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    cause disease ie are not pathogenic This is achieved by treating the infectious agent with heat or chemicals by administering a naturally occurring non pathogenic strain or by growing a non pathogenic called a modified or attenuated strain of the organism in a laboratory Live vaccines replicate in the vaccinated animal s body and they retain the surface antigens of the infectious agent and so stimulate the production of specific antibodies by the animal These antibodies can be produced locally near the site of administration or at remote sites in the body systemic or both Vaccines that induce local immunity on mucosal surfaces such as the lining of the respiratory tract work very quickly in providing protection against infection As a general rule live vaccines provide a higher level of protection which lasts longer than that provided by killed vaccines However the protection is less than usually follows natural infection Passive protection in the animal such as from maternal antibodies in milk can inhibit the replication of the non pathogenic living organism in the vaccinated animal and so reduces the immune response If this is the case repeat vaccination will be need to boost the protection One disadvantage of using live vaccines is the potential for a non pathogenic strain to genetically mutate during it s replication in the vaccinated animal and for it to re acquire pathogenicity Killed vaccines Killed or inactivated vaccines contain antigenic material and the antigens present in the vaccine stimulate the production of antibodies by the body but there is no replication of organisms within the vaccinated animal s body Some of these vaccines contain subunits of the infectious agent which have been manufactured using genetic engineering techniques Inactivated vaccines produce a lower immune response and require booster vaccinations at least 2 to confer enough protection Some of these vaccines contain an adjuvant such as alum aluminium hydroxide aluminium phosphate carbomer or a mineral oil to increase the immune response in the vaccinated animal Unfortunately some adjuvants are irritating to the animal cause local discomfort and sometimes a local reaction results It is thought that the adjuvant used in some Feline Leukaemia Virus vaccines may be responsible for the development of sarcomas at the injection site in cats Inactivated vaccines usually require annual boosters to maintain adequate protection in the animal One advantage of inactivated vaccines is that they are safer to use in pregnant animals than live vaccines Other Other types of vaccine that are used in veterinary medicine include Toxoid this is a toxin derived from a micro organism which has had it s pathogenic effects removed by treating with heat or chemicals It retains it s ability to stimulate antibody production but often such vaccines e g antitetanus toxoid requires the use of an adjuvant Autogenous vaccine this is when a vaccine is prepared from materials taken from the animal itself Emergency vaccine are prepared from organisms isolated from individual animals usually on a farm when a commercial vaccine is not available

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/petfacts/healthtips/Vaccinations.htm (2016-02-08)
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    surprisingly large the common roundworm of dogs Toxocara canis can grow to 18cm in length Cause There are three main types of helminth of clinical importance Roundworms nematodes Tapeworms cestodes Flukes trematodes Worms have a life cycle which involves stages outside the main host Sometimes the life cycle requires that a parasite stage passes through another intermediate host Sometimes the infective stage of a worm can accidentally infect an unusual host such as happens Breed Occurrence Most species of animal can be infected with worms including mammals dogs cats rabbits horses sheep cattle etc fish birds and reptiles The distribution of parasites in our domestic animals varies worldwide depending upon many factors including climate However the common worms are Dogs Roundworms Toxocara canis Toxascaris leonina Tapeworm Dipylidium caninum Whipworm Trichuris spp Cats Roundworms Toxocara cati Snakes Roundworms Lungworms Tapeworms Flukes Signs Animals with parasites may show no signs at all However if a host has a large number of worms it may find it difficult to maintain body condition and it will lose body weight In some cases sufficient injury can be caused to the host to produce signs of disease eg vomiting diarrhoea Occasionally heavy worm burdens can cause death Life cycle Worms sometimes have complex life cycles which involve a period of existence and development outside the primary host In some cases a stage of development may require passage through an intermediate host Understanding the life cycle of a specific parasitic worm is important so that strategies for treatment and prevention can be designed and implemented Diagnosis Diagnosis is usually made by identifying typical eggs in faecal samples passed by an animal Sometimes as in Toxocara canis or Trichinella spp dormant larval stages may be recognised in muscle biopsy samples In some cases eg the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/worms.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Primates, Monkeys and Similar Species as Pets
    look at this photograph of a small appealing animal a squirrel monkey you would be forgiven for thinking that they would make good pets BUT appearances can be deceptive What you can t see on the photograph sequence is a finger just out of shot In general primates monkeys and other similar species are not good animals to choose as pets There are several reasons why Provet does not recommend them to be kept in the average household They are wild animals that should be left in the wild They do not fit in well with human households eg they are not easy to housetrain Their behaviour is unpredictable They can be aggressive and even dangerous Primates share infectious diseases called zoonoses with humans so two way transmission is possible Primates carry some very serious diseases which can affect humans Primates monkeys and similar species should only be kept in specialist facilities by people who are trained qualified and licensed to look after them Primates are our nearest evolutionary relatives on Earth and so it is not surprising that humans are highly susceptible to infectious diseases that they may carry and they are also susceptible to many infectious diseases that

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Primates/primates2.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • CABI Abstracts On Line
    a subscription service available with Small Animal and Equine sections The price for each section is 50 vat The service is available for evaluation but will only display the first 5 results for each search Online subscription to CAB ABSTRACTS

