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    consider when creating a new aquarium It takes 21 days for a new tank to become established Two beneficial bacteria are important in aquaria Nitrosomonas convert ammonia to nitrite Nitrobacter convert nitrites to nitrates These bacteria can be added to the tank to get it going by Adding some gravel from an established disease free tank Adding a starter preparation commercially available Adding a pinch of garden soil containing the bacteria To avoid cloudy water wash new gravel up to12 times with a hose until the run off water is clean Disinfect all rocks before introducing them into the tank using Potassium permanganate in 3mg litre water for 24 hours or 15 mins in 7 5mg litre OR a special aquarium disinfectant DO NOT use household disinfectants Add plants rocks set up under gravel filters etc and switch everything on for 2 3 days before adding any fish Before adding fish to the tank check the following water temperature about 24 degrees C pH should be 7 0 ammonia concentration nitrite concentration should be less than 0 5ppm Start a new tank with a few healthy hardy species of fish such as Barbs Catfish Danios Livebearers Loaches When introducing new

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/newtanks.htm (2016-02-08)
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    other fish take the oxygen that they need from the water in which they live and the pink gills which lie behind their heads and move in and out regularly are the equivalent of our lungs drawing oxygen from the water into the fishes bloodstream It is important that the water your goldfish lives in is kept clean and fresh otherwise your fish could get into serious trouble due to

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Kids/Kids%20Questions/Kids%20Q1.htm (2016-02-08)
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    fish keepers have seen fish that lose part or all of a fin Usually one or more fin becomes frayed and sections of it erode off and disappear This is popularly called fin rot and there are several causes including Trauma Poor water quality Ensure the following levels Oxygen 5 5 mg l Ammonia 0 01 mg l Nitrate 40mg l Nitrite 0 125 mg l Avoid chemical contamination Some fish are pH sensitive Bacterial infections Aeromonas or Pseudomonas Protozoal infection Ectoparasites Various treatments can be used to treat fin rot For bacterial infections a Chloramine T is effective against bacteria and ectoparasites It is administered in a bath at the following dose rates ppm parts per million parts of water using lower dose rates in soft water with a low pH Water pH Soft Water low pH Hard Water 6 0 2 5 ppm 7 0 ppm 6 5 5 ppm 10 ppm 7 0 10 ppm 15 ppm 7 5 18 ppm 18 ppm 8 0 20 ppm 20 ppm b Benzalkonium chloride administered in a bath using lower dose rates in soft water with a low pH 10 ppm duration of treatment 5 10 minutes 5 ppm

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/finrot.htm (2016-02-08)
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    scales or form a swelling which protrudes above the surface of the body Spots come in different colors which can be helpful in identifying an underlying cause Color of spots Possible causes White Fish pox Cryptocaryon Ichthyosporidium Ich white spot Nodular disease normal to get white spots on the pectoral fins and gill plates of male goldfish during breeding time Yellow Black spot Yellow grub Black Black spot Yellow grub Red Fish pox Lymphocystis Inflammation Brown Black spot Grey Cryptocaryon Ichthyosporidium Black Spot Small black or brown spots upto 2mm in size on the body or fins Caused by a worm It affects coldwater fish including Goldfish Carp Tench and other Cyprinids Cryptocaryon also called salt water ich Caused by a marine parasite Causes grey white nodules about 2mm in size It irritates so fish rub themselves against objects Fish pox also called carp pox or skin papilloma This is caused by a virus and it forms small white spots which are opalescent These merge causing large patches and later they turn reddish grey It mainly affects carp Ich white spot Caused by a parasite Ichthyophthirius look like small pinhead spots on the fins and body This disease affects all freshwater aquarium fish Fish rub themselves against objects Ichthyosporidium Small white nodules appear on the skin Fish often have a swollen abdomen as well It is caused by a fungal infection Inflammation Reddening of the skin all over the body is associated with bacterial septicemia Fish can become very ill and die rapidly Lymphocystis also called cauliflower or raspberry disease Small white nodules occur on the skin and fins and grow to 2mm size tumours It is caused by a virus Fish often die from this Nodular disease Sporozoan infections cause cysts containing the parasite varying in size from pin

