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  • Roman Fonts for West African Languages
    with our full or demo word processing packages However they are also provided here for you to do testing or reading htm files These fonts provide for word processing in the following languages West African Languages including Yoruba The Roman scripts are arranged technically as the internationally recognized font sets Latin 1 Latin 2 Latin 3 Latin 4 and added by Jaspell Vietnamese and Chinese Mandarin Pinyin Jaspell Jaldi provides

    Original URL path: http://www.jaspell.co.uk/fontromanwestafrican01.htm (2016-02-14)
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  • Punjabi Scripts
    the correct text in either of these three scripts In Jaspell Jaldi for Windows the JaScript called Gurumukhi enables word processing in Punjabi in its Brahmi based form of script and classification of sounds The JaScript called Naskh enables word processing in Punjabi Naskh and the JaScript called Nastaliq enables word processing in Punjabi Nastaliq Characters are adjusted automatically according to their context in these cursive scripts The method in

    Original URL path: http://www.jaspell.co.uk/punjabiwp.htm (2016-02-14)
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  • Naskh Scripts
    a standard keyboard for word processing Arabic Farsi Persian Hindustani Punjabi Pushtu or Urdu language in Naskh script use a common key layout and Romanized representation of sounds as shown on the key guide for this family See separate details on Romanized typing Find out more detail about typing the Naskh Group Arabic Naskh Hindustani Naskh Persian Naskh Punjabi Naskh Pushtu Naskh Urdu Naskh Find out more detail about the

    Original URL path: http://www.jaspell.co.uk/naskhscripts.htm (2016-02-14)
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  • Nastaliq Scripts
    Romanized representation of sounds as shown on the key guide for this family See separate details on Romanized typing It isn t hard to guess what you get by typing teraa naam kyaa hee in Urdu Find out more detail about the Naskh Group Arabic Naskh Hindustani Naskh Persian Naskh Punjabi Naskh Pushtu Naskh Urdu Naskh Find out more detail about the Nastaliq Group Arabic Nastaliq Hindustani Nastaliq Persian Nastaliq

    Original URL path: http://www.jaspell.co.uk/nastaliqscripts.htm (2016-02-14)
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  • Assamese Word Processor
    the way their syllables sound or to use characters mapped across the keyboard In Jaspell Jaldi for Windows the JaScript called Bengali enables word processing in Bengali and Assamese for Bangla Baanglaa and Ahamiya The method in which these are typed is described under typing The guides provided for learning the script and prompting how to type it are described under guides If you want to learn how to read

    Original URL path: http://www.jaspell.co.uk/assamesewp.htm (2016-02-14)
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  • Punjabi Word Processor in Naskh
    in which these are typed is described under typing The guides provided for learning the script and prompting how to type it are described under guides If you want to learn how to read these scripts start with our charts Naskh and Nastaliq are typed the same way Arabic Farsi Persian Pushtu and Urdu Naskh use a common key layout and Romanized representation of sounds as shown on the key

    Original URL path: http://www.jaspell.co.uk/punjabikwp.htm (2016-02-14)
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  • Speak Basic Bengali
    dhå water paani jal way direction dik dig taraph way manner man mån bhaab week saptaa shåptaa what y aa jaa what one kii what ones kii kii who y e je who ke WHO plural y aaraa WHO plural kaaraa jaaraa wickedness du sht ataa wife woman strii shaamii will desire icchaa witness activity saak s a shaak kå witness person saak s ii shaak kii woman wife strii shaamii word spoken baakya baak kå kathaa kåthaa work kaaj kaam karma kårmå worker karma kaarii world jagat jågåt duniyaa year in a date saal shaal year the period bat sar båt sår yesterday gata kaal gåtå kaal Go to Grammar 1 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 1 6 Nouns and Pronouns Full List Bengali