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    the stomach Infected animals can shed the organisms in faeces or orally even if they do not show any signs of illness Salmonella dublin is transmitted from cattle to humans via contact with vaginal secretions Breed Occurrence There is no breed predisposition to infection but animals kept in faecally contaminated environments eg farm livestock or that eat faeces coprophagia groom companions or share feeding and drinking bowls are at high risk to contract the infection Predatory animals eg cats that kill and eat infected species eg birds are also at risk Young animals animals with poor immune responses natural or drug induced animals subjected to stress and animals suffering from malnutrition or obesity are at greater risk from exposure to Salmonella Animals given oral antibiotics eg ampicillin may have lower resistance to Salmonellosis because the antibiotic alters the numbers of normal protective bacteria in the gut In cats and dogs it has been estimated from tests that up to 36 of healthy dogs and 18 of healthy cats have Salmonella in their faeces and the number of animals carrying the disease is thought to be higher than these findings Species commonly infected with Salmonella which may be of importance and risk to humans include Pets Amphibians Birds Cats Dogs Ferrets Fish Gerbils Guinea Pigs Hamsters Horses and Ponies Mice Rabbits and hares Rats Reptiles Crocodilians Lizards Snakes Tortoises and Turtles Agricultural Livestock Buffalo Camels Cattle Elephants Goats Pigs Sheep Pigs Wild animals Amphibians Birds Hedgehogs Non human Primates The quokka Australian marsupial Rabbits and Hares Raccoons Reptiles Rodents mice rats Human workers most at risk to contract salmonellosis include Animal handlers Butchers Food handlers Kitchen workers Veterinarians Signs Many animals can be infected with Salmonella but show no signs at all These present a real risk to humans especially young children who may handle infected pets eg terrapins and other reptiles So basic hygiene is important when handling pets cleaning out their environments or handling food and water bowls Hands should always be washed thoroughly after handling pets and related objects When disease occurs the main signs are associated with gastrointestinal damage Diarrhoea often watery and containing mucus or blood Vomiting Inappetance Increased salivation cats Increased thirst Abdominal pain all species but especially horses colic But other signs include High body temperatures Depression Dehydration Weight loss Weakness Shock Death If the bacteria or toxins get into the bloodstream other signs may be seen according to the organs affected for example Brain Blindness Excitability Fits seizures or convulsions Flicking of the eye nystagmus calves Staggering Paralysis of the hind legs Eye Conjunctivitis with enlarged lymph nodes in cats Joints Arthritis in multiple joints especially in young animals that survive the acute stage of the disease Liver Jaundice Lungs Cough Difficulty breathing called dyspnoea Nose bleeds Pneumonia all species but especially pigs Lymphatics Enlarged lymph nodes with conjunctivitis in cats Skin Dark red to purple discolouration on abdomen or ears pigs due to haemorrhages Localised infections can occur in many tissues causing

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/salmonellosis.htm (2016-02-08)
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    including people cats dogs birds pigs rodents cavies guinea pigs reptiles Humans most often contract the infection from Rodents Pigs Rabbits Dogs Cats Human workers most at risk to contract this infection are Animal handlers Workers in fields where the disease is endemic Signs People develop abdominal pain diarrhoea fever septicaemia and skin rashes which are similar to and therefore can be confused with the clinical signs of appendicitis With Yersinia pestis infection they also develop pneumonia lymphadenopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC Y pseudotuberculosis causes diarrhoea in many species during winter and spring the incidence of Yersinia infection seems to be more prevalent during cold weather In cats and dogs Y enterocolitica is thought to be a non pathogenic commensal but it causes illness in people possibly transmitted from household pets This organism has been isolated occasionally from young dogs with clinical signs of colitis In cats pyogranulomatous lesions involving the intestinal tract liver and lymph nodes has been described associated with Y pseudotuberculosi s and this may be progressive and fatal Feline plague caused by Y pestis occurs in many countries in Africa Asia and the Americas including the Western States of the USA Rodents including ground and rock squirrels and prairie dogs are the natural hosts In addition rodent fleas eg rabbit fleas may transmit the organism to cats and people Fleas can remain infected for many months Following the bite of an infected flea the incubation period of the disease in the cat is 2 6 days whereas it is 1 3 days following the ingestion of an infected rodent Clinical signs include Lymph node enlargement and abscessation bubonic form most common Fever Depression Anorexia Dyspnoea due to pneumonia pneumonic form uncommon Oedema Septic shock Disseminated intravascular coagulation In Guinea pigs Y pseudotuberculosis causes an illness

