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  • HOME
    including printable factsheets and links to recommended sites where further information can be found Helping Owners If you have witnessed your dog having a seizure convulsion you will know how frightening it can be Seizures are not uncommon in dogs but many dogs have only a single seizure If your dog has had more than one seizure it may be that he she is epileptic Just as in people there are medications for dogs that control seizures allowing your dog to live a more normal life Owner compliance is vital in the effective management of epilepsy and it is important that the family of an epileptic pet are informed and committed to treatment This site contains useful information for owners of epileptic dogs including information about the condition printable factsheets advice on care and links to recommended sites where further information can be found Supporting Practices The canine epilepsy website is a collaborative project provided by Vetoquinol UK and Vetstream The website contains impartial information on canine epilepsy for both veterinary surgeons and owners of dogs that have been diagnosed with epilepsy This dedicated resource provides veterinary professionals with the latest information on diagnosis and management of epilepsy and contact

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/ (2016-02-08)
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  • About Epilepsy
    Some dogs just get up and carry on with what they were doing while others appear dazed and confused for up to 24 hours afterwards However most often dogs will show disorientation for only 10 15 minutes before returning to their old self Dogs often have a set pattern of behaviour that they follow after every seizure for example going for a drink of water or asking to go outside to the toilet If your dog has had more than one seizure you may well start to notice a pattern of behaviour which is typically repeated in any subsequent seizures When will seizures occur Most epileptic seizures will occur while your dog is relaxed and resting quietly It is very rare for a seizure to occur at exercise Often seizures occur in the evening or at night In a few dogs seizures seem to be triggered by particular events or stress It is common for a pattern to develop which you will recognise as specific to your dog However in some epileptic animals seizures continue to be unpredictable What should I do while my dog is having a seizure The most important thing is to stay calm Remember that your dog is unconscious during the seizure and is not in pain or distressed The seizure itself is likely to be more distressing for you than your pet Make sure that your dog is not in a position to injure himself for example by falling down the stairs but otherwise do not try to interfere with him Never try to put your hand inside his mouth during a seizure or you are very likely to get bitten Will the seizure harm my dog Seizures can cause damage to the brain and if your dog has repeated seizures these make it more likely that further seizures will occur The damage caused by seizures is cumulative and after a lot of seizures there may be enough brain damage to cause early senility with loss of learned behaviour and housetraining or behavioural changes It is very rare for dogs to injure themselves during a seizure Occasionally they may bite their tongue and there may appear to be a lot of blood but is unlikely to be serious your dog will not swallow its tongue If a seizure goes on for a very long time more than 10 minutes body temperature will rise and this can cause damage to other organs such as the liver and kidneys as well as the brain Very occasionally dogs will be left in a coma after severe seizures When should I contact my vet When your dog starts a seizure make a note of the time If your dog comes out of the seizure within 5 minutes then allow him time to recover quietly before contacting your vet If this is the first seizure your dog has had your vet may ask you to bring your dog into the next routine appointment for a check and some routine blood

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/about-epilepsy.html (2016-02-08)
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    be classified according to their presentation vs physical manifestations as focal or generalised In dogs generalised seizures with impaired consciousness and bilateral motor activity are the most common type Cats relatively commonly exhibit focal seizures which may be motor or psychomotor events Any part of the body can be involved during a focal seizure depending on the region of the brain affected Image Lhasa cross exhibiting torticollis as part of a focal motor seizure courtesy of Simon Platt AHT The time interval between seizures varies between animals and may decrease with time Some animals have seizure clusters ie a number of seizures occur within a 24 hour period but there is then a prolonged interval before the next seizure Other animals have multiple seizures with a constant time interval between each The diagnosis of primary idiopathic epilepsy is a diagnosis of exclusion History In many cases the vet is never present during a patient s seizure and relies entirely on the owner s description of events Collection of a detailed history is therefore important and a structured standardised questionnaire may be useful The description of events can aid in the classification of the seizure and may provide useful diagnostic clues to its aetiology Accurate record keeping allows monitoring of progression regression of signs with time A typical history for epileptic seizures suggests a forebrain abnormality and includes the following points about the actual events Seizures occur at rest Tonic clonic seizure with brief loss of consciousness Stereotypical event Regular interval between seizures which may become shorter with time Pre and post ictal phases may be identified typified by transient changes in behaviour wakefulness and occasionally vision Accurate history taking may help to eliminate potential mimics of epilepsy such as narcolepsy cataplexy and syncope Download the veterinary history checklist Clinical signs Seizures may take a number of forms ie generalised or focal depending on the area of brain affected The signs shown during the seizure depend upon the location of the abnormal electrical activity within the brain and may be motor muscle twitching sensory or psychic producing emotional sensations Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy have generalised motor seizures Typical signs include Loss of consciousness Initial rigidity followed by tonic clonic activity Autonomic dysfunction such as salivation Vocalisation The seizure activity can be divided into several phases Prodromal seen in 10 of epileptic dogs This phase lasts for minutes to days before the seizure and in dogs most commonly manifests as restlessness Aura This phase lasts for a few seconds to minutes before the seizure and is probably a focal seizure which rapidly generalises It represents the initial abnormal electrical activity in the brain Behavioural motor sensory or autonomic dysfunction may be evident Post ictal This can last for hours or even days after the seizure and manifests as behavioural changes as a result of cerebral exhaustion In the post ictal phase many dogs are ataxic tired blind and occasionally aggressive Clinical examination in the inter ictal period should be normal in