to English Go to Full List English to Bengali Nouns and Pronouns dekhaa to verbal e g to see dekh te ing verbal e g seeing karaa to verbal e g to do kar te ing verbal e g doing aagaamii kaal tomorrow aaj ke today aananda sukh happiness aashaa hope abasthaa åbåsthaa condition state abhaab åbhaab lack shortage adhyaay åd dhaay chapter adhyayan åd dhåyån study aparaadh åpåraadh crime ashaanti åshaanti disturbance baaibel Bible baakya baak kå kathaa word baan laa Bengali language baan¹gaalii Bengali person baa r ii ghar grriha house bai boy kitaab book bandhu båndhu friend bat sar båt sår year period bhaab man way manner bhaai brother bhaalabaasaa prem love bhabi s yat bhåbish shåt future bishvaas bish shaash belief faith bon sister brrihaspatibaar Thursday brrik s a brik kå gaach tree budhabaar Wednesday byakti bekti vyakti person individual chabi chhåbi picture chele putra son boy dayaa dåyaa kindness dekh aa verbal e g to see dekh te verbal e g seeing dhaarmikataa righteousness dharma dhårmå religion dhvan sa d dhång så destruction dik dig taraph direction way dik dig taraph way direction din day dooraatmya douraat tå hin saa violence duniyaa jagat world du sht ataa wickedness e this thing ee that thing ee gulo ee guli those things e gulo e guli these things eraa raa plural ending s persons gaach brrik s a tree gata kaal gåtå kaal yesterday ghar baa r ii grriha house ghrri n aa hatred grriha baa r ii ghar house gulo guli plural ending s non persons gyaan jnaan knowledge icchaa will desire iisaa y iishu Jesus iishvar iish shår God general Bengali iishvarer khodaar God s in rej English person in rejii English language hin saa dooraatmya violence jagat jågåt duniyaa world jiiban life jini s thing article jnaan gyaan knowledge kaaj karma kaam work kaal time period era kaam kaaj karma work kaaraa WHO plural kaarii doer kaarii er kar aa kåraa verbal e g to do karma kårmå kaaj kaam work karma kaarii worker kar te kår te verbal e g doing kathaa kåthaa thing said word ke who keha keu anyone someone keu keha someone anyone khaabaar khaadya food khaadya khaabaar food kh odaa God from Urdu khodaar iishvarer God s kii kii what ones kii what one kin d am hal Kingdom Hall kitaab bai book kukur dog laabh phaa idaa benefit lok person people maa maataa mother maach fish maan sa flesh meat maanu s man maataa maa mother man mån mental spirit line of thought man bhaab way manner man mat mind thought man¹gal baar Tuesday manobhaab attitude mat man thought mind meye daughter girl mukti freedom naam name netaa leader paakhi pak s i påk ki bird paani jal water pad påd verse in a chapter pak s a påk kå side of an issue pak s i påk ki paakhi bird paribaar family paristhiti situation circumstances paritraa n salvation pashu animal patrikaa magazine phaa idaa laabh benefit phal fruit pitaa baabaa father pitaamaataa parents pramaa n proof evidence prashna question prem bhaalabaasaa love prrithibii earth punahha saak s aat return visit putra chele son boy raa eraa plural ending s persons raajya kingdom rabi baar ravi vaar Sunday rak s aa rescue survival ravi vaar rabi baar Sunday saahaa y ya shaahaaj jå help saak s aat shaak kaat visit saak s a shaak kå witness activity saak s ii shaak kii witness person saal shaal year date sabhaa shåbhaa meeting samasyaa shåmåsh shaa problem samay shåmoi time measure san baad san vaad shång baad message santraas shåntraash terrorism santraas kaarii terroriser saptaa shåptaa week satya shåt tå truth shaanti peace shanibaar Saturday shayataan Satan she s kaal last days shukrabaar Friday som baar Monday srri st i creation strii wife woman sukh aananda happiness swaamii shaamii husband taraph dik dig direction way tatva jnaan tåt tå gyaan accurate knowledge uddeshya purpose ut saaha encouragement uttar answer vyakti byakti bekti person individual y aa jaa what y aaraa jaaraa WHO plural y e je who y ihobaa jihobaa Jehovah y iishu jiishu iisaa Jesus y uddha jud dhå war Do Exercises 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 Go to Grammar 1 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 PROCESS DONE VERB Simple Past Present and Future Tense 2 1 The Basic Pattern for Endings of All Verbs 2 2 Pattern 1 kar aa to do to make 2 3 Pattern 2 la oyaa to lead take bring 2 4 Pattern 3 khaa