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/Yersinia.htm (2016-02-08)
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    signs are of a cough with varying degrees of difficulty in breathing which depends upon the severity of the infection Bronchopneumonia with complications can lead to death Dogs Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most common bacterial agent associated with tracheobronchitis known as kennel cough in dogs Disease outbreaks frequently occur during the summer vacations and at other times when dogs are kenneled away from home come into contact with infected carriers and then spread it around their neighbourhood when they come out The typical acute onset cough sounds like a honk to owners who often think the dog has something stuck in it s throat Sometimes there is a nasal discharge and mucus may be coughed up which can be confused for retching or vomiting Cats Bordetella bronchiseptica is a significant cause of pneumonia and mortality in cats and kittens especially when kept in colonies Guinea pigs Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most common bacteria causing respiratory disease in guinea pigs It results in abnormal respiratory sounds sneezing a nasal discharge inappetance depression weight loss and in severe cases death Complications Secondary infection can occur leading to pneumonia Diagnosis Presenting history No vaccination history Transtracheal aspiration of fluid identify neutrophils in exudate and bacterial culture Culture of swabs taken from the mouth throat or upper airway are not reliable X rays may be helpful if there are signs of pulmonary damage hyperinflation atelectasis consolidation of lung lobes Prevention Dogs Intranasal vaccinations are reasonably effective with few side effects although some dogs develop a cough a few days after vaccination The vaccine produces local immunity and for this reason maternal antibody does not interfere with it Therefore puppies as young as 2 weeks of age can be given the vaccination if they are likely to come into contact with dogs with the disease

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/bordatella.htm (2016-02-08)
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    reptiles eg tortoises have evolved the mechanism of hibernation for surviving through the cold winter months when under natural circumstances food would be difficult to find The state of hibernation is triggered by environmental factors such as reduced length of daylight hours and low temperatures During hibernation the animals metabolic rate decreases so that body energy reserves as stored fat are slowly used up As part of this process the heart rate breathing rate and body temperature all fall so much that unsuspecting owners often think that their little pet has died In hamsters the body temperature can fall to as low as 0 o C 32 o F and the heart may only beat once every few minutes How do you know if your pet is truly hibernating Hibernating animals can be revived by placing them on a warming pad set at 30 o C 90 o F for 30 60 minutes Never attempt to revive hibernating animals in ovens or microwaves Because animals that hibernate rely on stored energy reserves to survive they should be well nourished before they hibernate Also prolonged periods of hibernation should not be encouraged because animals may burn up all their stored energy

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/hibernation.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Hamster Physiological Information
    8 weeks Sexual maturity females reached at 4 weeks Oestrus cycle lasts 4 days Stops during hibernation Ovulation occurs on first day of oestrus cycle 1 2 hours after nightfall Implantation occurs on 6 th day after mating Gestation period 15 21 days Chinese hamster the longest Average litter size 4 12 Maximum recorded 26 Young at birth Weight 2 5g Naked eyes closed until 5 days Suckle milk for

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Hamsters/hamphysiol.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Where to buy a Rabbit?
    hygiene see Guidelines below A pet store large chain not a bad idea if the Pet Store is well run clean practices good hygiene and they can give assurances about the origin of the rabbit See Guidelines below Guidelines Here are some Guidelines to follow before you buy an rabbit If you follow these Guidelines you should reduce the chances of disappointment with your new pet a Consider your situation first Do not buy a rabbit unless you are sure that the one you get will suit your life style that you can afford to look after it properly and that you have the time to commit to it NEVER buy on impulse for example when you see a beautiful large white rabbit in a shop window don t rush in and buy it Can you afford to look after a rabbit properly Have you got the time to look after a rabbit properly b The premises It is important to be satisfied about the health standards of the establishment that you are buying the rabbit from The most important single Guideline is this Whenever possible buy from a source that has been recommended to you by an independent person a friend neighbour a well known breeder or member of the family Someone whose judgment you can trust Satisfy yourself that the premises are clean and tidy Is the animal s environment clean Ask to inspect behind the scenes Are the animals themselves clean Is there fresh clean water available Are animals from different sources kept separately advisable or are they mixed together not desirable as this increases the likelihood of exposure to disease If you have not been given a personal recommendation about the establishment ask them to give you the names of three reference sites where you will