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/veterinary-resource.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Downloads
    most common questions asked by your client Information and guides for owners DOWNLOAD About epilepsy DOWNLOAD Living with an epileptic dog Treatment aids DOWNLOAD Owner Questionnaire DOWNLOAD Seizure Diary DOWNLOAD Sample of the Seizure Diary DOWNLOAD History checklist for seizuring

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/downloads.html (2016-02-08)
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    Zonisamide trial GENETIC RESEARCH Animal DNA archive Dog epilepsy gene Lafora disease research CECS research LITERATURE REVIEW CURRENT RESEARCH The primary question when faced with an animal that has had seizures is whether these are epileptic in nature Epilepsy shows no sex predilection and in idiopathic epilepsy the first seizure usually occurs between 6 months and 5 years of age On This Page Introduction History Clinical signs Seizure phases Clinical

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/research.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Legals
    any goods services or offers which may be of interest to you We may keep this information for a reasonable period If you opt in to allow us to pass on your information to other companies we may pass on you contact information to relevant companies within the Veterinary industry that we hope will be of interest to you If you no longer wish to receive any such information having chosen to opt in please contact us Cookies When you enter one of our websites your computer may be issued with a cookie Cookies are text files that identify your computer to our server Cookies in themselves do not identify the individual user just the computer used Cookies allow us to continually improve our service to our customers for example they enable us to determine how frequently pages are visited and to identify the most popular areas of our websites Cookies themselves only record those areas of the site that have been visited by the computer in question and for how long You do not have to accept cookies Users have the opportunity to set their computers to accept all cookies to notify them when a cookie is issued or not to receive cookies at any time However if you choose not to accept cookies certain personalised services cannot be provided to you Who May Your Data Be Disclosed To Unless you have chosen to opt in to allow your contact details to be passed onto other veterinary suppliers we will not disclose sell or rent your data to any other third parties However we reserve the right to release personal information where we are required to by law or by the regulations and other rules including auditing requirements to which we are subject We may also exchange information with other companies and organisations for the purpose of fraud protection and credit risk reduction We may also disclose your information for the purpose of processing and fulfilling your order Please rest assured that any companies or individuals who have access to this information are not permitted to use this information for any other purposes and they are required to process any such data in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1988 Transfer of Information For any of the purposes set out above we may transfer your data internationally including to countries outside Europe Each country may offer different levels of protection some of which may not be as high as the United Kingdom Protection of Personal Data We have taken every possible precaution to create a secure environment to protect the personal data supplied by you to us How Can You Amend Your Personal Data If your personally identifiable information changes such as your postcode please contact us and we will correct or update personal data accordingly Under The Data Protection Act 1988 you also have a right to ask for a copy of your information and to correct any inaccuracies Such a request must be made to us in