oyaa to eat 2 5 Pattern 4 ghum aa no to sleep 2 6 Negative Forms of Verbs 2 7 Compound Verbs 2 8 Must Have to do kar te habe Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 1 The Basic Pattern for Endings of All Verbs VERB ENDINGS BASIC PATTERN Person Past did Present does Future will Common I we laam i bo you YOU le o be he she it they lo e or y be Honorific you YOU he she they len en ben NOTES 1 The pronunciation and related spelling may be softened or hardened in different styles the final o being softened to a or the final a being hardened to o 2 The above are the short colloquial Chalito forms The classical Sadhu forms are longer Past Sadhu Future Sadhu ilaam iba ile ibe ila ibe ilen iben 3 For this basic introductory course let s get by with only these three tense forms Other tense forms exist in the past present and future covering perfect imperfect and conditional actions The colloquial and classical forms of these tenses also differ Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 2 Pattern 1 kar aa to do to make VERB ENDINGS KARAA to do Person Past Present Future did do etc does do etc will do etc Common I we kar laam kar i kar bo you YOU kar le kar o kar be he she it they kar lo kar e kar be Honorific you YOU he she they kar len kar en kar ben Do Exercise 2 1 Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents Some verbs like kar aa to do make kar aa to speak bal aa to read fall pa r aa to understand bujh aa to bring aan aa to come aas aa to be able to can paar aa to die mar aa to hit kill maar aa to know jaan aa to see dekh aa to remain thaak aa Do Exercises 2 2 2 3 Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 3 Pattern 2 la oyaa to lead take bring VERB ENDINGS LAOYAA to lead Person Past Present Future did lead does lead etc will lead etc Common I we lai laam la i la bo you YOU lai le la o la be he she it they lai lo la y la be Honorific you YOU he she they lai len la n la ben Exceptions ha oyaa to be definite state chi laam aach i ha bo ha oyaa to be prove to be ha laam ha i ha bo ne oyaa to take ni laam ne i ni bo de oyaa to give di laam de i di bo Some verbs like la oyaa pronounced la waa to lead bring la oyaa to be to prove to be to come to be ha oyaa not to be Imagine this when forming I am not etc na oyaa Imagine naa ha oyaa Do Exercises 2 4 2 5 Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 4 Pattern 3 khaa oyaa to eat pronounced khaa waa VERB ENDINGS KHAAOYAA to eat Person Past Present Future did eat does eat etc will eat etc Common I we khe laam khaa i khaa bo you YOU khe le khaa o khaa be he she it they khe lo khaa y khaa be Honorific you YOU he she they khe len khaa n khaa ben Exceptions y aa oyaa to go ge laam not y elaam y aa i y aa bo caa oyaa to want caa i laam caa i caa i bo gaa oyaa to sing gaa i laam gaa i gaa bo Some verbs like khaa oyaa pronounced khaa waa to want caa oyaa to get paa oyaa to go y aa oyaa to sing gaa oyaa Do Exercise 2 6 Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 5 Pattern 4 ghum aa no to sleep VERB ENDINGS GHUMAANO to sleep Person Past Present Future did sleep does sleep etc will sleep etc Common I we ghumaa laam ghumaa i ghumaa bo you YOU ghumaa le ghumaa o ghumaa be he she it they ghumaa lo ghumaa y ghumaa be Honorific you YOU he she they ghumaa len ghumaa n ghumaa ben Some Verbs like ghumaa no to sleep ghumaa no to run d oo r aa no to stand d aa r aa no to cause to do karaa no to cause to see show dekhaa no Do Exercise 2 7 Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 6 Negative Forms of Verbs VERB ENDINGS IN NEGATIVE KARAA to do Person Past Present Future did do etc does do etc will do etc Common I we kar i ni kar i naa kar bo naa you YOU kar o ni kar o naa kar be naa he she it they kar e ni kar e naa kar be naa Honorific you YOU he she they kar en ni kar en naa kar ben naa The past negative uses the present form with ni added However exceptionally It does not exist nei Examples of Negative Forms of Verbs I do not understand aami bujhi naa I did not understand aami bujhi ni I have a big book aamaar ba r a bai aache I do not have a big book aamaar ba r a bai nei Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 7 Compound Verbs Compound verbs combine a noun or adjective with an auxilliary verb