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  • Casualties on cycle paths
    likelihood of serious injury or a fatality is similarly increased I understand that there are up to 10 deaths a year on Berlin paths Research in Belgium and Austria has drawn attention to the poor safety record of cycle paths as have some papers associated with the Dutch Masterplan I have spoken to Dutch engineers who have told me that they continue to build paths only because of public insistence from a safety point of view they would often do differently More than 300 cyclist deaths occur each year in the Netherlands most are associated with cycle paths You may be aware of the US and Canadian risk statistics presented at this year s Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting The US research showed that Sustrans type off road paths are more than twice as dangerous per mile cycled as major roads and that shared footways often used on Sustrans routes are up to 24 times more dangerous The Canadian statistics from Toronto and Ottawa reveal an injury rate twice as high on cycle paths as on roads with shared footways being up to 7 times more dangerous I was interested to read on the Internet last week that La Route Verte has apparently conceded that its paths might lead to more casualties and that it is to put more effort into developing cyclist skills I am at present looking further into Dutch and Danish casualty statistics I think it true that the Netherlands and Denmark are safer places to cycle than the UK although I suspect the ratios usually suggested are exaggerated but the connection between this and cycle facilities is tenuous I have heard of one study that suggested that the safest parts of the Netherlands are those with fewest facilities In Denmark a before and after study of 105 new cycle paths with a total length of 64km showed that on average cyclist casualties increased by 48 per cent following the introduction of the paths cycle use did not go up significantly Furthermore car drivers moped riders and pedestrians also suffered more accidents due to the new paths with an overall rise in casualties of 27 It seems to me that other factors are primarily responsible for the better Dutch and Danish casualty rates and that these might be even better with fewer cycle facilities The principal factor would seem to be the much greater number of cyclists individual risk generally decreases with cyclist numbers although this is not always true on cycle paths which in turn leads to a climate where drivers take more care Getting to that situation from a lower user base as in the UK may be more of a problem but I have yet to find evidence that most cycle facilities help rather than hinder this process I know that many people in the cycling community have tended to give Sustrans the benefit of the doubt with regard to its promise that the National Cycle Network would lead to more and better cycling

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/sustrans1.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Redways and Leisure Routes
    at road crossings are for administrative reasons recorded as road accidents Also the road and other statistics cover a geographical area much larger than the new town to which Redways are restricted The ordinary hospital data is itself subject to under reporting and includes no information about injury severity Two more detailed hospital based surveys have looked into cyclist injuries in greater detail A one month survey in 1991 produced the comparisons shown in Table 4 for the Milton Keynes new town area There were also a further 15 Redway accidents recorded which have not been satisfactorily explained but which may have involved pedestrians or cyclists Two pedestrian Redway injuries are known to have taken place during this month one as a result of a collision with a cyclist Table 4 Cyclist casualties August 1991 MK General Hospital Injury Grid road Estate road Redway Serious 0 0 3 Slight 0 1 11 Total 0 1 14 A longer survey took place from April to July 1992 during which period at least 281 people attended Accident Emergency after a cycle accident The distribution of accident location is shown in Table 5 Once more accidents to Redway cyclists at road junctions are recorded under road and the road and other accidents embrace a much large geographical area It is noteworthy that only 7 of the 13 grid road accidents involved a motor vehicle and in one of these instances the cyclist was using a Redway Table 5 Location of cycle accidents April July 1992 MK General Hospital Location Casualties Redway 69 Leisure route 10 Cycle path lane 10 Grid road 13 Main road 8 Residential road 41 Other road 12 Footpath pavement 48 Other 35 Cyclist surveys The 1993 survey of cyclists Note 7 recorded the accidents shown in Table 6 Overall 27 of respondents had suffered an accident on a Redway in the previous year against 6 on estate roads and just 3 on grid roads Table 6 Accidents to cyclists 1993 survey Highway Injury accidents Damage only Grid road 2 1 Estate road 7 0 Redway 27 25 It might be thought that the relatively low accident rate for grid roads is because few cyclists use them and those who do so are relatively experienced The survey suggests otherwise As shown in Table 7 43 of respondents cycle on grid roads at least once a week It must be assumed therefore that