future he should wear all wool He would be kept under observation for 24 hours to make sure that there was no lasting damage to his kidneys Rob and I could leave but this in itself was a problem All our clothes were in two sodden black plastic bags Luckily we both had our car keys but our cars were 10 miles away in the sailing club car park The nurses lent us operating gowns and even made up some shoes out of tubular bandaging with knotted ends Back at the club we asked the taxi driver to drop us as close as he could and then legged it to our cars before any members saw us It still felt like being in a film but now thankfully more Monty Python than The Cruel Sea After something to eat we drove to Lymington to clean the boat up and returned again the next day with a trailer to collect it By then we were both feeling a little sheepish as the reality of the events of the previous day began to sink in For me it was an unnerving experience Many of my assumptions about the stability of the boat when capsized appropriate clothing and safety gear had completely changed I also realised that I had made an error of judgement about the strength of the crew as the conditions worsened Post Mortem So what went wrong Clearly we made mistakes I do not feel that any of them would have been serious if we could have pulled the boat upright I was shocked at the speed with which it inverted three times I will split the post mortem into three sections 1 Factors that led to the capsize 2 Factors that led to hypothermia 3 Factors that inhibited self recovery Factors that led to the capsize These were a helming error b sloppy tacking procedure c bad crew co ordination d the state of the sea and wind a helming error Out of the three of use Rob is probably the weakest helmsman yet he had been at the helm for four hours We should probably have suggested that Kris take the helm Rob had considered offering the helm to one of us but his overalls were not completely waterproof and I was in a better position to take the brunt of the spray He had not sailed with Kris before and was understandably reluctant to pass the helm to him in the conditions Having said that any of us could have capsized a Wayfarer in these conditions given a bit of bad luck b sloppy tacking procedure Rob was not giving clear ready about and lee oh orders This would have helped There were long delays between preparing to go about and going about c bad crew co ordination Kris and I were having problems in co ordinating our movement from one side of the boat to the other initially This was because there was so little space to pass between the cascade kicker and the centre mainsheet We had to go through one after the other I would go to the middle of the boat on the preparatory command with my head the other side of the boom When we actually tacked I released the jib sheet made my way up to the new windward side and pulled the jib sheet through so that the clew was not fouled Kris would then follow me and take up the new sheet The system was working well but it left us more vulnerable from the time I moved to the centre of the boat until we started tacking Kris was also cold which may have slowed down his reaction time d the state of the sea and wind The wind was force 5 to 6 We were well reefed down under genoa and main with two reefs The second reef on my mainsail takes the head of the sail down far enough to be level with the head of the genoa we were using my sails on Rob s boat I do not recall that we were having to spill wind as we beat out to the Bridge buoy Someone has said that we would have had lee helm with this combination of sails up Rob says that he did not experience any problems on the helm We were pointing and going well The Wayfarer that stood by us for one hour was tacking backwards and forwards as far as I am aware without problem In a well crewed boat it is unlikely that we would have capsized However with a bit of bad luck anybody could capsize in these conditions Once the boat had gone over I think it likely that the size of the seas helped to invert the boat I do not know what the height of the waves was I would guess 6 feet without much confidence However they were big enough that the mast of the capsized boat in a trough would be well below the boat on the face of the wave If the boat is then moved forward by the wave the mast and sail are driven under into the inverted position very quickly I am guessing that this was what was happening Factors that led to hypothermia a Clothing b Life jacket c Panic d Time in water a Clothing The kit that Kris was wearing was not adequate but would been just about good enough if we had not capsized After four hours of beating to windward he was a bit chilly and probably reacting slowly but still in reasonable shape We were just about to bear away and conditions would have become warmer less apparent wind drier he could have eaten some food and got out of the wind However once we had gone in to the water his clothing was seriously inadequate b Life jacket Rob and I were wearing buoyancy aids These supported us as we tried to right the boat and probably gave some insulation Kris was wearing a lifejacket which he did not inflate whilst we still stood some chance of righting the boat I think that he used up a lot more energy in keeping himself afloat because he was having to hang on and tread water He also swallowed more water than we did as a result of wave action and being pulled under as the boat heaved up and down The lifejacket provided no insulation c Panic He was wearing heavy wellington boots and his legs were getting caught up in ropes This made him panicky which burned energy d Time in Water When the Sandhurst divers threw the rope to Rob he grabbed it and pulled himself to their boat Being very cold it is not surprising that Rob did not think to pass the rope to us as well and he was not to know that the boat was going to have to spend valuable minutes moving off in order come in again with the correct line We should have got Kris out of the water first but having said that neither Rob nor I realised just how seriously hypothermic he had become 3 Factors that inhibited self recovery The Wayfarer inverted without pausing on the capsize and each of the two times that we righted her We did not have any masthead buoyancy Ironically Rob normally sails with sailhead buoyancy but we were using my sails which do not have any Rob and I discussed this two weeks beforehand and I said that I thought that it was not a big deal I have attended two Wayfarer Association Cruising Weekends read the Association handbook numerous logs spoken to many cruising Wayfarer sailors and supervised a couple of hundred Wayfarer capsizes in sheltered water I had formed the opinion that masthead buoyancy was nice to have but not essential The boat was loaded with quite a bit of gear The lifeboatmen said that they had a struggle bringing it upright they very kindly took it back to Lymington and even put the engine upside down in bin of fresh water Various containers were lashed under the seats These may have had an effect on buoyancy Because the boat was inverted we did not have access to our VHF or our flares I was unable to climb onto the upturned hull There was nothing to hold onto and I could not reach the centreboard slot I am reasonably fit and it is likely that the weight of wet fleece clothing that I was wearing contributed to my helplessness Rob had made up two rope ends from plaited anchor warp which he tied to the shroud plates to use as hauling lines in the event of a capsize These would have been very useful if the boat had rested with the mast level with the water However with the boat inverted they were not long enough to throw across the upturned hull Rob had taken the centreboard out to check it for damage and had painted it up However he had not adjusted the tensioner properly and the board would not stay in its down position when the boat was inverted ie it fell back into the slot Kris said that he was in danger of damaging his fingers when he pulled back on the board to right the boat There was a real chance that the trailing edge would close on his fingers The loose spinnaker gear in the waterlogged boat made it very difficult for me to find the jammed jib sheet in the short amount of time that the boat was upright Actually I do not remember it staying upright Each time that it capsized it seemed like a continuous roll from upright to inverted Issues for consideration 1 Should we have turned back sooner Probably I persuaded the other two to continue when we were in Alum Bay because I thought that they were suggesting a return for the wrong reasons I suppose that I was thinking that I can probably handle the conditions around the corner they probably aren t nearly as bad as we imagine them to be when what I should have been thinking was Rob has been on the helm for four hours and is not the best helm in the boat that was probably Kris Kris is not wearing enough warm gear is he getting cold We have not sailed much together and we are not tacking as well as we should be I should have been thinking more about the strength of the crew as a unit and not so much about whether I was warm and dry enough and whether I reckoned that I could cope with the conditions Having said that we had only a few minutes to go before these considerations would have been history ie the helming would have been much easier off the wind and Kris could have warmed up by eating some food

