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  • Provet Query Form
    Ask Provet Question from Reptiles Home Forename Surname Email Subject Question Return to Reptiles Home

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Questions/GetQuest.asp?source=Reptiles%20Home&Return=/Reptiles/Reptileshome.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • Jim Wilson
    gathered from field work museums zoos veterinary hospitals and rehabilitation facilities His camera is a constant companion providing a permanent collection of reference photos While he finds field sketches are useful for capturing a mood and preliminary impressions intricate pieces are always completed in a studio setting Jim s education includes a BSc in Wildlife Ecology an MS in Natural Resource and Environmental Economics and Doctoral Studies in Entomology His

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Cat2000/Images/Wilson/Thumbs/ListThumbs.asp (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Where to buy a reptile?
    basic hygiene see Guidelines below A pet store large chain not a bad idea if the Pet Store is well run clean practices good hygiene and they can give assurances about the origin of the reptile See Guidelines below Guidelines Here are some Guidelines to follow before you buy an reptile If you follow these Guidelines you should reduce the chances of disappointment with your new pet a Consider your situation first Do not buy a reptile unless you are sure that the one you get will suit your life style that you can afford to look after it properly and that you have the time to commit to it NEVER buy on impulse for example when you see a stunning giant snake in a shop window don t rush in and buy it Can you afford to look after a reptile properly Have you got the time to look after a reptile properly b The premises It is important to be satisfied about the health standards of the establishment that you are buying the reptile from The most important single Guideline is this Whenever possible buy from a source that has been recommended to you by an independent person a friend neighbour a well known breeder or member of the family Someone whose judgment you can trust Satisfy yourself that the premises are clean and tidy Are the animal s tanks clean Ask to inspect behind the scenes Are the animals themselves clean Is there fresh clean water available Are animals from different sources kept separately advisable or are they mixed together not desirable as this increases the likelihood of exposure to disease If you have not been given a personal recommendation about the establishment ask them to give you the names of three reference sites where you will

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/reptiles/Wherebuyreptile.htm (2016-02-08)
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    do not make good pets They often have very specific nutritional and environmental requirements and they need a conscientious owner who will look after them properly Anybody who takes it upon themselves to keep a reptile must make sure that they understand how to feed it properly Reptiles can be carnivores eats other living creatures eg mice ants toads herbivores eats plant material or omnivores eats foods of animal and plant origin CLICK HERE for more specific information The most common disorders associated with feeding are Nutritional deficiency calories poor growth rate weight loss minerals calcium deficiency occurs in reptiles fed an exclusively meat or offal diet which is low in calcium and it causes multiple bone fractures The skeletal part of prey is an important source of dietary calcium Also Vitamin D is necessary for normal calcium metabolism and so adequate vitamin D should be in the ration In addition exposure to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light helps the reptile to manufacture vitamin D in it s skin protein vitamins Vit A Vit D Vitamin A deficiency is seen most often in turtles and lizards fed unsupplemented meats and lettuce Vitamin D deficiency can occur in any reptile fed