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/fish/spotsonfish.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Fish Swimming Up-side Down
    the water other times they cannot seem to get up from the bottom of the tank pond Normal swimming requires both the nervous system and the muscular system to be intact and working properly Buoyancy is controlled through a special organ called the swim bladder Any disease which affects the nervous system muscular system or swim bladder can cause abnormal swimming behaviour Any debilitating disease that causes weakness will also lead to inability to swim properly and so it isn t surprising that fish which are terminally ill will be seen swimming abnormally even up side down Because there are so many potential causes diagnosis requires a full history and examination of The environmental conditions temperature oxygenation of water etc The presence of toxins in the water or food The presence of infectious diseases bacteria or viruses The presence of parasitic infections Disease that have been documented to affect swimming include Sleeping sickness Caused by blood flagellates protozoans egs cryptobia which affects cyprinids including carp goldfish and tench and trypanosoma Fish contract the disease having been bitten by leeches There is no specific treatment for the disease so remove infected fish and leeches from the aquarium Costia a protozoan now called Ichthyobodo necator affects coldwater fish and freshwater tropical fish kept below 25 0 C They sometimes scrape themselves on objects as well and they develop a white film over their body Fish Tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium and nocardia spp TB is relatively common and affected fish can show a variety of different signs but loss of condition is very common This disease is a potential zoonosis Remove dead and dying fish to prevent cannibalism and transfer of the disease Hole in the head disease caused by the parasite Hexamita spp Most commonly affects Discus fish Ichthyosporidium a fungal disease

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/fish/fishswim.htm (2016-02-08)
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    4 feet is adequate Providing your pond filtration system is effective your pond has been well stocked with plants and is well aerated you should not have any problems If the winter is particularly mild and the fish remain active feeding may be required throughout the period The rule is feed the FISH not the POND When in doubt do not overfeed as that simply adds waste to the pond Having said this owners and breeders do have different opinions about how to over winter fish Some examples of recommendations that Provet has come across include Bring the fish indoors in the winter House them in a deep barrel of water This may be appropriate for valuable Koi carp Add a heater to the pond surface heaters can apparently be bought quite cheaply Dead plants should be removed from the pond as they will rot adding waste toxins to the water If the pond surface freezes over entirely cut a hole in the ice to allow waste gases to escape Add a chunk of polystyrene to float on top of the pond This will prevent the surface from icing over completely and allow gases to escape It can be weighted down by attaching it to a brick Logs of wood added to the surface of the pond may achieve the same purpose and may provide an area of relative warmth near the surface of the pond Fill a plastic bottle eg a milk bottle with hot water and place it on top of ice to melt it Do not smash or otherwise break the ice as this can kill the fish sent in by a visitor to Provets web site Cover the pond with a sheet of bubble wrap sent in by a visitor to Provets web site Float a

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/fishwinter.htm (2016-02-08)
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    well as humans The organism can survive in the environment for 3 days or more Humans contract the disease by one of the following routes Ingestion Direct contact with infected material usually faeces Human infection can be contracted from Domestic animals Laboratory animals Wild animals Exposure to campylobacter is higher in animals fed raw foods eg the BARF diet Breed Occurrence There is no breed predisposition to campylobacter infection Human workers most at risk include Agricultural workers Animal handlers Signs Dog Many infected dogs show no signs Stress the presence of another disease or other factors e g pregnancy may increase susceptibility to develop the disease Diarrhoea watery to bloody with mucus and sometimes bile stained lasting 5 15 days is usually how the disease presents and it is most common in dogs less than 6 months old Occasionally chronic diarrhoea can result lasting for months and sometimes there is an increased body temperature and an increased white cell leucocyte count Cat Many infected cats show no signs Usually affected cats are less than 6 months old Diarrhoea sometimes bloody is the sign seen most often but in most of the cases reported in the literature other infectious agents were found to be present as well e g toxoplasma giardia Humans often severe with abdominal discomfort diarrhoea vomiting fever There have been many reported instances of transmission of C jejuni from pets to humans however the main source of infection for humans is raw or undercooked meat especially chicken There is also evidence that C upsalensis may be a zoonosis as well dogs and cats Complications C jejuni has been found in conjunction with inflammation of the gall bladder cholecystitis and bacterial infection of the bloodstream bacteraemia in dogs Diagnosis Examination of fresh faecal smears under dark field or phase

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/campylobacter.htm (2016-02-08)
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    or dog faeces in which case the coccidial oocysts have been ingested from one of these other species in which case they pass though without causing disease Dogs are infected by I canis I ohioensis I burrowsi and I neorivolta Cats are infected by I felis and I rivolta Guinea Pigs are usually infected with Eimeria caviae Breed Incidence There is no breed susceptibility to infection Signs Diarrhoea is the usual sign associated with coccidial infection and in severe cases this leads to weight loss dehydration and sometimes haemorrhage In some species e g dog and cat the presence of disease associated with coccidia may be secondary to immune compromise so a search for an underlying cause should be made Lifecycle Coccidia have a sexual and an asexual phase to their lifecycle and sometimes these occur in different host species as with Sarcocystis in other cases e g Isospora both phases occur in the same host In the case of cats infected with Isospora felis for example oocysts may be passed by the cat and reingested by the same or another cat or they may be ingested by an intermediate host rodent mouse which is subsequently eaten by a cat

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/coccidiosis.htm (2016-02-08)
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