these roads are widely used by cyclists of average skill Table 7 Cyclists use of highways at least once per week Highway of cyclists Grid road 43 Estate road 88 Redway 92 This survey also attempted to relate accident risk to exposure Table 8 shows the total average distance cycled in a week by all respondents on the three kinds of highway Although these will inevitably be only approximate totals there is no reason to believe that they favour any one type of highway more than another Some cyclists were able to give a very detailed breakdown of their mileage Table 8 Total weekly distance cycled miles by all survey respondents Highway Distance cycled Grid road 766 Estate road 566 Redway 1960 Table 9 combines the results of tables 6 and 8 to show the relative accident performance of each type of highway normalised in terms of accidents per million kilometres cycled a normalisation commonly employed for this type of analysis Table 9 Accidents per 10 6 km cycled Highway Injury accidents All accidents Grid road 31 47 Estate road 149 149 Redway 166 319 This suggests that a cyclist is more than twice as likely to suffer an accident on a Redway than on an estate road with the grid roads being the least hazardous type of highway relative to distance cycled by a wide margin Causes of Redway accidents Detailed examination of 188 Redway and leisure route traffic accidents the term traffic accident being intended to relate to accidents to cyclists whilst in the course of purposeful journeys as opposed to play activities indicates contributory factors as shown in Table 10 Table 10 Contributory factors in Redway accidents Factor All accidents Serious or fatal accidents Visibility 37 44 Surfaces 35 31 Sharp bends 30 8 Obstructions 16 13 User behaviour 13 15 Gradient 11 6 Lighting 10 13 Bollards 7 8 Dogs 6 11 Vandalism 2 2 Cycle failure 1 0 At a considerable proportion of accident locations Redways are below national standards Poor visibility frequently due to vegetation is the biggest single cause of accidents but other common causes include sharp bends steep gradients bollards slippery bridges loose gravel particularly on leisure routes and mud often a result of inadequate drainage In short features which are not compatible with the inherent limitations of a bicycle Another common accident cause is as a result of the very poor user discipline on Redways Observation suggests that cycling on the left is more the exception than the rule and frequently cyclists and other users take insufficient care for the hazards that are present Arguably this is not helped by a complete absence of centre lines and other reminders to keep left and the unsuitability of many paths for typical cycling speeds 50 of respondents to the 1993 survey said that the Redways are not well suited for cycling at their preferred speed whilst others travel faster regardless Some of the most serious Redway injuries have been as a result of head on collisions between cyclists a type of accident that is a common cause of cycle path fatalities On Redways bad forward visibility sharp bends and wrong side riding have invariably been the cause of cyclists colliding head on Serious injury has also resulted after collisions with dogs which may leap unforeseen from dense path side vegetation Redway accidents seem to afflict all kinds of cyclist including those who might be regarded as highly skilled The unique environment of Redways is probably a reason It may also be significant that some of the most serious road injuries have

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/redway.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Body
    suffered an injury accident on a Redway against 6 per cent on local roads and just 3 per cent on grid roads Damage only crashes were also more common on Redways with 25 cases reported against one on a grid road and none on local roads It might be thought that the relatively low accident rate for grid roads is because few cyclists use them and those who do so are relatively experienced The survey suggests otherwise as 43 per cent of respondents said that they cycle on grid roads at least once a week It must be assumed therefore that these roads are regularly used by cyclists of average skill a viewpoint confirmed by casual observation This survey also attempted to relate accident risk to exposure Cyclists were asked to estimate the distance they cycle in a week on each of the three kinds of highway Inevitably there will be a wide margin of error in these estimates but there is no reason to believe that they favour one type of highway over another Some cyclists were able to give a very detailed breakdown of their mileage Based on distance cycled and accidents suffered Table 4 shows the relative accident performance of each type of highway normalised in terms of accidents per million kilometres cycled Highway Injury accidents All accidents Grid road 31 47 Local road 149 149 Redway 166 319 Table 4 Accidents per 10 6 km cycled 1993 survey of cyclists Note These figures are amended from those published in Traffic Engineering Control This suggests that a cyclist is more than twice as likely to suffer an accident on a Redway than on an local road with the grid roads being the least hazardous type of highway relative to distance cycled by a wide margin Applying the same distribution criteria to the known record