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/reptiles/reptilefood.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Feeding Tortoises and Turtles
    McCance and Widdowson Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry and MAFF Raw Ingredient Protein g 100g Calcium mg 100g Phosphorus mg 100g Ca P ratio Blackeye Beans 23 5 81 410 1 3 45 Chick peas 21 3 160 310 1 14 55 Green beans French Beans 1 9 36 38 1 1 05 Mung Beans 23 9 89 360 1 4 04 Red Kidney Beans 22 1 100 410 1 4 1 Runner Beans 1 6 33 34 1 1 03 Soya Beans 35 9 240 660 1 2 75 Mange tout Peas 3 6 44 62 1 1 41 Peas 6 9 21 130 1 6 19 Based upon this information and assuming that the optimum Ca P ratio of a total ration for tortoises should be between 1 1 and 2 1 Tortoises should be fed a low protein ration as quoted in the literature From a calcium phosphorus ratio point of view Mange tout peas Green Beans French Beans and Runner Beans are excellent raw ingredients to feed to reptiles because they only have a small inverse ratio and small quantities of the others as part of a balanced ration would probably have little effect on the overall mineral balance of the ration Only chick peas should probably be avoided because they do have a very high ratio For protein content Green Beans French Beans Runner Beans Mange tout peas and Peas are certainly safe and small amounts of the others as part of a balanced ration would probably have little effect although Soya Beans do have a very high protein content and are probably best avoided Beneficial nutritional content in these beans peas includes the following per 100g Green beans french beans energy 24kcal Potassium 230mg Iron 1 2mg Carotene a precursor of vitamin A estimated 330 micrograms Vitamin E 0 2mg Folate estimated 80 micrograms Vitamin C 12 mg Runner beans energy 22kcal Potassium 220mg Iron 1 2 mg Carotene 145 micrograms Vitamin E 0 23 mg Folate 60 micrograms Vitamin C 10mg Mange Tout peas energy 32kcal Potassium 200mg Carotene 695 micrograms Vitamin E 0 39 mg Thiamin 0 22mg Vitamin B6 0 18 mg Pantothenate 0 72mg Biotin 5 3 micrograms Vitamin C 54 mg Incidentally Red Kidney Beans are included in this list for completeness In humans raw Red Kidney Beans contain a toxin which can be fatal if they are not cooked sufficiently Wild herbivores can often eat plants that are toxic to other mammals and owners should appraise themselves of known potentially toxic plants for their species It is worth comparing the content of these beans with the content of other plants which have been recommended for the feeding of tortoises by various authors worldwide Please note not all authors agree on which of these ingredients is appropriate for feeding to specific species This is NOT a list of foods recommended by Provet Raw Ingredient Protein g 100g Calcium mg 100g Phosphorus mg 100g Ca P ratio Alfalfa 19 9 1 87 0 06 1 0 03 Alfalfa hay early bloom 19 9 1 49 0 26 1 0 17 Alfalfa hay full bloom 15 1 29 0 23 1 0 18 Bermuda Grass hay 8 2 0 41 0 21 1 0 51 Clover red hay 15 9 1 49 0 25 1 0 17 Clover white 19 6 2 1 0 19 1 0 09 Orchard Grass 12 9 0 51 0 21 1 0 41 Ryegrass fresh 17 9 0 65 0 41 1 0 63 Timothy midbloom fresh 9 1 0 38 0 30 1 0 79 Apples 0 3 4 7 1 1 75 Banana 1 2 6 28 1 4 67 Blackberries 0 9 41 31 1 0 75 Broccoli 4 4 56 87 1 1 55 Brussels Sprouts 3 5 26 77 1 2 96 Cabbage 1 7 29 66 1 2 27 Carrot 0 7 25 15 1 0 6 Cauliflower 3 6 21 64 1 3 05 Courgettes 1 8 25 45 1 1 8 Cucumber 0 7 18 49 1 2 72 Dandelion 2 7 187 66 1 0 35 Lettuce 0 8 28 28 1 1 Melons 0 6 20 13 1 0 65 Nectarines 1 4 7 22 1 3 14 Parsnips 1 8 41 74 1 1 80 Peaches 1 0 7 22 1 3 14 Pears 0 3 11 13 1 1 18 Plums 0 6 13 23 1 1 77 Raspberries 1 4 25 31 1 1 24 Strawberries 0 8 16 24 1 1 5 Tomatoes 0 7 7 24 1 3 43 Watercress 3 0 170 52 1 0 3 Despite warnings from some authors vegetables are not particularly high in protein content and there are few on this list that would represent a significant problem from their Ca P ratio if they are fed only occasionally as only a small part of the total ration HOWEVER there may be other reasons why some of these ingredients should not be fed for example the well publicised risk of hypothyroidism when feeding excessive amounts of brassica plants eg cabbage Brussels sprouts broccoli and spinach This condition is most often seen in terrestrial chelonia especially Giant Land Tortoises whose natural diet is particularly high in iodine content Dietary supplementation as sodium iodide may be needed to prevent the hypothyroidism in these cases Iodine Iodine deficiency is reported to be common in tortoises which results in inadequate amounts of thyroid hormone being produced a condition called hypothyroidism This condition is seen most often in Giant Land Tortoises which have a high requirement for iodine and also in reptiles fed high quantities of brassica plants a group of plants which includes cabbage cauliflower kale rape swede turnip Brussels sprouts and broccoli Sodium Reptiles are extremely good at regulating their body sodium Sodium is present in most feedstuffs and as a result sodium supplementation is only required when marine reptiles are being kept in a fresh