like karaa to think mane karaa to destroy dhvan sa karaa to believe bishvaas karaa to hate ghrri n aa karaa to create srri st i karaa to love prem karaa to encourage ut saahita karaa to delight aanandita karaa to forget bhule y aaoyaa Note The verb is placed last in the sentence or clause followed by naa or ni if negative We sleep aamaraa ghumaa i They stood taaraa daa r aa lo I thought aami mane kar laam He created tini srri st i kar len You encourage aapani ut saahita kar en They don t believe taaraa bishvaas kar e naa We could not aamaraa paar i ni Peace doesn t exist shaanti nei Do Exercise 2 8 etc Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 2 8 Must Have to do kar te habe This form is peculiar to Bengali The verb used to express compulsion is habe will be The required action is in the te ing form of a verb The person who must act appears as the possessor of the duty I must listen my listening will be aamaar shun te habe I have a book my book exists aamaar bai aache I must do that aamaar taa kar te habe Go to Grammar 2 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 3 OBJECTS Nouns and Pronouns According to Case 3 1 Cases for Personal Object Nouns and Pronouns 3 2 Cases for Non Personal Object Nouns and Pronouns 3 3 More Post Positional Elements We saw in Section 1 how nouns and pronouns can be used as the subject the Doer in a sentence If a person or thing is affected by the action of the Doer it is the Object in the sentence When nouns and pronouns form the object they are usually modified in various ways depending upon the object case Go to Grammar 3 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 3 1 Cases for Personal Object Nouns and Pronouns Personal Object Singular Plural man maanu s maanu s eraa affecting the man maanu s ke maanu s der ke of the man maanu s er maanu s der to the man maanu s ke er kaac e maanu s der ke der kaac e through the man maanu s er dvaaraa maanu s der dvaaraa by way of the man maanu s er diye maanu s der diye from the man maanu s er kaac theke maanu s der kaac theke in on at the man maanu s e or te maanu s der madhye or der te Oh the man he maanu s he maanu s eraa The Bengali word kaac conveys the sense of being near to so you could visualize it as proximity or vicinity perhaps presence close to a person Go to Grammar 3 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 3 2 Cases for Non Personal Object Nouns and Pronouns Non Personal Object Singular Plural book bai bai gulo affecting the book bai bai gulo bai ke bai gulo ke of the book bai er yer r bai gulo r to the book bai bai gulo bai ke bai gulo ke through the book bai dvaaraa bai gulo dvaaraa by way of the book bai er diye bai gulo diye from the book bai theke bai gulo theke in on at the book bai te bai gulor madhye bai e bai gulo te Oh the book he bai he baigulo Words similar to from than from theke hate or haite than compared to ceye Examples best than all good sab ceye bhaalo The father is bigger than I pitaa aamaa ceye ba r a Love is better than hatred prem ghrri n aa ceye bhaalo It is better to give than to take paaoyaa ceye deoyaa bhaala Go to Grammar 3 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 3 3 More Post Positional Elements for X X er janya against X X er viruddhe with X X er saathe X er san¹ge Examples for me aamaar janya for us aamaader janya against the truth satyer viruddhe with the brothers bhaaider san¹ge Do Exercises 3 xx Go to Grammar 3 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 4 QUALITY DESCRIBING DOERS AND OBJECTS Adjectives Personal Pronouns etc 4 1 Vocabulary Adjectives and Other Descriptives English to Bengali 4 2 Vocabulary Adjectives and Other Descriptives Bengali to English 4 3 Examples 4 4 Numbers to Indicate Quantity GRAMMAR 4 1 Vocabulary Adjectives and Other Descriptives English to Bengali Go to Bengali to English Descriptives These words can be used as they are with no adjustment for gender or number s singular possessive er s pl non personal gulor s pl personal der all sakal shåkål sab samasta any kono bad manda måndå khaaraap big ba r a bå r å coming next aagaamii correct O K right th ik false bhul few a little alpa ålpå forever unending ananta ånåntå full ful puur n a good bhaalo bhaala great mahaa happy sukhii aanandita