of fatal accidents a cyclist is more than twice as likely to be killed whilst using a Redway as when using a grid road Causes of Redway accidents Detailed examination by the author of 188 Redway and leisure route traffic accidents the term traffic accident being intended to relate to accidents to cyclists whilst in the course of purposeful journeys as opposed to play activities indicates contributory factors as shown in Table 5 Factor All injury accidents Serious or fatal accidents Visibility 37 44 Surfaces 35 31 Sharp bends 30 8 Obstructions 16 13 User behaviour 13 15 Gradient 11 6 Lighting 10 13 Bollards 7 8 Dogs 6 11 Vandalism 2 2 Cycle failure 1 0 Table 5 Contributory factors in Redway accidents Poor visibility particularly at junctions is the biggest single cause of accidents but other common causes include sharp bends steep gradients bollards slippery bridges loose gravel and mud In short features which are not compatible with the inherent limitations of a bicycle The paths are often not suitable for typical cycling speeds Some very serious injuries on Redways have been as a result of head on crashes between cyclists collisions with dogs and eye injuries from intruding vegetation all of which are rarely encountered on roads When collisions take place with motor vehicles they are more likely to be serious at Redway junctions than on roads generally This may be because a cyclist receives a greater impact when hit side on at a crossing than in the glancing impact typical of road collisions Raised crossings have proved to be a mixed blessing cars usually travel a little slower but cyclists often take less care and dash across without properly looking Inexperienced cyclists are particularly vulnerable on loose or uneven surfaces such as are found on leisure routes Machine laid tarmac has proved to be the only type of surface to meet the approval of most cyclists as well as best assisting cycle control The very poor user discipline on Redways is a common accident cause The flouting of basic traffic practices such as cycling on the left and using lights at night is much more common than on roads Children in particular often dash across road crossings without ensuring that there is no traffic Users perhaps under a false illusion of safety often underestimate the hazards that are present and frequently have not developed the special skills needed to deal with them Redways generally demand much more skill when cycling than most roads not less The effect of Redway riding on the development of good cycling skills may be much more far reaching than is discernible by looking at Redway accidents alone Some of the most serious road injuries are known to have been suffered by people who normally cycle on Redways but who have been forced to divert exceptionally due to path closure Similarly the increasing use by cyclists of footways even alongside very low trafficked roads suggests that paths such as Redways are no stepping stone to gaining the skills and confidence to ride elsewhere Footway cycling was common in Milton Keynes long before it became so in other towns In the author s experience the growth of this practice has more closely mirrored the growth of cycle facilities especially cycle pedestrian paths than traffic Pedestrians The sharing of Redways between cyclists and pedestrians is perceived by neither user as satisfactory and the disquiet has grown rather than subdued with time Complaints about cyclists riding too fast with insufficient care and without using a bell are common and this has resulted in petitions and the erection of barriers to meet public outcry From the other point of view only 1 in 7 cyclists finds sharing Redways with pedestrians satisfactory and 1 in 3 perceive pedestrians as unpredictable and a danger As many as 48 per cent of cyclists find children playing on the paths a nuisance There is no clear indication of the scale of conflict between the two groups that results in injury The 1991 hospital survey showed that there were at least two and possibly as many as 15 pedestrian Redway accidents in a month

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/2decades.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Body
    lane marking and may pass faster because its way ahead is now clear Centre islands and road narrowings similarly decrease that most essential of all requirements for comfortable cycling space and introduce conflict where previously there was none Minimum standards have become the norm and the DETR IHT guidelines the closest there is to decent objective standards for cycling though criticised in parts for being too lax are too often dismissed as pie in the sky in a congested urban environment Feedback indicates that an increasing number of cyclists are becoming annoyed about the deterioration in the cycling environment Roads that were tolerable if not exactly pleasant before cycle schemes were introduced have become much less acceptable with narrow cycle lanes added There has also been a marked upsurge in aggression from motorists towards cyclists in the presence of facilities for it is not surprising if some drivers expect cyclists to keep out of their way if any separate facility is provided But so many new facilities make cycling more difficult and hazardous They have led established cyclists to avoid particular roads in a way that traffic alone never did Clearly the verdict of cyclists is being demonstrated more generally for questions have reached Parliament as to why so many do not use the facilities that are being provided The Cycle Campaign Network has launched a Campaign For High Standards Of course most roads simply don t have sufficient space to provide wide cycle lanes or good quality facilities The answer however is not to provide whatever might be squeezed in but to tackle problems where these really exist in a different way In particular cyclists should be assisted to integrate with traffic through measures such as speed reduction and improved traffic management In fact the hierarchy of solutions advocated

