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  • mdd_slider
    Gemma and Polo

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/slider_index.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Cancer Detection
    charity in collaboration with Willis et al published a further study in the journal Cancer Biomark 2011 Volatile organic compounds as biomarkers of bladder cancer Sensitivity and specificity using trained sniffer dogs Specificity ranged from 92 for urine samples obtained from young healthy volunteers decreasing to 56 for samples taken from older patients with non cancerous urological disease Supporting evidence has been published around the world including a study by Cornu and colleagues European Urology 2011 Olfactory Detection of Prostate Cancer by Dogs Sniffing Urine A Step Forward in Early Diagnosis indicated the possibilities of canine cancer detection sensitivity 91 specificity 91 A second study published online in 2011 by Sonoda and colleagues investigated colorectal cancer screening using faecal samples and demonstrated equally promising results sensitivity 97 specificity 99 A recent study from Italy Taverna et al Journal of Urology 2014 reported the diagnostic accuracy of dogs trained to recognize specific volatile organic compounds of prostate cancer in urine samples sensitivity 98 100 specificity 98 99 Ehmann et al European Respiratory Journal 2012 carried out the first published study showing that sniffer dogs can reliably detect lung cancer from a breath sample sensitivity 71 specificity 93 Further reference information Evidence based research is building to indicate that dogs could assist in improving current diagnosis of a significant number of cancers Nano technologist have already used this research to develop prototypes of electronic noses In Israel a joint venture between the Technion Israel Institute of Technology and Alpha Szenszor The NA NOSE sensor was developed The Na Nose explicitly seeked to duplicate the dogs experience with technology following the results of the BMJ paper in 2004 This sensor is able to detect lung cancer through exhaled breath The Odoreader from Bristol Urological Institute and Liverpool University is a direct result of the BMJ paper in 2004 and is able to help detect and diagnose early stage bladder cancer How do we determine accuracy Accuracy of a screening test is determined via its sensitivity and specificity Sensitivity relates to the ability of the test to correctly identify a positive result i e sick people correctly identified as being sick Specificity relates to the ability of the test to correctly identify negative results i e people without the disease correctly identified as being without the disease Figures 1 and 2 below illustrate unpublished training data for the correct detection of bladder cancer samples and non bladder cancer samples by Cancer Detection Dog Daisy The bar charts refer to test samples that were used for training purposes including non blinded single blinded and double blinded runs Many of these samples were shown to the dog on more than one occasion to enable the dog to learn to detect a particular scent The accuracy rate for an individual dog may be much lower in a true test situation i e when the dog is trying to detect previously undiagnosed samples of cancer Figure 1 Samples of urine from patients with bladder cancer N 594 The

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/cancer_info.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Prostate Cancer
    prostate cancer by Dogs Sniffing Urine A Step Forward in Early Diagnosis This study which looked at only one dog has shown very promising results and concludes that this work opens the door of volatile detection for prostate cancer diagnosis The results provide a new insight in the field further work and research would be of huge value and has the potential to answer questions that could lead to a significant improvement in the screening and early diagnosis of prostate cancer The charity is working in conjunction with Professor Karol Sikora mass spectrometry scientists and a medical statistician in the detection of prostate cancer from human breath and urine There are massively powerful reasons for such a study Prostate cancer is a major killer and the current test the prostate specific antigen test PSA is so unreliable that many GP s are reluctant to use it If dogs can sniff prostate cancer from a urine sample the chances are high that from the results of the dogs sniffing research a test can be developed that is far superior to the PSA test The results would indicate the existence of a potential odour signature of prostate cancer that may correspond to one or more likely multiple Volatiles These molecules should then be assessed by specific gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis We understand already from publication that dogs can smell prostate from urine and are investigating identifying the different markers between psa and cancer A lot more research needs to be done from a practical point of view to clearly determine a Cancer Detection Dogs accuracy level We are are running intense trials using the RasCargo system which involves placing samples on a rack and observing the number of dogs that indicate So how can our Cancer Detection Dogs help in the