her his its taar her his honorific t aar his her its taar his her honorific t aar holy pabitra påbitrå pavitra ill unwell sick asustha åshusthå important gurutvapuur n a impossible asambhab åshåmbhåb its his her taar last past gata gåtå less kam more beshi aar o most than all sab ceye shab cheye much anek ånek my aamaar near at hand nika t san nika t necessary dar kaar prayojaniiya next subsequent parabartii other anya ån nå apar åpår other apar ån nå anya ån nå our aamaader past last gata gåtå peaceful shaantipuur n a possible sambhab shåmbhåb previous puurbabartii real prakrrita pråkritå righteous dhaarmik s singular possessive er s pl personal der s pl non personal gulor sad unhappy sorry dukhita duhhakhita sick unwell ill asustha åshusthå small cho t a chho t å cho tt a some kicchu sorry unhappy sad dukhita duhhakhita subsequent next parabartii that over there ee their t aader their taader this e true satya shåt tå unhappy sad sorry dukhita duhhakhita unrighteous adhaarmik unwell sick ill asustha åshusthå violent hin sra hing shrå well sustha shusthå bhaala bhaalo WHOSE y aader jaader whose y aar jaar WHOSE kaader whose kaar YOUR aapanaader YOUR tomaader your tomaar your honorific aapanaar Go to Grammar 4 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 4 2 Vocabulary Adjectives and Other Descriptives Bengali to English Go to English to Bengali Descriptives aagaamii coming next aamaader our aamaar my aapanaader YOUR aapanaar your honorific adhaarmik unrighteous alpa ålpå few a little ananta ånåntå forever unending anek ånek much anya ån nå apar åpår other apar ån nå anya ån nå other asambhab åshåmbhåb impossible asustha åshusthå unwell sick ill ba r a bå r å big beshi aar o more bhaalo bhaala good well bhul false cho t a chho t å cho tt a small dar kaar prayojaniiya necessary der s pl personal dhaarmik righteous dukhita duhhakhita unhappy sad sorry e this ee that over there er s singular possessive gata gåtå past last gulor s pl non personal gurutvapuur n a important hin sra hing shrå violent kaader WHOSE kaar whose kam less khaaraap manda måndå bad kicchu some kono any mahaa great manda måndå khaaraap bad nika t san nika t near at hand parabartii next subsequent pabitra påbitrå pavitra holy prakrrita pråkritå real prayojaniiya dar kaar necessary puurbabartii previous puur n a full ful sab shåb samasta sakal shåkål all sab ceye shab cheye most than all sakal shåkål sab samasta all samasta shåmåstå sab sakal shåkål all sambhab shåmbhåb possible sannika t nika t near at hand satya shåt tå true shaantipuur n a peaceful sukhii aanandita happy sustha shusthå bhaala bhaalo well t aader their t aar his her honorific taader their taar his her its th ik correct O K right tomaader YOUR tomaar your y aader jaader WHOSE y aar jaar whose Go to Grammar 4 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 4 3 Examples happy life sukhii jiiban any peace kono shaanti peaceful home shaanti puur n a ghar violent attitude hin sra manobhaab Go to Grammar 4 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 4 4 Numbers to Indicate Quantity one ek eight aa t two dui nine nay three tin ten dash four caar eleven egaara five p aac twelve baara six chay twenty biish seven saat hundred sha Examples two fish dui maach a couple of fish dui t i maach two men dui maanu s a couple of good friends dui jan bhaalo bandhu Do Exercises 4 xx Go to Grammar 4 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 5 MANNER ADVERBIAL Describing The Action 5 1 Time 5 2 Manner 5 3 Place 5 4 Reason 5 5 Examples GRAMMAR 5 1 Time now e khan then takhan tabe when kakhan kabe ever kakhan o never kakhan o naa again aabaar GRAMMAR 5 2 Manner this way e bhaabe e man that way se bhaabe ee bhaabe how kii bhaabe keman ly bhaabe indeed particularly i also as well too o not present or future naa not past ni please kindly dayaa kare very khub GRAMMAR 5 3 Place here e khaane there o khaane tothaay where kon khaane kothaay GRAMMAR 5 4 Reason for this reason e kaara n e for that reason ee kaara n e why kii kaara n e kena GRAMMAR 5 5 Examples I alone only I aami i very very khub i in this very way e bhaabe i leaders also netaaraa o YOU too tomaraa o Why did you go kena gelen Where is he now se ekhan kothaay Please read dayaa kare pa r o Do Exercises 