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/CABI/CABIInfo.asp (2016-02-08)
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  • ASPChatWorX Login
    a login ID Name MUST be between 4 and 10 characters To access help at any time type help or Black Dark Blue Red Blue Green Gray Silver Pink Aqua

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Chat/Login.asp (2016-02-08)
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  • Ratafia Prints
    Click on an image to see more information

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Cat2000/images/Ratafia/Thumbs/ListThumbs.asp (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET PETFACTS  - Evolution of the Dog
    Greek hound because the Ancient Greeks used to hunt hare with these dogs and also had other hounds for boar and deer hunting The early greyhounds were large with upright ears like Pharoah Hounds and Ibezan Hounds and they were transported with Phoenician traders It is known that the Phoenecians traded for tin in Cornwall as early as the 4 th Century and it is likely that they brought dogs with them Greyhounds have always been used for coursing and in 1776 a code was written for the sport Whippets are relatively recent variety Other breeds depicted in early Egyptian images are Saluki type hounds on the walls of the tomb of Rekhma Ra 1400BC the Afghan and the Basenji These recordings suggest that dog breeding was probably occurring nearly 4000 years ago in 2000 BC By the time of Christ 2000 years ago Gratius Faliscus a Roman poet listed 22 breeds of hunting dog of which only one originated in Italy the rest were imported from other countries Unfortunately no images survive to illustrate these different breeds Toy lap dogs were also popular as companions in Pre Christian times and dwarf legged dogs not dissimilar to the Basset Hound were recorded in Ancient Egypt and China where they were used for falconry Pre 600 BC the Ancient Greeks and Romans hunted boar with a larger heavier dog called a Molossus and this dog was very similar in stature to a Mastiff Assyrian Mastiffs were used to hunt lion and for use in war by Assur banipal in 625 BC Two types of Molossus were evident by the time of Aristotle one used for hunting the other for herding and guarding livestock In Rome Mastiff type dogs were used in gladiatorial fights with wild animals and in Britain and other countries descendants of these types of dogs were later used for Bull Bear Lion and even Horse baiting as well as dog fights e g bulldogs bull terriers The Alpine Mastiff a long haired variety was the predecessor to the St Bernard In Russia the Borzoi and Russian Wolfhound were used for hunting and coursing which is well documented in texts dating from the mid 17 th Century The early ancestors of these breeds were from the Mediterranean regions In Britain greyhound like dogs such as the Wolfhound and Deerhound were certainly some of the earliest breeds A gift of Wolfhounds was sent to Rome for Consul Quintus Aurelius Symacchus in 391 BC for a circus Arab nomads the Bedouins are known to have bred Salukis and allowed this breed to share their tents This was unusual because dogs generally were regarded as being unclean animals Until medieval times the most common method of hunting was to use a single dog hound to track game by scent and then the pack was let go The leashed dogs were called a lyam Scent hounds are not particularly fast and rely on endurance to wear out their quarry In Europe one of

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/dogs/evolution%20of%20the%20dog.htm (2016-02-08)
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    A pet store large chain not a bad idea if the Pet Store is well run clean practices good hygiene and they can give assurances about the origin of the animal See Guidelines below An animal rescue welfare society Seems like a good idea because you can save a poor unwanted soul which might be put down if it isn t claimed Seems like a good idea because you can give a poor unwanted animal a nice home and the tender loving care that it hasn t had before BE CAREFUL Although millions of dogs are re housed from such facilities every year and millions of owners are happy with their new companions the rescue societies can not often guarantee the origins of the animals nor their health status nor their behavioural traits You can inherit a BIG problem by adopting a stray animal See the Guidelines below A stray you found on the street NO NEVER adopt a stray that you find on the street You should report a stray dog to the local Police Dog Warden or Animal Rescue Welfare Association Dogs are legal entities and a stray may have a conscientious owner who is desperate to get their pet back If it is a genuine stray you may be able to adopt it after efforts to find the owner have failed BUT see the Guidelines below Guidelines Here are some Guidelines to follow before you buy a puppy or an adult dog As a general rule you should buy a puppy unless you are prepared to try to change existing behavioural traits that adult dogs usually have If you follow these Guidelines you should reduce the chances of disappointment with your new companion a Consider your situation first Do not buy a new dog unless you are sure that the one you get will suit your life style that you can afford to look after it properly and that you have the time to commit to it See What type of dog should I get NEVER buy on impulse for example when you see a miserable puppy in a shop window don t rush in and buy it Can you afford to look after a dog properly Have you got the time to look after a dog properly b The premises It is important to be satisfied about the health standards of the establishment that you are buying the dog from The most important single Guideline is this Whenever possible buy from a source that has been recommended to you by an independent person a friend neighbour or member of the family Someone whose judgment you can trust Satisfy yourself that the premises are clean and tidy Are the animal s kennels cages or pens clean Ask to inspect behind the scenes Are the animals themselves clean Is there fresh clean water available Are animals from different sources kept separately advisable or are they mixed together not desirable as this increases the likelihood of exposure to disease

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/dogs/Wherebuy.htm (2016-02-08)
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