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/legals.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Status epilepticus research
    there were no breed influences on either SE or cluster seizures One study found the English Foxhound Pugs Teacup Poodles Boston Terriers and Lakeland Terriers were significantly over represented although dogs evaluated had many different causes of the seizure activity Another study has shown that an increased body weight was the only variable significantly different between dogs with idiopathic epilepsy that did and did not have episodes of SE The mean age of dogs with SE based on three studies is 4 5 years range 0 1 15 0 years When idiopathic epileptic dogs were evaluated there was no influence of gender even when the effect of neutering was evaluated on the presence of SE which agrees with other studies However entire dogs with idiopathic epilepsy were found to be 1 9 times more likely than neutered dogs to experience cluster seizures A study of 50 dogs with SE found that up to 44 of dogs may experience this event without any prior evidence of a seizure abnormality The underlying cause of the SE in this study was variable It was nearly 5 times more likely for SE to occur when there had been no previous evidence of seizure activity than when dogs had experienced previous generalised tonic clonic seizure activity Diagnostic testing Of 50 dogs with SE of variable causes 36 of CSF samples were abnormal based upon elevated cell counts and or protein levels and or abnormal cytological interpretation of a cytocentrifuged sample When non SE dogs had cisternal CSF samples analysed only 12 of these samples were abnormal based upon the above criteria Although these results were clinically different and would suggest that SE dogs would be more likely to have an abnormal CSF tap in comparison to non SE dogs this was not found to be statistically significant Cerebrospinal fluid CSF abnormalities were documented in 73 5 75 102 of dogs with either SE or cluster seizures in another study but these results were not compared to another population of dogs The results of CT scans evaluated for SE dogs found 46 to be abnormal The abnormalities demonstrated included mass lesions multifocal parenchymal hyperdensities and contrast enhancing lesions When these results were compared to non SE seizure dogs 32 were interpreted as abnormal and no statistical difference between the two groups was found Neuroimaging examinations magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography performed on 25 dogs with either SE or cluster seizures yielded a positive finding in 19 76 of the cases There have been no veterinary studies looking solely at the frequency of MRI abnormalities found in dogs with SE Underlying cause A case controlled cohort study evaluating 50 dogs with generalised convulsive SE found 28 of the dogs were diagnosed with primary epilepsy 32 were diagnosed with secondary epilepsy and 12 were diagnosed with reactive epilepsy A specific cause could not be determined in 28 of the cases In another study evaluating 156 dogs with either SE or cluster seizures approximately 27 of the cases

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/status-epilepticus-research.html (2016-02-08)
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  • Living with Epileptic Pets
    can be used to control epilepsy in dogs There are many drugs used in the control of epilepsy in people but very few of these are suitable for long term use in the dog Many epileptic dogs require a combination of one or more types of drug to achieve most effective control of their seizures Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is sold under the name Epiphen Another anticonvulsant primidone is broken down in the body to make phenobarbital Phenobarbital is the most commonly used drug for prevention of seizures It is effective in most dogs when given twice daily but it is important to remember to give the drug regularly because blood levels of the drug can drop quite quickly if a dose is missed and this may trigger seizures Phenobarbital is usually given as tablets but a liquid form is also available The tablets come in a range of sizes making it easy to give the correct dose to a tiny dog as well as a giant one The drug is broken down in the liver and so with long term use it may have some effects on the liver If your dog is prescribed phenobarbital your vet will want to take regular blood tests to check that there is no damage to your dog s liver It is very important when using phenobarbital that the blood levels of the drug are kept at an appropriate level If levels get too high the drug can have more severe toxic effects and if they are too low there may be no beneficial effect from the drug There is a blood test to measure levels of phenobarbital in the blood and if your vet has prescribed phenobarbital for your dog he will want to monitor blood samples These tests may be done several times in the early weeks of treatment to help determine the correct dose of drug for your dog and then on a less frequent basis to monitor long term effects All drugs have side effects and phenobarbital is no exception Usually these are relatively mild and may wear off once your dog gets used to the drug Drowsiness increased appetite and thirst are common Most vets will use phenobarbital in all dogs with epilepsy unless there is a reason not to do so Dogs with liver disease may have problems with the drug and so alternative treatment may be better in these cases For some dogs phenobarbital alone is not enough to control seizures sufficiently and a second drug may need to be added to their regime Bromide Bromide is one of the oldest anticonvulsants in human medicine although it is not commonly used in people anymore Bromide remains in the body for a long time and only needs to be given once daily It is removed from the body through the kidneys and so is suitable for use in dogs with liver disease but must be used with care in animals with kidney disease Bromide is usually given as a

    Original URL path: http://www.canineepilepsy.co.uk/living-with-epileptic-pets.html (2016-02-08)
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