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/tec0501.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Cycle path safety: A summary of research
    new Belgian Government policy on cycling Cycle tracks no longer favoured in urban areas due to problems and danger Preferable to remove narrow paths and where in bad state Two way cycle tracks to be declassified as particularly dangerous Analysis of pedestrian cyclist interactions Schmidt Proceedings of ICTCT Workshop Bulletin 110 University of Lund 1991 Referenced from Safety of vulnerable road users Study based on Vienna Conflicts generated mainly by narrow footpaths and cycle tracks relatively high speed of cyclists poor visibility considerable age difference Cycle safety Hass Klau et alia Environmental Transport Planning UK Germany 1991 Anglo German comparison many German references Number of motor vehicles and in particular number of cyclists has much stronger influence on safety than cycle facilities Some main roads with cycle facilities have higher cycle accident rate than without 36 of accidents in German study towns take place when the cyclist is using a facility More serious accidents a result of cross manoeuvres or with no other vehicle at all Visibility and care crucial cycle facility may contribute to accidents by making cyclist over confident Facilities cause many problems bad cycle facilities are worse than none Peterborough high accident rate in residential areas casts doubt on independent cycle facilities York and Oxford high serious accident rates Preferred policy of cyclists is better junction design and safety education Study of Milton Keynes Cycle Accidents 1980 1990 Ketteridge Milton Keynes Development Corporation UK 1991 Includes one month hospital survey which showed 14 cycle path accidents against 1 minor road accident and no major road accidents in equivalent area All 3 serious accidents were cycle path A further 15 cycle path accidents were not explained possibly cycle pedestrian Safety effects of bicycle facilities Wegman Dijkstra SWOV Netherlands 1992 Originally presented to Roads and Traffic 2000 conference Berlin 1988 Revised version included in Still more bikes behind the dikes CROW 1992 In built up areas cycle tracks 25 safer than unsegregated road between junctions but 32 more dangerous at junctions Cycle lanes 36 more dangerous between junctions 19 safer at junctions Seriousness of accidents greater if tracks or lanes present compared with no facilities Cycle lanes narrower than 1 8m particularly hazardous Outside towns cycle track safety depends on car and cycle numbers New cross town routes in Den Haag and Tilburg had produced no safety gain and had not encouraged much new cycling Sicherheit rund ums Radfahren ARGUS Austria 1992 Report of Velo Secur cycle safety conference in Salzburg Translation of conference summary Trying to keep cyclists apart from motor traffic in urban areas has proved too much for road users to cope with and led to unnecessary accidents Urban cycle paths are unsuitable and should not be used Providing cycle paths rarely solves safety problems and often introduces new ones Austrian and Swedish research shows cyclists at 3 times greater risk on cycleways than on road Bremen police chief agreed and called for compulsory use of paths to be lifted Cycle routes Harland Gercans TRL UK 1993 Analysis of experimental routes in Exeter Bedford Nottingham and Stockton No evidence that cycle routes lead to more cycling or improved safety No change in Stats 19 reported casualties although some cyclists transferred to paths Comment It is probable that there was an overall increase in accidents due to the transfer of some cyclists to paths where the rate of reporting is much lower Other evidence from Bedford gives weight to this Safety for cyclists at urban road junctions Schnull Alrutz et al German Federal Highways Institute Report 262 1993 Proportion of junction accidents significantly higher with cycle tracks HGV conflicts more common with segregation Without signals cyclists nearly 5 times more at risk on a cycle track contrasting surfaces only reduces this to 1 5 With signals cyclists 1 7 to 2 7 times more at risk on cycle track 1 3 times on a cycle lane At roundabouts cycle tracks increase risk by 30 cycle lanes by 25 Haveriundersökningar av vägtrafikolyckor motorfordon oskyddad trafikant Ahlcrona et al Sweden 1994 Referenced from Safety of vulnerable road users Small sample investigation of crashes to vulnerable road users at Skåne Two thirds of collisions occurred at pedestrian and cycle track crossings In two thirds of the cycle crashes the cyclist was riding on a two way cycle path counter to