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    appropriate for your pet Dogs and some cats find chocolate very tasty but too much can be fatal so Keep chocolate out of the reach of dogs and cats Just like us dogs and some cats find chocolate highly palatable but it is important to avoid giving too much There are some minor problems that can result from too much chocolate Chocolate is high in calories so it can contribute to the development of obesity Dogs fed chocolate regularly are predisposed to develop tooth decay caries because of the high sugar content Too much chocolate can reduce the animals appetite for it s normal ration Chocolate contains the chemical theobromine which is toxic and potentially lethal to dogs and cats One reason for this is that dogs are unable to clear theobromine from their bodies as quickly as humans can The signs of chocolate poisoning due to the theobromine toxicity include Increased urine production diuresis Diarrhoea Vomiting Lethargy Depression Muscle tremors Death The official LD 50 a measure of the toxicity of a product of theobromine in dogs is 240 500 mg kg body weight of the animal But there is a report of a dog dying after eating only

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/chocolate.htm (2016-02-08)
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    dogs and meiowing in cats There are many causes of fits Within the skull intracranial Structural lesions eg encephalitis traumatic injury tumours No structural lesion primary or idiopathic epilepsy Diseases localised outside the skull extracranial or reactive seizures ie the animal has a normal brain which is reacting to disease in other parts of the body There are many potential causes including Liver disease liver failure or portocaval shunts due to high blood ammonia concentrations End stage kidney failure due to toxins in the bloodstream Poisoning various toxins Low blood sugar concentrations hypoglycaemia eg following insulin overdosage or insulin secretion by a pancreatic tumour Low blood calcium concentrations such as occurs in eclampsia lactation tetany or milk fever in lactating bitches Isolated fits usually only last 1 3 minutes and although patients are somewhat dazed and show abnormal behaviour for a few hours after the fit there are usually no long term adverse effects However sometimes a series of seizures occurs together a state called called status epilepticus which is potentially life threatening Veterinary attention should be sought as soon as possible particularly for animals in status epilepticus If you see the seizures it is important to note down everything

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/fits.htm (2016-02-08)
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    coming from although there are other locations which need to be eliminated as the source of the pong Ear infections can be quite strong and can permeate through the coat A discharging abscess or a skin ulcer located anywhere on the body In dogs discharged anal sacs scent glands give off a very strong odour which can permeate throughout the body coat A dirty soiled coat Once you are satisfied that the smell is definitely coming from the mouth what could it be Well there are many possible causes By far the most common cause of halitosis is dental disease a build up of tartar calculus and bacteria sometimes with decaying food particles particularly in a food trap between teeth gingivitis gum disease and periodontal disease These have been covered in a previous Provet Petfacts Sheet CLICK HERE to go to it Dental disease is particularly common in older animals The smell of freshly eaten pet food can linger on the breath for quite some time A foreign body in the mouth dogs and cats often get bits of bone or other objects stuck on or between their teeth or sometimes bones especially ribs get stuck across the roof of

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/halitosispf.htm (2016-02-08)
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    resulting in an improved quality of life reduced susceptibility to illness and increased life span Exercise is important as it allows our pets to express their normal instinctive behavioural traits including inquisitive exploration the use of scent sight and hearing tracking stalking play fighting play defensive behaviour hiding attacking chasing greeting members of the same species dealing with strange objects and dealing with animals from different species Exercise also encourages the development of a normal daily toilet routine Cats and dogs deprived of regular exercise and confined to the home may develop anti social behaviour patterns including destructive behaviour aggressive territorial guarding house soiling and vocalisation when left alone without human companionship A degree of exercise but not excessive exercise is needed for normal muscular and skeletal development in young growing animals Animals deprived of exercise will develop poor muscle conformation due to muscle atrophy and a sedentary life style which will predispose them to develop obesity and other disorders The most common adverse effect of insufficient exercise is obesity and all pets can develop this if they are fed too many calories Millions of pet dogs cats rabbits guinea pigs hamsters rats ponies and birds which are loved by their owners are obese simply because owners do not control calorie intake and provide insufficient exercise or because they have encouraged or enforced the development of a sedentary lifestyle Obesity which will be the subject of another Provet Petfacts article has all sorts of negative effects on the body and it can make various diseases worse eg heart disease orthopaedic disease skin disease Obesity also plays an important role in the cause of some common diseases including diabetes mellitus How much exercise should be given Given the opportunity most animals will regulate their own exercise but it is important to