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/prostate.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Breast Cancer Study
    seen sufficient anecdotal and minor trial evidence to feel confident this is an avenue well worth pursuing If it works it will revolutionise the way we think about breast cancer In the long term we hope to assist scientists to develop E noses that is to say electronic systems that are able to detect the odour of cancer through cheap quick non invasive tests If we can prove the principle that breast cancer is detectable on a person s breath machines could eventually detect that odour Latest figures from Cancer Research UK show over 50 000 people are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the UK and just under 12 000 die Claire Guest who was alerted to her own breast cancer by her dog added Under current procedures for detecting breast cancer many women have to wait until they are fifty years old before they are invited in for their first mammogram As someone who has had breast cancer significantly younger than fifty I am painfully aware that would have been too long for me to wait before being scanned for cancer for the first time After fifty women are invited to have another mammogram every three years This means a woman could have breast cancer for two years without ever finding out by which point the tumour could be well established The problem is it is not good for women to be scanned more regularly than that because of the exposure to radiation So if we succeed in proving that dogs can detect breast cancer on breath samples younger women and women such as myself who have had breast cancer and need regular checks to ensure the tumour has not returned could simply breathe into a tube and find out safely and quickly their state of health In an additional study in 2006 McCulloch et al also tested the dog s ability to distinguish exhaled breath samples of 31 breast cancer patients from those of the 83 healthy controls Dog handlers and experimental observers were blinded to the identity of breath samples obtained from subjects not previously encountered by the dogs during the training period Among breast cancer patients and controls sensitivity was 0 88 and specificity 0 98 However there were some limitations in the design of this study and number of subjects included and further work is needed with peer reviewed publication to support this finding We have now have a collaborative team including local clinicians Giles Cunnick Breast Surgeon and Alan Makepeace Oncologist and are preparing to do a robust Medical Detection Dogs proof of principle study into the detection of breast cancer from a breath sample We are in the final stages of submitting an ethics proposal for this project and once approved will be able to collect samples from patients Particular focus will be on the reliability of the dogs in the detection of early grade and stage tumours In broad terms the proof of principle study will be similar to the

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/breast.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Cancer Detection FAQs
    University video C Courtesy of Channel 4 Embarrassing Bodies footage Photograph by Emma Jeffery Cancer Detection FAQs Do you use specific breeds of dogs for cancer detection All dogs and breeds have the capability to detect cancer and crisis situations in humans However because our dogs screen samples on a carousel we select working breeds with a high hunt drive Our dogs are a mixture of breeds including Labradors and working spaniels and are chosen according to their ability It is important that they have good noses and love searching and hunting for toys How often do the Cancer Detection Dogs work Cancer Detection Dogs work 2 to 4 times a week for short periods at a time in our training centre with lots of opportunity for rest and playtime Where do they live All of our Cancer Detection Dogs live in homes as part of a caring families and lead normal happy pet lives They will never be placed with clients and only work in the training environment on samples What are the dogs detecting Dogs with their incredible sense of smell can detect the minute odours now understood to be associated with many cancers As yet we do not know exactly what it is the dogs can smell because they cannot tell us us what markers they are sensing What type of training do you use Our fundamental training method is reward based we use clicker training for all our detection work Depending on the dog s motiavtion correct behaviour or indication is rewarded with a food treat or tennis ball play What is the difference between sensitivity and specificity Sensitivity relates to the test s ability to identify positive results The sensitivity of a test is the proportion of people that are known to have the disease

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/cancer_faq.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Personal Stories
    mammogram results in Jan 2006 which showed all clear so I was not unduly worried I ve always owned and loved dogs and have two a retired greyhound Grace adopted in Dec 2006 and Max a red collie cross aged nearly ten rehomed by us from the RSPCA when he was one year old I ve always had a special bond with him and love him dearly especially as events unfolded By mid May I thought he was aging fast as he was showing unusual signs not so playful wouldn t jump on my lap or share our bed or sit at my feet and with his eyes so sad and dull I stood in front of the bedroom mirror feeling this breast lump and MAX just looked at me so sad and instantly knew that I had cancer Twenty years prior to all this I d has a fibroadonoma non malignant removed so I knew lumps were rarely cancerous At other times Max would come and touch the lump area and back off very unhappy He would sniff my breath on numerous occasions I was confused did I put MAX s strange behaviour and changes down to his advancing years or was something really wrong I knew what it all meant on that day I stood in front of the mirror I saw my GP very quickly and was referred to University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire Breast clinic where after numerous visits involving mammogram and scan both showing negative biopsy s two lots my cancer was finally confirmed On the same day I told my Breast Care Nurse that I already knew as my dear dog had told me I thought she would laugh but she confirmed she d heard it before Then I realised I was not going mad and told various friends what I d experienced I then went ahead and had my operation to remove the lump and four lymph nodes Results invasive lobular carcinoma grade 1 size 2 5cm all four lymph nodes were clear and there was no vascular invasion On my return home from the surgery I was greeted by my old Max totally different overjoyed and doing all the old things he had done before cancer He would lay his head across my shoulder and onto my breast when in the car I knew all was well He even sniffed my operation site and wagged is tail and his eyes where clear and happy All has gone well and I m to start the routine radiotherapy soon I ve been told the prognosis is excellent Hazel Woodget and Pepe Hazel Woodget says her chihuahua Pepe has detected cancer on three occasions I had no idea there was anything wrong until Pepe started behaving strangely around me she says He kept staring at me and when I was lying on the sofa watching TV he d get on top of me and start nuzzling into my left breast and armpit It was very