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/capsize.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Flyability Steve Vardon
    time Common illnesses and injuries such as flu or a twisted ankle Fears phobias and manias Old age this comes to most of us and can be physical and mental at the same time Not speaking a native language in a foreign country Having a hangover after a heavy night on the town Being pregnant or the dreaded PMT If you are able to become more aware of your disabilities and limitations accept and be happy with them you will then be in a better position to concentrate on your abilities In short you will know and understand yourself better As a consequence you should then be more able to appreciate the abilities and disabilities of others Our second category of disabling factors is Environmental Ergonomic ergonomics is the science of arranging or designing things for efficient use by people In this category we find things such as curbs heavy doors steps and stairs The natural landscape can often be disabling by way of steep hills rocky areas or marshland A ridge may look superbly flyable but youre not going to be able to fly from it if you cant get to it especially if it s raining or blowing a gale Bad architecture and design can have profound influences on our lives The tennement blocks of the sixties and seventies made life much worse for many people by causing social problems and spawning crime If youre much over 6 6 tall you may find that youre prone to banging your head rather a lot Is this your fault for being tall or is it the direct consequence of the design and characteristics of your immediate environment Thre are many more environmental factors to consider such as traffic congestion under funded and inadequate public transport etc Factors such as these also make life harder for us all On the ergonomic side how many of us have been taken in by the likes of those Classy gadgets that are advertised by endless promotional videos in sad stores At first sight these peeling slicing twisting and twirling freezer to microwave cat food makers look like state of the art ergonomic designs You hand over your crispy ten pound note they insist on giving you a penny change and you think youve got a bargain that is going to revolutionise your life It is only when you get home that you realise that the gadget is impossible to use and an utter waste of your time energy and money If this sounds familiar then may I suggest that you donate your similar aforementioned items to the K Tel museum of tacky plastic useless things I dont think that you should make food from dead cats anyway It is true that some aids can make life easier for disabled people but it is easy to become overwhelmed by them or even worse restricted by them Do we really need GPS on our base bars Why is paragliding so much more popular than hang gliding