traffic flow or appeared somewhere he was not supposed to be Risk factors for bicycle motor vehicle collisions at intersections Wachtel Lewiston ITE Journal USA September 1994 Full paper available on line Sidewalks or paths adjacent to a roadway are usually not as non cyclists expect safer than the road but much less safe Risk on average 1 8 times as great but much greater for wrong way sidewalk bicyclists Sidewalk cycling appears to increase incidence of wrong way travel on both paths and roads Separation of bicycles and motor vehicles leads to blind conflicts at intersections Aim of well designed roadway system should be to integrate bicycles and motor vehicles according to the well established and effective principles of traffic law and engineering not to separate them Safety of cyclists in urban areas Danish experiences Danish Road Directorate Traffic Safety and Environment Report 10 1994 Referenced from Safety of vulnerable road users Bicycle paths and lanes offer overall improvement in safety on links However cycle lanes result in more crashes with parked cars Cycle tracks cause major safety problems at signalised junctions Better to replace track with cycle lane 20 30m before junction The epidemiology of bicyclists collision accidents Larsen Journal of Traffic Medicine 1994 Referenced from Safety of vulnerable road users 44 per cent of cyclist collisions in Denmark occur to cyclists using a cycle track 42 per cent to cyclists using the normal carriageway An epidemiological study of bicycle related injuries Eilert Peterson Schelp Pergamon Sweden 1995 12 month study of Västmanland county based on emergency visits to physician or dentist Cyclists were mostly injured on pavements pedestrian malls and cycle tracks 20 of events occurred on

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/research.html (2016-02-09)
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  • A History of Cycle Paths
    tracks in Hamburg 1900 Cycle tracks introduced in Lübek Paid for from receipts from number plates that had to be purchased by all cyclists Tax removed in 1919 but obligation to carry number plate remained 1901 Demands for cycle tracks in Germany to foster cycle tourism 1910 German cycle tracks moved from centre to sides of roads 1920 Quote from first Dutch Roads Congress After all the construction of bicycle paths along the larger roads relieves traffic along these roads of an extremely bothersome element the cyclist 1920s Mass construction of cycle tracks in Germany Motive to remove disturbances in the fast flow of motor vehicles caused by cyclists Propaganda cited paths as pro cyclist and first use made of safety argument to get cyclists to use them Many arguments between police and cyclists the latter prefering to use the newly tarmaced roads 1926 Cycle tracks made compulsory for cyclists in Germany 1930 First tarmac cycle tracks in Bremen Some private paths created to use which cyclists had to pay an annual fee 1930 1 Programme of cycle track construction by ANWB in Netherlands by this time as much a motoring organisation as a cycling one 1930s Main construction of cycle tracks in Denmark France and Switzerland Earlier Danish and Belgian tracks were said to be much better quality than those in Germany 1930s Cycle track construction in various places in UK Track on London s Western Avenue built 1934 believed to be oldest existing UK cycle track 1934 New German legal instruments to address the problem of disciplining cyclists who did not use cycle tracks Bicycle associations outlawed by Nazi regime Source notes that by this time the legal obligation to use cycle paths already existed in most countries 1936 All new roads in Hannover built with cycle tracks

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/history.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Health Benefits of Cycling
    to 20 minutes spent daily in cycle commuting is generally regarded as providing a good amount of moderate physical activity Arteries less fatty in men Annals of Internal Med 2001 154 336 Body energy more effective at increasing than occasional vigorous exercise Nature 29th March 2001 Cancer breast cancer lower risk Am J Epidermiology 2001 154 336 Cancer lower colon breast prostate risk possibly lung endometrial Cancer Epid Biomarkers Prevention

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/benefits.html (2016-02-09)
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  • Cycle helmets: A summary of research
    respects Modern helmets protect too small an area of the head They are not tested for the ability to reduce rotational acceleration They sometimes fail to provide optimal protection against the more common lesser impacts because they are tested only against severe impacts Straps and buckles are often not strong enough Shapes are designed for the heads of adults not children Mandatory helmet legislation should only be with reference to adequate helmet standards j1002s Cycle helmet laws facts figures and consequences Robinson D Paper presented at Velo Australis 1996 Full paper available on line j987 Similar content to author s Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws Cycle helmets when is legislation justified Unwin Journal of Medical Ethics Vol22 pp41 5 1996 Aim of paper is not to argue for or against compulsory helmets but to suggest criteria on which the debate