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/stories.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Cancer Detection Devices
    term smokers And biopsies of tumors when required are inherently invasive Na Nose could potentially change the current reality where receiving a diagnosis of lung cancer is all too often a death sentence Eighty five percent of those with this particularly pernicious form of cancer don t survive more than five years A few years down the road Up until now Haick s innovation could only be used in a laboratory setting says Steve Lerner CEO of Alphaszenszor The new partnership will aggressively push to produce a manufacturable commercial appliance within two to three years FDA testing could take up to another five years But before the decade is over Haick and Lerner are confident that your local family physician should have a pocketsize Na Nose costing as little as 10 in his or her office The initial device will be a lot more expensive perhaps as high as 10 000 per unit which will limit it to larger clinics and hospitals But that s still much less expensive than a CT imaging machine and smaller The vision is even bigger Lerner anticipates a day when the nanotechnology underlying the Na Nose will be built into smartphones and tablets allowing you to connect a tube to your iPad and screen yourself for cancer at home Haick envisions an even lower cost model of Na Nose put to work in the developing world While the initial focus for the joint venture is on lung cancer the possible benefits go much further Haick says that in the five years since he s been working on the technology his team has expanded the range of diseases it can detect Multiple sclerosis Parkinson s disease and other types of cancer including breast prostate and gastric are all being found with similar levels of accuracy Alpha Szenszor is probably the ideal partner to bring the Na Nose to market Lerner has spent his career building and managing scalable manufacturing operations from consumer electronics to semiconductors Meanwhile Alpha Szenszor had been perfecting its carbon nanotube sensor equipment but hadn t yet found the right commercial application Haick needs those nanotubes to move to the next level The Technion has gone through all the engineering work significantly accelerating our path They ve also made inroads with the medical community Lerner tells ISRAEL21c Duplicating a dog s sniffer If Lerner represents the manufacturing brawn Haick is clearly the scientific brains A faculty member in the Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Unit and a professor in the Technion s Department of Chemical Engineering he was inspired to apply his chemistry background to disease detection after he read that dogs could sniff out certain types of cancer But they had no way to communicate that efficiently he said and it s not possible to bring dogs into a hospital setting due to issues with hygiene The Na Nose explicitly seeks to duplicate the dog experience with technology Na Nose s detection device can be used at three different stages The first and

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/detection_device.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Anatomy of the dog’s nose
    3 This is possible because the long nose contains a labyrinth of thin bones called turbinates which are all lined by an epithelium This provides a very large surface area for the air breathed to pass over In the anterior part of the nose the bones are known as maxillo turbinates and they are lined by a respiratory type epithelium producing mucus It is in the posterior part of the nose containing ethmoid turbinates that the lining epithelium is olfactory in type and this contains the 300 million olfactory receptors or neurones needed to recognise the odour molecules The neurones need maximum contact with the air containing the odour molecules and therefore have hair like projections or cilia In mammals it is thought that each olfactory receptor cell only expresses one single odorant receptor gene 4 Once the odour is recognised a pathway of tiny nerves relay signals to the brain area dedicated to olfaction the olfactory lobe which then interprets the odours in combination with other specialised areas of the brain As part of the olfactory anatomy there is a basal plate of bone known as the Lamina Transversa not seen in humans which creates an olfactory shelf or recess separated from the respiratory section This allows odours to accumulate and be held for recognition even while air is exhaled Cross section views The complexity of the labyrinth of thin turbinate bones in the nose is best seen in cross section Below are two views of the anterior opening of the nostril in a dog s skull showing the maxillo turbinates which would be covered by respiratory type epithelium view of turbinate bones within the nostril higher magnification of labyrinth of thin turbinate bones Nature can mimic and help explain the structure of the nose Olfactory shelf lined by

    Original URL path: http://www.cancerdogs.co.uk/anatomy.html (2016-02-16)
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