5 xx Go to Grammar 5 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 6 CONNECTIVES 6 1 Use of Connectives 6 2 List of Connectives 6 3 Examples GRAMMAR 6 1 Use of Connectives A connective is used to combine two clauses each of which is like a small sentence containing its own verb For example I will come and we will go GRAMMAR 6 2 List of Connectives and eban aar as a result phalata phale because kenanaa kaara n but kintu for this reason e kaara n e if y adi in order that so that y ena in that case then tabe taahale lest so that not paache rather not that but baran so therefore taai so that in order that y ena that the fact that y e then in that case tabe taahale therefore so taai whether ki or athabaa baa kin baa GRAMMAR 6 3 Examples He came and we went se aas la eban aamaraa ge laam You came but they did not go tumi aas le kintu taaraa y aay ni Are you well aapani ki sustha They say that God does not exist taaraa bale y e iishvar nan We do it so that you will get benefit aamaraa taa kari y ena tumi laabh paabe I will write lest I forget aami likh bo paache bhule y aa i Do Exercises 6 xx Go to Grammar 6 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 7 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 7 1 Construction with Condition and Outcome 7 2 Preferred Position of y adi if 7 3 Use of the Connective tabe then 7 4 Order of the Clauses in a Conditional Sentence 7 5 Conditional Participles GRAMMAR 7 1 Construction with Condition and Outcome This structure can be a powerful device when used in teaching A conditional sentence is made of two parts that are linked with special connectives The if clause states a condition the then clause states the outcome Clause with the Condition y adi if y adi if or a similar word is added to the a minor clause that expresses a condition y adi sounds like jådi Clause Stating the Outcome tabe or taahale tabe then or taahale that being the case may be added to the main clause that states the outcome This is the statement of the main process GRAMMAR 7 2 Preferred Position of y adi if Note that many Bengalis prefer not to commence a sentence with the word yadi if if it can be placed after the doer Condition If you come aapani y adi aas ben GRAMMAR 7 3 Use of the Connective tabe then Minor adjustments may be made for clarification For example we may add then or in that case Condition Qualified Statement If you come then I will go aapani y adi aas ben tabe aami y aa bo However tabe then is omitted if the order of the clauses is reversed as follows GRAMMAR 7 4 Order of the Clauses in a Conditional Sentence The order of the main and minor clauses can be swapped You can say either of these If you come too I will go or I will go if you come too Condition Qualified Statement Qualified Statement Condition If you come then I will go or I will go if you come aapani y adi aas ben tabe aami y aa bo aami y aa bo y adi aapani aas ben Examples Say if you know or If you know then say bal o y adi jaan o y adi jaan o tabe bal o Listen if you can or If you can then listen shun o y adi paar o y adi paar o tabe shun o GRAMMAR 7 5 Conditional Participles Bengali has conditional participles If X represents a certain action then these participles convey the idea of by doing X in the case of X happening To form these participles just append le to the verb s stem Infinitive by ing in the case of ing Verb Stem Conditional Participle to come in the case of coming aas aa aas le to see in the case of seeing dekh aa dekh le to understand in the case of understanding bujh aa bujh le to read in the case of reading pa r aa pa r le Examples If you listen you can understand shun le tumi bujh te paaro If I know it I do it taa jaan le taa kari If you come we ll go tumi aas le aamaraa y aabo If he speaks I will listen se bal le aami shun bo Do Exercises 7 xx Go to Grammar 7 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 8 INTERROGATIVES CORRELATIVES AND RELATIVES 8 1 Interrogatives ke etc 8 2 Relatives and Correlatives y e se etc 8 3 Sets of Three Interrogative Relative and Correlative 8 4 Examples GRAMMAR 8 1 Interrogatives ke etc Use these interrogatives to ask questions what kii who WHO ke kaaraa why kena when kakhan kabe where kothaay kon khaane how keman kii bhaabe kii kare