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/disability.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Flyability Steve Vardon
    prefer to see every school consider it s strengths and resources in offering opportunities to disabled people What about the extra work and costs involved in teaching the disabled It is true that some instructors may have to work harder when teaching disabled pilots to fly but who s afraid of hard work It could be that a disabled student has better perception than other students and thus needs a less number of flights to achieve the required standard If a disabled student requires extra support regarding mobility etc he she will generally bring along some assistance to overcome such problems On the issue of the extra costs that may or may not be incurred A school may well be able to apply for grants to cover the extra costs or even the whole of the disabled students fees Grants may also be available to help improve a school s access or equipment range You may think that the stresses and strains of offering the kind of opportunities that we are talking about overwhelm the rewards and benefits If this is the case then maybe you or your school is not best suited to offering them There is nothing worse than opportunities and help that is being given begrudgingly If you do not want to be involved in such a project then maybe you are the wrong person for the job anyway However my advice to you is that you should give it a go before making up your mind to the contrary The subsequent rewards for schools could be extraordinary if not varied What about specialist training equipment 4WD vehicles quad bikes and wheeled bogeys are useful bits of kit for any school My personal opinion is that we should minimise the amount of specialist equipment and adaptions that we employ Again you cannot generalise about the types of equipment that may be needed It would be very easy to spend lots of money developing constructing and adapting equipment that may only be suitable for use by one or two individuals In order not to incur problems with C of A s we should try and work with standard production gliders as much as possible There is a little more lee way when it comes to harnesses flying positions launch techniques etc Disabled people are generally very aware of their disabilities and abilities If you explain to them what is involved in training as a hang glider or paraglider pilot they will have a fair idea whether or not they will be able to handle difficult situations physically and mentally If problems and difficulties are highlighted then maybe these can be solved and overcome through discussion or by using low tech solutions There is no doubt that the Instructor is the best person to assess an individual s ability as a pilot and their aptitude However the individual may have a much better idea of what they can cope with in a physical sense Hill or Tow which is

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/flyingdisability.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Birdwatching for beginners
    goldfinch looks like wow So where do you go from there even in those days and I am not in the first flush of youth so it is a little while ago help was at hand I am a great joiner so the RSPB The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds was an obvious first call and information and friendly help poured in Weekend conferences organised by the RSPB started to fill out knowledge and add still further to the interest On a memorable afternoon trip from one of these conferences in York Trevor Gunton patiently introduced me to what would be my passion within a passion sea birds If you can t believe that goldfinches actually exist try seeing a puffin for real From this point birdwatchers develop their own characters within the hobby Some concentrate on the number of birds they can see twitchers and will travel huge distances to see birds particularly rare visitors to Britain that have unluckily turned right instead of left and flown several thousand miles in the wrong direction I like a beautiful rare bird as much as the next person but consider myself very fortunate that the genuine thrill of seeing all birds including the common ones has never left so a robin on a bird table is still well worthy of attention and gives immense pleasure Having said that the world is full of wonderful birds and places to see them in so my wife Lynne luckily also infected by the bug and I have with the help of the many travel companies in the market set off to see some of them This has taken us as far south as the Antarctic and the Falklands as far west as North South America as far east as Hong Kong and as far north as the Shetlands It s great to go away with a group with similar interests and someone who can help with the identification of what is mind blowingly a completely different set of birds A rain forest produces more birds in an hour than you can appreciate in a life time and a very stiff neck trying to look at them Through it all though the most pleasure I get is by seeing birds well and spending time with them and above all this has centred on sea birds who are usually quite large don t hide in trees and frequently have a somewhat bemused interest in human beings So can I pick out my most magical moment in almost thirty years A near second would come a close encounter with several Adelie penguins on a sun lit ice strewn beach in the Antarctic First however is surprisingly much closer to home We were on holiday in Shetland and visiting the RSPB reserve at Herma Ness which are huge cliffs overlooking the Muckle Flugga lighthouse which is the most northerly point of Britain Even without birds when the sun shines this is one of the most beautiful

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/birdwatching.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Bluedome
    rescue services Lines can be used to protect personnel where they need to reach an area that is awkward to access or where there is a risk of fall Examples include work positioning on steep embankments and rescues at height The line rescue training uses Petzl equipment and instruction in tried and tested techniques We do not lay down strict rules of where and when these skills should be used we just instruct candidates in the techniques and how they can be adapted for various situations We trust candidates as trained fire fighters to decide when it is appropriate to use these techniques Six trainees attended the last course which lasted for three days Most of the training took place in our purpose built training facility Theoretical practices learned in the presentation room on the first day were put into practice in the indoor training rig Here candidates were given a chance to familiarise themselves with the appropriate techniques and practice rescues in a controlled environment We also take candidates outside to practice techniques and equipment in a more realistic setting This is usually on steep ground a cliff or a bridge These venues give both exposure to height and