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/tortoisefeeding.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Reptiles - Environmental Temperatures
    skins because they do not have insulating layers of hair or feathers and in the wild they are rarely protected by layers of subcutaneous fat obese reptiles are usually only seen in captivity On the other hand they are well adapted to absorbing heat from the environment through their skin by radiation from the sun or by conduction from rock stones or sandy surfaces Species of reptiles living in cooler parts of the world are often darker or black compared to variants of the species which live in warmer climates and this probably reflects the fact that black objects absorb heat better than light coloured objects During pregnancy some snakes eg Madagascan Tree Boas change to a darker colour probably reflecting their need to absorb more heat for energy Also black headed reptiles may have evolved because rapid heat absorption to the brain would ensure that early in the daytime cycle the individual is alert and local sense organs are functioning properly before the creature exposes itself fully to the environment where predators may be waiting In their normal wild habitat a reptiles daily routine is controlled by environmental temperatures when it is cold they seek out warm places and bask in the sun when it is hot they seek out shade they hunt feed and reproduce during periods of optimum temperature When we attempt to keep them in an artificial environment a vivarium we need to control temperatures and reproduce as closely as possible their natural environmental conditions This is one of the challenges of keeping reptiles as a hobby and knowing the optimum temperature range for a species is important In snakes it has been found that most species prefer to maintain body heat at about 30 degrees C 86 degrees F and their peak activity occurs within the temperature range of 10 40 degrees C 50 104 degrees F If a reptile has not eaten for a while is about to shed it s skin or is unwell it may not have the energy to move from a cold spot in the environment to a warmer one and so it can become trapped in an unfavourable location When there is a prolonged period of cold reptiles become dormant which is not the same as true hibernation in mammals but basically all activity slows down and stops Reptiles will usually seek damp shelter often underground to hibernate and frequently they congregate together Some species of snake which are adapted to living in cold climates have been reported to survive being frozen This ability is not full understood but it is achieved by two possible mechanisms Freezing tolerance the body is able to survive freezing and ice formation in tissue cells followed by thawing Supercooling the body contains natural substances like glycerol which act like antifreeze and prevent ice formation in tissue cells Nevertheless for many species of reptile freezing will kill them Heating a Vivarium Needless to say tanks or cages used to keep reptiles must be drought

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/reptiles/reptiletemperatures.htm (2016-02-08)
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    0 4 25mg kg IM IV SC Good analgesia Carprophen 1 4mg kg IM IV SC PO Analgesia lasts 24 hours Flunixin meglumine 0 1 0 5mg kg IM Analgesia lasts 12 24 hours Maximum use 3 days Gallamine 0 4 1 0mg kg crocodilians IM No analgesia Ketamine 10 100mg kg IM Sedative anaesthetic No analgesia Ketoprofen 2mg kg IM SC Analgesia lasts 24 hours Meloxicam 0 1 0

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/reptiles/reptileanalgesia.htm (2016-02-08)
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    young in the uterus Causes There are several causes of dystocia in reptiles that have been suggested including the following Malnutrition Calcium deficiency causes oviduct atony and is most likely to occur in reptiles that do not eat whole vertebrate animals Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism can result in calcium deposition in oviduct with consequential impaired function Obesity Environmental conditions Low environmental temperature many reptiles will not lay their eggs unless the ground temperature is adequate No private area for the reptile to nest in Incorrect lighting periods for the species Recent change in the environment Inadequate exercise Inadequate depth of substrate in which to dig a hole to lay eggs Presence of aggressive or competitive individuals if kept in a group Oviduct infections Usually secondary to dystocia but have been reported as a cause Monocercomonas spp in a boa caused foetal death and dystocia Bacterial septicaemia may cause retention of eggs Egg abnormalities several types of abnormality have been associated with dystocia Large eggs a common cause Mishapen eggs a common cause Joined eggs Excessive shell wall thickness Calcified defects in the shell wall Infertile eggs usually resorbed or passed out but they can cause dystocia Damage to eggs in utero

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/reptilesdystocia.htm (2016-02-08)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-26