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/exercise.htm (2016-02-08)
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    Feline Leukaemia Virus Cat Flu Myxomatosis rabbits RABIES There are very few risks associated with vaccination and the number of reported cases is extremely low However the recent observation that a type of tumour called sarcoma can occur at the injection site following some vaccinations eg Feline Leukaemia Virus Vaccine has increased awareness that there are potential risks and it has resulted in all manufacturers re evaluating their vaccination formulations and recommendations The precise cause of sarcoma is currently being investigated but it is thought to be a local reaction to a chemical called an adjuvant which is added to the vaccine to increase the protection stimulated in the patient Here is a list of potential risks associated with vaccines Allergic reactions to vaccines are uncommon but they do occur occasionally particularly after repeated doses of antiserum eg to tetanus Signs occur almost immediately after the vaccine is given and can include Skin rash weals called urticaria Breathing difficulty Vomiting Diarrhoea Increased salivation Collapse Live vaccines can be transmitted to other animals in which they may cause mild clinical signs Some live vaccines can produce a latent infectious state in the vaccinated animal making it a potential risk if it comes into contact with weak debilitated or otherwise susceptible animals Some live vaccines can cross the placenta and cause fetal abnormalities or abortion so they should not be given to pregnant animals Some vaccines cause a local temporary swelling at the injection site In some individuals the hair colour may change at the site of a vaccination this is seen quite often in cats in which the hair at the vaccination site turns white Some animals show mild clinical signs after they have been given a live vaccination eg some dogs cough after being given Kennel Cough vaccine by the

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/vaccinerisks.htm (2016-02-08)
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    as being normal Changes in body weight associated with known major changes in life style such as increased exercise or reduced intake of food may also not be significant However weight loss in excess of 10 is likely to be significant and chronic gradual weight loss over a long period OR very rapid weight loss can be extremely important Signs Weight loss can be going on for a considerable time before an owner is aware that there is a problem This is particularly true in two situations When the animal has long hair coat which masks visualisation of the body outline When the weight loss is very slow and protracted over a long period of time such as is seen in chronic renal failure and other chronic diseases During weight loss body fat reserves are usually lost first followed by lean body muscle mass protein In some disorders loss of body water is also a significant cause of body weight loss leading to dehydration Visibly weight loss can be recognised by sunken eyes ribs are obvious and protrude from the body the dorsal spinous processes on top of the back bone are obvious and protrude the animal seems unusually light

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/weightloss.htm (2016-02-08)
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    your pet Description If you go to the doctors for a medical examination you will almost certainly have your blood pressure measured usually using a cuff which is placed around your arm and a stethoscope This is because high blood pressure is a relatively common finding which is present in a variety of diseases If you have high blood pressure called hypertension you may be put on to drugs which reduce it and you will almost certainly be given a strict diet to follow If you are overweight you will be told to reduce your body weight by reducing calorie intake you will be advised to reduce salt intake and also reduce fat intake Cats and dogs rarely develop primary essential hypertension but they do develop high blood pressure in association with other diseases such as renal failure Until recently veterinarians were not able to measure blood pressure accurately because the equipment available for human use was unsuitable for use in animals but now special equipment is available and the techniques have been authenticated so don t be surprised if the measurement of blood pressure becomes part of the routine examination of your pet especially as it gets older and

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/bloodpressure.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Gene Therapy and Arthritis
    replacement which is only performed occasionally in animals CLICK HERE for further information Pioneering work is currently being undertaken by the molecular medicine and therapeutic group at Glasgow University Veterinary School They are investigating the treatment of arthritis using gene therapy Essentially the process involves introducing genes into cells in the joint that stop the inflammatory process and or stimulate healing and repair of the damaged cartilage Several techniques have

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/arthritisgenespf.htm (2016-02-08)
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