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/linerescue.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Bluedome
    passed through in that time For some programmes you might argue that they have lost touch with their roots as I had lost touch with the ideas behind John Adairôs model and they are going through the motions with no connection with that which made the work speak to the participant The multi activity course runs the risk of falling into this category For others you would conclude that their distance from those roots has been liberating and their niaive approaches have led to some exciting and radical new projects These new roots have taken us away from the technological approach of the last ten years all that programming sequencing processing and framing that made it all feel like a production line set up to deliver the pre determined outcome guaranteed The new projects Iôm coming across emphasise the imagination rather than thought Some have already appeared as case studies in Horizons There was Eden Community Outdoors working with principles of sustainability camping in yurts and creating environmental arts work vibrant youth led youth clubs and adventure camps with a difference We also reported on Swedish work with primary school children using fantasy stories outdoors in which the children became involved These programmes were delivering curriculum content six fold faster than classsroom approaches The latest news is that the retention of learning seems also to be enhanced We have also reported on the contempory rites of passage for young people project combining adventure and environmental education with the arts music and traditional ritual They are determined to contribute to a reduction in youth suicide and will be piloting this year In September I took part in a Heroôs Journey for senior managers After days of preparation the group set out on a fantastic coastal traverse to reveal the hidden secret of the coast and the hidden treasures of their own learning I will long remember one man who thought heroes were only found in armies who discovered in himself the desire to become a hero as a father a decision that kept a family together he had contemplated leaving Tom Price said it for me Outdoor education is simple That doesnôt mean to say that itôs easy ô The technological approach was necessary time for us to rationalise our work It certainly needed a defence This time coincided with Lyme Bay and drastic changes in centre funding that led some of us to say outdoor education is dead ô But of late the creative spirit of our field has transformed us again Centres are full and imaginative projects are turning up all over There is even hope for funding through teenage summer camps a return of OE to the Scottish curriculum and a revitalised youth work agenda I think we can now say long live outdoor education ô We can revisit that simple formula of helping people to find a dream and supporting them to learn the skills to realise it There are still issues As we explore the many

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/outdoored.html (2016-02-10)
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  • Pennine way
    following Torside clough in a long descent into Longdendale Valley and the reservoirs below Further more a steep start from corwden to the pennine way famous nurtures Black Hill trig point which has a bad reputation among walkers for the bog ness but this is only on a small section around the summit but has to be crossed The choice of two routes can now be taken for the more direct route heading towards White moss crossing the A635 the way continues through another very boggy section and the need the gaiters is very much appreciated following the path and cains through the peat cloughs Past Black Moss Reservoir and following the way across to Standedge Following the way across over the moors heading north crossing the A640 and the M62 over a footpath bridge specially built for the Pennine Way before the rise to Blackstone Edge trig point and a decent towards Blackstone edge reservoir where you will see the great site of the White House pub and then along low moorland past the reservoirs and to the impressive Stoodley pike monument the way descends towards Hebdon Bridge a steep climb gradual climb out of Hebdon Bridge and easy walking to the Pack Horse Inn will refresh weary walkers Walshaw Dean reservoirs are passed giving further more easy walking and the Pennine Way enters Brontë country passing buildings known to the Bronte sisters and used in their novels lckornshaw Moor is the last stretch of rough country before the Aire Gap and marks the end of the Central Pennines For the next 18 miles the Way passes through fields along canal towpaths and streamside paths which give a welcome change from moorland walking The next main impressive in counter is Malhain which lies at the southern edge of the limestone area of the Yorkshire Dales with Malham impressive cliff of Malham Cove which can be seen an the arrival to Malham way in the distance After leaving Malham a very steep path around the side of Malham Cove leads to the top along the limestone pavements and along to Malham Tarn giving easy walking but not for long as Fountains Fell is climbed by an old minersô track and a steep path down to the road below where the mountain of Pen y ghent can be seen in the distance and once at the summit of is traversed and then a long descent from the summit to Horton in Ribblesdale passing many pot holes hollowed out by streams many thousands of years ago Walled lanes and green tracks used in centuries past by travelers drove herds and packhorse trains take the walker over Cam Fell and across the slopes of Dodd Fell high above the deep valley of Snaizeholme to Hawes a market town in Wensleydale By the waterfall of Hardrow Force the Way starts a long climb to the summit of Great Shunner Fell a magnificent view point The descent brings the walker to Swaledale regarded by some

    Original URL path: http://www.bluedome.co.uk/beginners/pennine-way.html (2016-02-10)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-25