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  • Battery Power in Space
    nickel hydroxide changes to nickel oxyhydroxide NiOOH In the anode cadmium hydroxide is transformed to cadmium As the battery is discharged the process is reversed as shown in the following formula Cd 2H 2 O 2NiOOH 2Ni OH 2 Cd OH 2 Nickel cadmium is the most commonly used battery for Low Earth Orbit LEO missions A spacecraft battery consists of series connected cells the number of which depends upon bus voltage requirements and output voltage of the individual cells NICKEL HYDROGEN BATTERIES The Nickel Hydrogen battery is currently the most popular space battery It can be considered a hybrid between the nickel cadmium battery and the fuel cell The cadmium electrode was replaced with a hydrogen gas electrode This battery is visually much different from the Nickel Cadmium battery because the cell is a pressure vessel which must contain over one thousand pounds per square inch psi of hydrogen gas It is significantly lighter than nickel cadmium but is more difficult to package much like a crate of eggs It is the longest lived space battery yet built with 10 to 20 year lifetimes being common This battery is too expensive for commercial applications and few terrestrial examples have been built Nickel hydrogen batteries are sometimes confused with Nickel Metal Hydride batteries the batteries commonly found in cell phones and laptops The nickel metal hydride system is rarely used in space due to its limited life Nickel hydrogen as well as nickel cadmium batteries use the same electrolyte a solution of potassium hydroxide which is commonly called lye Incentives for developing nickel metal hydride Ni MH batteries comes from pressing health and environmental concerns to find replacements for the nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries Due to worker s safety requirements processing of cadmium for batteries in the U S is already in the process of being phased out Furthermore environmental legislation for the 1990 s and the 21st century will most likely make it imperative to curtail the use of cadmium in batteries for consumer use In spite of these pressures next to the lead acid battery the nickel cadmium battery still has the largest share of the rechargeable battery market Further incentives for researching hydrogen based batteries comes from the general belief that hydrogen and electricity will displace and eventually replace a significant fraction of the energy carrying contributions of fossil fuel resources becoming the foundation for a sustainable energy system based on renewable sources Finally there is considerable interest in the development of Ni MH batteries for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles The nickel metal hydride battery operates in concentrated KOH potassium hydroxide electrolyte The electrode reactions in a nickel metal hydride battery are as follows Cathode NiOOH H 2 O e Ni OH 2 OH 1 Anode 1 x MH x OH 1 x M H 2 O e 2 Overall 1 x MH x NiOOH 1 x M Ni OH 2 3 The KOH electrolyte can only transport the OH ions and to balance the charge

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/technical/battery_power_in_space.htm (2016-04-24)
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  • battery_comparison
    0A PowerStream AA NiCad 1 2 1 0 1 2 46 200 Sanyo AA NiMH 1 2 1 5 1 8 69 246 Varta AA NiMH 1 2 1 3 1 56 1000 70 213 3 9A Panasonic AA NiMH 1 2 1 5 1 8 69 246 BYD AA NiMH 1 2 1 3 1 5 800 67 205 26 0A Gold Peak AA NiMH 1 2 1 6 1 9 600 72 259 JS AA NiMH 1 2 1 5 1 8 69 246 Harding AA NiMH 1 2 1 5 1 8 69 246 PowerStream AA NiMH 1 2 2 0 2 4 78 328 Rayovac AA Rechargeable Alkaline 1 4 to 0 9 1 6 2 24 100 80 220 600 mA Evercel Box NiZn 1 65 24 39 6 500 2 49 71 72 0A Evercel Box NiZn 1 65 39 64 4 500 2 59 91 115 0A Evercel Box NiZn 12 22 264 500 2 42 74 72A B B Box SLA 12 12 144 350 1 36 103 Panasonic Box SLA 12 12 144 37 99 Powercache Box Supercapacitor 2 3 100 F 0 15 200 000 4 1 15A Powercache Box