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Rabbits/Wherebuyrabbit.htm (2016-02-08)
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    coat condition and normal reproductive performance and fats or oils are naturally present in vegetables and grains In addition volatile fatty acids are synthesised in the gut by the bacterial breakdown of fibre In feeding trials rabbits prefer rations with 5 10 fat content 4 Carbohydrates Fibre is an important component of a ration for a rabbit and it is recommended that 12 22 5 of a food should be crude fibre Only about 18 of this fibre is digestible in rabbits which is half that of other domestic herbivores but it is important for maintaining healthy bacteria in the intestinal tract Lower fibre diets less than 12 crude fibre may cause diarrhoea in rabbits 5 Vitamins Rabbits require essential vitamins or their precursors to be present in their ration The precise requirements for some of the vitamins are not known Vitamins are present in the rabbits normal fresh foods and they are added to pre prepared rabbit mixes so deficiencies are rare Some vitamins are synthesised in the gut of the rabbit Vitamin B complex and so they do not have to be present in the ration However a common problem is over supplementation which can lead to toxicity eg Vitamin A and D Vitamin A A precursor to Vitamin A pro vitamin A or carotene is present in carrots and other vegetables plants 580 IU Vitamin A is adequate for growth in rabbits 1160 IU Vitamin A is required for reproduction Vitamin B The first soft stools that a rabbit passes are eaten again a process called coprophagia This is thought to supply the rabbit with most of its Vitamin B requirement as several of the Vitamin B complex including niacin pantothenic acid riboflavin thiamine vitamin B 12 cobalamin are produced by bacteria in the gut during the first passage of digestion Other Vitamin B s do have to be present in the diet choline 0 12 of diet pyridoxine 39 micrograms gram of diet Vitamin C Rabbits do not require vitamin C to be in their diet Vitamin D Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets in rabbits Excess vitamin D intake causes toxicity and calcium deposition in tissues Vitamin E Rabbits require about 1mg Vitamin E kg body weight per day A level of 40mg kg diet is recommended Vitamin K Sufficient Vitamin K is synthesised in the gut by bacteria to meet normal needs 2ppm vitamin K is recommended in the diet for reproducing females 6 Minerals Like most species rabbits require calcium and other essential minerals see below in their ration The precise requirements are not known for some of the minerals Calcium and Phosphorus Grains and grass up to 20 of ration will naturally provide sufficient calcium to met a rabbits needs Studies have shown that some rabbits will not eat the food pellets which contain calcium and so they can become deficient This selective feeding should be avoided because calcium deficiency and calcium phosphorus imbalances in a diet can lead to dental problems

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Rabbits/rabbitfeeding.htm (2016-02-08)
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    Interstitial cell tumour of the testes Lymphosarcoma juvenile and young may be a genetically transmitted autosomal recessive disease Can develop in any tissue but most often involves the lymph nodes skin kidneys liver and spleen Mammary tumours spontaneous mainly carcinomas Myxoma virus infection results in skin tumours fibromas Nephroma juvenile develops in the embryo Papilloma caused by papilloma viruses and often involves the skin Shope papilloma or mouth In the skin they can be persistent become malignant and undergo metastasis In the oral cavity the warts are small and grey white nodules and often form under the tongue as well as on the gums Squamous cell carcinoma Uterine adenocarcinoma It is most often seen in Dutch Havana French Silver and Tan rabbits It is reported to be rare in Belgian and Rex rabbits It most often occurs in rabbits over 3 years Over 50 of rabbits may be affected in predisposed breeds It may be hormone dose dependent oestrogen Signs of reproductive failure may be noticed in the early stages abortion failure to conceive resorption stillbirths small litter size retained fetuses There may be a direct link between uterine hyperplasia or pregnancy toxaemia and the later development of cancer Metastatic

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/rabbitscancer.htm (2016-02-08)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-21