should focus Author provides four criteria that should be met before legislation There must be a high level of scientific evidence that cycle helmets are effective in reducing the rate of head injury to cyclists The benefits to society and others of mandatory cycle helmets must be convincingly demonstrated There must be widespread agreement ideally by a large majority that the potential benefits of compulsory cycle helmets outweigh the infringement of personal liberty and other disbenefits There must be good evidence to suggest that compulsory helmet wearing would not make the public health benefits of increased levels of cycling significantly harder to obtain Circumstances and severity of bicycle injuries Thompson DC Rivara Thompson RS 1996 Full paper available on line Summary report of the Harborview Helmet Studies Study at 7 Seattle hospitals involving 3 390 cyclists who were injured or died 1992 4 Individuals with head or brain injuries compared to those involved in crashes but who did not suffere such injuries 50 6 had worn helmets at time of crash Concluded that helmets decrease risk of head injury by 69 brain injury by 65 and severe brain injury by 74 Helmets work equally well for all age groups and in crashes with and without motor vehicles which are most important risk factor for serious injury Substantial protection provided against lacerations and fractures to upper and mid face but not to lower face Hard shell helmets may offer greatest protection against severe brain injury j977 Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws Robinson DL Accident Analysis and Prevention Vol 28 No 4 pp463 75 1996 Abstract available on line Review of mandatory helmet laws in Australia Greatest effect of law was to discourage cycling Increase to at least 75 helmet wearing resulted in decline of only 13 in head injuries less than decline in cycling Reduction in head injuries very similar for pedestrians and possibly due more to speed and drink driving initiatives than helmets Helmets for motor vehicle occupants have potential to save 17 times as many deaths as cyclists without adverse effects of discouraging a heathy mode of transport j982 Is there any reliable evidence that Australian helmet legislation works Bruce Robinson Bicycle Federation of Australia Velo Australis conference 1996 Full paper available on line The author is a long time advocate of cycle helmets and did not oppose Australian legislation The evidence so far indicates that our initial belief in the effectiveness of the legislation may well have been ill founded and our hopes for road safety and equity improvements as a result of the Federal funding package naive So far there is no convincing evidence that Australian helmet legislation has reduced the risk of head injury in bicycle crashes It is not clear why the legislation has not been more effective j993 The pattern of injury in fatal pedal cycle accidents and the possible benefits of cycle helmets Kennedy British Journal of Sports Medicine Vol 30 pp130 3 1996 Examination of 28 cyclists deaths over 15 years in Sheffield and Barnsley Over 80 of both cases and controls had severe head injuries but controls an equal number of pedestrians and motor vehicle occupant fatalities suffered more fatal injuries to other parts of the body If helmets had saved all those who only had head injuries at best 14 50 of cyclist deaths would have been prevented On the other hand if pedestrians and vehicle occupants had worn helmets 175 lives may have been saved in the same period No justification for compelling cyclists to wear helmets without taking steps to improve safety of all road users j983 Trends in cycle injury in New Zealand under voluntary helmet use Scuffham Langley Accident Analysis and Prevention Vol 29 1 1997 Abstract available on line An ecological analysis of serious head and non head injuries to cyclists and helmet wearing survey data 1989 to 1992 prior to introduction of NZ manadatory helmet law Helmet wearing rates increased over period from 46 to 84 for primary schoolchildren 23 to 62 for secondary schoolchildren and 21 to 39 for adults All serious injuries to cyclists decreased substantially for children but not for adults Serious head injuries as a percentage of all serious injuries remained constant for all groups with no apparent difference between bicycle only and motor vehicle related crashes However percentages of mild concussions and lacerations to the scalp decreased more than other cyclist head injuries The failure to achieve the expected decline in serious head injury could be attributable to a variety of factors including the incorrect fitting and wearing of the helmet Cycle use declined over the study period by 19 j985s Get a head start Which journal of The Consumers Association pp 28 31 October 1998 Performance tests of cycle helmets all produced to meet international standards 14 of the 24 helmets failed the test criteria for shock absorption and two of the remainder failed tests related to retention and strap strength Only two of the 24 helmets met the more demanding Snell standard and one of those caused some impairment of a cyclist s vision j980 Helmet laws and health Robinson Injury Prevention pp 170 172

    Original URL path: http://cyclecraft.co.uk/digest/helmet_research.html (2016-02-09)
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