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/technical/battery_comparison.htm (2016-04-24)
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  • WiFi Technical Black Paper
    network and prevent them from accessing the wired network at all you are still handing out IP s to anyone who asks This means that it is possible for unauthorized wireless users to piggyback your wireless connection to communicate to other non VPN clients on the same network segment This means that Joe Cracker and Suzy Cracker can communicate with each other across your campus but not your other internal networks Because network bandwidth is shared on a wireless connection and there is only currently 11Mbits to go around this type of piggybacking can cause extreme performance hits on your wireless network and deny legitimate users the bandwidth they need for their applications VPN solutions can be an effective way of preventing unauthorized users from gaining entry to your wired network as long as they are implemented correctly There are other concerns though which might make a wireless administrator think twice about implementing it 802 1X is a standard which was ratified in early April by the IEEE regarding port level security Initially it was intended to standardize security on wired network ports but it was found to be very much applicable to wireless networking as well This new layer 2 MAC address layer security protocol exists at the authentication stage of the security process Using 802 1X when a device requests access to the AP the AP demands a set of credentials The user then supplies some form of credentials which the AP then forwards to a standard RADIUS server for authentication and authorization RADIUS stands for Remote Authentication Dial In User Service and is commonly used to authenticate dial in users The exact method of supplying credentials is defined in the 802 1X standard EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol EAP is an authentication bucket that allows developers to create their own methods of passing credentials and is the main security measure in 802 1X There are four commonly used EAP methods in use today They are EAP MD5 EAP Cisco Wireless also known as LEAP EAP TLS and EAP TTLS EAP MD5 relies on an MD5 hash of a username and password to pass credentials to the RADIUS server EAP MD5 offers no key management or dynamic key generation requiring the use of static WEP keys This prevents unauthorized users from accessing your wireless network directly but offers nothing over the proven insecure static WEP encryption scheme Attackers can still sniff your airborne traffic and decrypt the WEP key Once the key is decrypted they can easily watch all data running over your wireless network Another flaw in EAP MD5 is that it offers no way for the wireless client to verify the AP Because of this a determined attacker could plant a rogue AP on your network and fool your wireless clients into thinking that it is a secure communications point Because it offers no other features over the standard 802 1X EAP MD5 is considered the least secure of all the common EAP standards EAP Cisco Wireless or LEAP is a standard developed by Cisco in conjunction with the 802 1X standard and is the basis for much of the ratified version of EAP Like EAP MD5 LEAP accepts a username and password from the wireless device and transmits them to the RADIUS server for authentication What sets LEAP apart from EAP MD5 are the extra features it adds over what is explicitly called for within the 802 1X EAP specification When LEAP authenticates the user one time WEP keys are dynamically generated for that session This means that every user on your wireless network is using a different WEP key that no one knows not even the user Also you can combine this with the session timeout feature of RADIUS to have the user re login every few minutes handled behind the scenes the user doesn t have to type anything in and create new dynamic WEP keys that change every few minutes Setting your RADIUS server up this way effectively nullifies current attacks on WEP because the individual keys are not used long enough for an attacker to crack them LEAP also stipulates mutual authentication of client to AP and AP to client above what 802 1X strictly calls for This prevents a hacker from inserting a rogue AP into your network and fooling your wireless clients into thinking it is a secure connection There are presently two drawbacks to running LEAP First the mechanism of passing the logon credentials uses MS CHAPv1 for both the client and AP authentication This version of MS CHAP has known vulnerabilities and can be compromised by a determined enough attacker with the right tools There are no known instances of LEAP being compromised by this but MS CHAPv1 is a weakness The second drawback in implementing LEAP is that LEAP currently only works on Cisco end to end networks because only Cisco has added LEAP capabilities to their wireless client Other vendors however are working to add LEAP to their wireless client software to allow non Cisco network cards in established LEAP implementations EAP TLS was developed by Microsoft and is outlined in RFC 2716 Instead of username password combinations EAP TLS uses X 509 certificates to handle authentication EAP TLS relies on Transport Layer Security the IETF s attempt at standardizing the Secure Sockets Layer SSL to pass PKI information in the EAP bucket Like LEAP EAP TLS offers dynamic one time WEP key generation and authenticates the AP to the wireless client as well as the client to the AP EAP TLS runs on any platform that has a client written for it Currently clients for EAP TLS are implemented through several vendors for Linux and all flavors of Windows except CE The first hindrance to implementing EAP TLS is in the burden of PKI If your organization does not already have a PKI in place handing out certificates to trusted parties there is a potentially steep learning curve in figuring out exactly what PKI is

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/technical/wifi_technical_black_paper.htm (2016-04-24)
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  • Family Baron Home Page
    you that I have seen technology advance Have you ever wanted a Nintendo 64 Well I can give you 1 for free Just Click here to download Project 64 exe only for windows 1 game That game is super Mario

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/blankpae.htm (2016-04-24)
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  • Family Baron Home Page
    Hey guys you found my secret page DOWNLOAD THIS Just press the big red buttons

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/cheat%20download.html (2016-04-24)
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  • Family Baron Home Page
    well done you are a robot back

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/rbot.htm (2016-04-24)
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  • Family Baron Home Page
    growing up My favourite place Bristol 3D Stereograms Club Penguin Cheats The Jack cam Michael Rosen Hey guys and gals copy and paste this address into the address bar http sites google com site howtomakecomics home make comics me This

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/jackspage.htm.htm (2016-04-24)
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  • Family Baron Home Page
    Up Page 5 Oh how they grow up quickly Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Me and Wallace 09 09 Me and Rose in our new AUDI Q5

    Original URL path: http://www.familybaron.co.uk/p%205.htm (2016-04-24)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2017-12-11