whether ki which kon Examples What do you want aapani kii caan Who spoke ke bal la Why is the world full of problems jagat kena samasyaa puur n a Where is your father tomaar pitaa kothaay Do they know taaraa ki jaane Which book did you read tumi kon bai pa r le GRAMMAR 8 2 Relatives and Correlatives y e se etc Answer the question What will you reap The answer in effect is The thing that you sow this thing you will reap Galatians 6 7 Briefly put We reap what we so In Bengali this structure always has two parts Relative Clause The thing that you sow and Correlative Clause such thing you will reap GRAMMAR 8 3 Sets of Three Interrogative Relative and Correlative There are several sets of three matching words Interrogative Relative Correlative xxx What xxx The xxx such xxx thing what kii y aa taa se i things what kii kii y e y e taaraa se gulo person who ke y e se persons who kaaraa y aaraa taaraa reason why kii kaara n e y e kaara n e se kaara n e reason why kena y ena se janya reason why kii janya y e janya se janya time when kakhan y akhan takhan time when kabe y abe tabe fact if whether ki y adi tabe place where kon khaane y e khaane se khaane place where kon sthaane y e sthaane se sthaane place where kothaay y othaay tothaay manner how keman y e man te man manner how kii bhaabe y e bhaabe se bhaabe GRAMMAR 8 4 Examples What you said that is right tumi y aa bal le taa th ik The things that you saw those things are still there tumi y e y e jini s dekh le se gulo ekhan o okhaane He who came this one is ill y e maanu s aas la se asustha The ones who are righteous these ones will possess the earth y aaraa dhaarmik taaraa prrithibii paa be For the reason that you are happy for such reason I am happy too tumi y e kaara n e sukhii se kaara n e aami o sukhii In order that you will hear for such reason I speak aapani y ena shun ben se janya aami bali When he speaks then he acts se y akhan bale takhan se kaaj kare At the time at which if he wants at such time he gets se y adi caay tabe paay The place which you went to to such place I also went tumi y e khaane gele se khaane o aami gelaam In the place in which he stood in such place you stand se y e khaane daa r aa lo se khaane tumi daa r aa o The way it is heaven in such way it will be on earth y eman svarge hay teman i prrithibii te habe In the manner in which you look at others in such manner others will look at you tumi y e bhaabe anyader ke dekho se bhaabe anyeraa tomaa ke dekh be Do Exercises 8 xx Go to Grammar 8 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 9 OTHER FORMS OF EXPRESSION Common or Without Equivalent The main information in the original language has to be identified and an acceptable alternative way has to be found of communicating enough of this in a way that is comfortable in the new language Please learn and master the following forms English Bengali greeting from Arabic aassaalaam oyaalaaikum response to greeting from Arabic oyaalaaikum aassaalaam greeting with other backgrounds namaskaar Yes haa hyaa h a No naa I must listen my listening will be aamaar shun te habe I have a book my book exists aamaar bai aache I have no book my book exists not aamaar bai nei I must also bring those aamaar taader ke o aan te habe I like it It impacts on me well aamaar bhaalo laage to lock to apply the lock taalaa laagaano It was said to me aamaake taa balaa gela or hala It was said by me aamaa r dvaaraa taa balaa gela or hala a book that speaks truth ek satya balaa bai a The indefinite article does not exist a set number of persons jan e g 2 friends 4 daughters e g dui jan bandhu caar jan meye a set number of non persons diminutive t i or t aa e g 4 books 10 wars e g caar t i bai dash t aa y uddha the personal in particular se i the non personal diminutive se i or t aa e g se i bai or bai t aa So That being so then taa i to She is my sister it is certainly true se aamaar bon satya ba t e good su bad ku Note Only one indication of the plural is needed For example two friends becomes two friend good friends can be good good friend Do Exercises 9 xx Go to Grammar 9 Go to Top Go to Contents GRAMMAR 10 ADD MORE FEATURES As you come across other forms of expression it may be beneficial to to make notes about them adding further important features of