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    dog often causes an immediate response in owners not dissimilar to the effect spiders have on arachnophobic people Flea bites are painful and itchy and people can develop an allergy to them and sometimes more serious disease Fleas are often found on cats and dogs which do not scratch or show any signs of skin disease In other individuals fleas cause intense itchiness and can lead to hair loss and severe self trauma through biting scratching and rubbing Many cats and dogs develop an allergic response to flea saliva so each time they are bitten the skin reaction can become more severe It is very important to control fleas for these animals to relieve them of the discomfort Even more sinister are the diseases that can be transmitted to pet dogs cats and humans from fleas These include some types of tapeworm infection eg Dipylidium and also infectious bacteria such as Haemobartonella and Bartonella Cats and dogs may carry these infections without showing any external signs of disease but some of them can be transmitted to humans especially children and people with immune problems For example Bartonella causes cat scratch disease in people So routine flea control treatment is necessary

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/fleacontrol.htm (2016-02-08)
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    in many tissues which effectively reduces the amount of functional tissue with the organ These changes are usually slowly progressive and irreversible At the same time as ageing changes are occurring there is an increasing chance that an age related disease will develop Some of the common diseases seen in old cats and dogs are listed in the following table Dogs Cats Heart valve disease endocardiosis Obesity Obesity Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus Kidney failure Kidney failure Dental disease Cushings Disease hyperadrenocorticism Cancer Dental disease Cancer Liver disease Osteoarthritis One of the problems for veterinarians is that some of these diseases can be subclinical that is present in the animal but not causing any signs So it is not uncommon for an old animal to have disease in more than one organ at the same time which can make treatment more complex Also disease in a major organ eg heart liver kidney can cause secondary problems in other organs For example kidney failure is often associated with an increase in blood pressure which in turn can cause damage to the eyes resulting in blindness Giving drugs or a general anesthetic to an old animal may cause problems if subclinical

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/oldanimals.htm (2016-02-08)
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    frightening to animals and result in abnormal behavioour from fear induced reactions such as hiding destroying furniture urinating in the house continuous barking or running away to more serious problems such as stress related abortion in pregnant animals Fireworks should not be let off near animals and outdoor animals such as cats should be kept in when firework displays are occurring in the neighbourhood If pets are particularly nervous there are several options Keep them in a dark quiet room preferably a room in the house at the furthest point from the fireworks If necessary have them looked after by a friend or relative in different neighbourhood Put them into a rural kennels for the period In some cases your vet may advise tranquillizers if your pet is especially frightened Bangers should not be let off anywhere near animals and children should be advised not to frighten them especially deliberately Horses can cause a lot of damage to themselves if they are spooked as they may charge into or try to get over obstacles such as barbed wire fences with little or no sense of the damage they are doing to themselves Bonfires and home firework displays present a greater

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/fireworks.htm (2016-02-08)
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    detect glucose in the urine as well as in blood are used as a monitor for how much insulin to give Unfortunately the type of diabetes that dogs and cats usually get does not respond to oral treatments that are used in some humans So the treatment of animals deficient in insulin involves injecting insulin every day In dogs this can often be done just once a day but in cats two injections are usually necessary When owners are first faced with the prospect of sticking a needle into their companion every day they are a bit anxious but it is a simple procedure which both owners and patient soon accept Disposable sterile syringes and needles are important and the dose rate of insulin needs to be kept constant once the animal is stable The injection is administered into the tissue just under the skin so only a short needle is needed The insulin is drawn into the syringe from a vial and it is important to hold the syringe up tap it and expel any air bubbles that might be present The precise dose that has been prescribed should be drawn up The most frequent site to give the injection is in the scruff of the neck A skin fold is picked up with one hand usually the left and the needle is stabbed through it quickly at 45 o to the skin using the other hand aiming down towards the neck The plunger on the syringe is pulled back slightly to check that the end of the needle is not in a blood vessel the syringe fills with blood if it is and providing no blood appears the plunger is pushed down to expel the insulin from the syringe A different site is used each day With a

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/givinginsulin.htm (2016-02-08)
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    to time Bleeding from the nose can be quite a frightening experience because the blood is often bright red being well oxygenated and of course the animal may sneeze forcefully spraying blood everywhere There are many causes of nose bleeds including the following alphabetical list Allergy Blood clotting defects thrombocytopenia Foreign materials up the nose eg grass awns High blood pressure hypertension Infections rhinitis aspergillosis Parasites not in the UK

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/epistaxis.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Gene Therapy and Arthritis
    of osteoarthritis the inflammatory and degenerative process is mediated through the release of prostaglandin E2 and a series of metalloproteinases MMPs which can destroy the cartilage matrix The cytokine interleukin 1 IL 1 and Tumour Necrosis Factor a TNF both stimulate the production of prostaglandin and MMP s within the joint Transforming growth factor b TGF b is an anabolic cytokine that stimulates cartilage repair Fortunately there are natural inhibitors to IL 1 called interleukin1 receptor antagonist protein or IL1RAP TNF called TNF soluble factor and to the MMP s called tissue inhibitors of MMP s or TIMPS Pioneering work is currently being undertaken by the molecular medicine and therapeutic group at Glasgow University Veterinary School They are investigating the treatment of arthritis using gene therapy Essentially the process involves introducing the following genes into cells in the joint Anticytokine genes into synovial cells and cartilage cells these stimulate the cells to produce IL1RAP and TNF soluble factor and so inhibit the effects of IL 1 TNF Genes to inhibit MMPs these stimulate the production of TIMPS in the joint Anabolic genes to stimulate the production of TGF b Several techniques have been developed to do this in humans but

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/arthritisgenes.htm (2016-02-08)
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    Vitamin D rodenticides these contain cholecalciferol which causes high blood calcium side effects can last for several weeks and can lead to renal failure OR Vitamin K antagonists these may contain warfarin coumarin coumafen coumatetralyl brodifacoum or bromadiolone diphacinone diphenadione chlorphacinone pindone or others These products block the effect of vitamin K in normal blood clotting so animals that ingest these poisons bleed to death internally Some rodenticides contain both forms of poison mixed together Signs of poisoning with rodenticides are non specific and may include Inappetance Bleeding from various sites eg nose in urine If bleeding occurs into the chest the animal will cough or have difficulty breathing Dullness depression Collapse Diarrhoea may include blood fresh red to black Vomiting may include blood which is usually coffee brown in colour Increased thirst Increased urination increase in frequency and volume produced Very pale mucous membranes Fast heart rate Weakness Fits muscle twitches seizures Sudden death in some cases Poisoning occurs in two ways Direct if the animal eats or drinks the poison or if it eats or drinks bait laced with the poison Indirect if the animal eats a rodent that has eaten the poison This is a common route

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/rodenticides.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • Provet Homepage
    Specific Healthcare Topics Each breed has its own page on Provet Choose the breed you would like to research from the drop box on the right Select your breed from the list below Abyssinian American Short Hair Balinese Birman British Short Hair Burmese Devon Rex Domestic Long Hair Domestic Short Hair Egyptian Mau Havan Brown Himalayan Korat Maine Coon Manx Norwegian Forest Oriental Persian Ragdoll Scottsh Fold Siamese Siamese FP

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/cats/catsbreed.asp (2016-02-08)
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