the Bengali language This will help you to make a rapid start to meaningful fluent communication Note 1 The doer word can be omitted from the sentence if it can be implied from the verb ending that is used Example I am fine aami bhaalo I am fine bhaalo aachi Add more notes yourself I must do it aamaar taa kar te habe Go to Top Go to Contents GENERAL NOTES FOR THIS COURSE 1 Note that throughout this course YOU means the plural of you 2 Note that English pronouns underlined are equivalent to the honorific form in Bengali 3 Bengali letters underlined represent the cerebral sound not the dental 4 In Bengali spellings indicates that the adjacent letters get brought together as one syllable 5 In Bengali spellings indicates that the adjacent letters are in different syllables Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 EXERCISE 1 1 Follow this pattern Example I am English Answer aami in rej Translate these examples EXAMPLE ANSWERS I am English aami in rej se baan¹gaalii He she is Bengali This is violence taa e dooraatmya hin saa uttar shaanti The answer is peace The Bible is truth baaibel satya iishvar ke Who is God The answer is kindness uttar dayaa santraas ghrri n aa Terrorism is hatred Go to Grammar Study 1 Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 2 Learn words about world conditions Vocabulary EXERCISE 1 3 Learn words about family members and other human relationships Vocabulary Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 4 Follow this pattern Example Who are you Answer tumi ke Note The interrogative word like ke who is positioned last in these examples Translate these examples EXAMPLE ANSWERS Who are you tumi ke aami I am a aami dak taar I am a doctor I am a friend aami bandhu I am a aami aami I am a What is this thing taa kii taa e It is a taa pramaa n It is proof taa e It is a What are those things eegulo kii kii kii eegulo Those are eegulo patrikaa Those are magazines eegulo Those are What is today aaj ke kii aaj ke Today is Today is Sunday aaj ke rabibaar aaj ke Today is What is this time period e kaal kii e kaal This time period is This time period is the last days e kaal she s kaal Provide answers of your choice Who are you tumi ke aami I am a What is this thing taa kii taa e It is a What are those things eegulo kii kii kii eegulo Those are What is today aaj ke kii aaj ke Today is What is this time period e kaal kii e kaal This time period is Go to Grammar Study 1 Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 5 You can make plural pronouns out of singular pronouns They end in raa but slight changes to the stem are needed for some of these Follow this pattern Example taa Answer taaraa Make plurals of these EXAMPLES ANSWERS I aami we aamaraa you tumi YOU tomaraa he she se they taaraa it taa they taaraa you aapani YOU aapanaaraa he she tini they taa raa Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 6 You can make singular pronouns out of plural ones Follow this pattern Example taaraa Answer se taa Make singular pronouns out of these EXAMPLES ANSWERS we aamaraa I aami YOU tomaraa you tumi they taaraa he she se they taaraa it taa YOU aapanaaraa you aapani they taa raa he she tini Go to Grammar Study 1 Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 7 You can make plurals of personal nouns by adding raa after a vowel or eraa after a consonant Follow these patterns Example bandhu Answer bandhuraa Example bon Answer boneraa Make plurals out of these friend brother daughter Bengali witness sister man people person Englishman EXAMPLES ANSWERS bandhu bandhu raa bhaai bhaai eraa meye meye raa baan¹gaalii baan¹gaalii raa saak s ii saak s ii raa bon bon eraa maanu s maanu s eraa lok lok eraa in rej in rej eraa Go to Top Go to Contents EXERCISE 1 8 You can make plural non personal nouns by adding gulo or guli to their singular form Follow this pattern Example prashna Answer prashnagulo Make plurals of these question war picture meeting day family life Bible answer QUESTIONS ANSWERS prashna prashna gulo y uddha y uddha gulo chabi chabi gulo sabhaa sabhaa gulo din din gulo parivaar parivaar gulo jiiban jiiban gulo baaibel baaibel gulo uttar uttar gulo Go to Grammar Study 1 Go to Top EXERCISE 1 9 Learn the

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