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    signs in humans include Abdominal pain Fever Flu like syndrome caused by the Sin Nombre strain Haemorrhages the fatal form Headache Kidney failure Pulmonary oedema Shock Caused by the Hantaan Soeul and Puumala strains In one study conducted in the UK 1 cats 9 6 of cats have were found to have been exposed to Hantaviruses and in cats with chronic disease 23 of cats had serological evidence of exposure In Austria a similar study 2 showed that over 5 of cats had been exposed Cats do not show any clinical signs and there is no direct evidence of transmission of Hantavirus from cats to humans but in an epidemiological study into the human disease in Asia 3 cat ownership was implicated as a possible factor in the occurrence of human disease Provet Comment The potential role of cat Hantavirus infections in the development of human disease is clearly there but awareness about such a possibility is low Most flu like diseases are not accurately diagnosed by the medical profession In addition the veterinary profession are unlikely to screen for Hantaviruses as they do not cause clinical problems in their group of patients Nevertheless there is a need for veterinarians

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/hantavirus.htm (2016-02-08)
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    of the potential health risk to humans Simian Herpes Virus B reached the headlines recently when a boy living in the United States of America died after a monkey infected with the virus spat at him As a result health authorities are reported to have upgraded the disease to the same status as two of the most serious diseases in the world Ebola and Lassa The problem for people is that monkeys can carry this virus without showing any signs of illness and it is believed to be very common amongst captive monkeys with between 80 90 of Macaques reported to be carrying the infection The disease can be transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch or spit but fortunately infection is rare in humans with only 40 cases having been reported in the 60 years between 1933 and 1994 and there have been no cases at all reported in the UK during the past 25 years However we can not be complacent because there is no treatment for the infection and nearly 80 of humans who do contract the disease die as a result Eleven monkeys were found to be positive for the virus at Woburn following routine

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/simianb.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Bucking Horses and Ponies
    is nothing to be too concerned about but it is important that training to take a saddle and later a rider is done under the supervision of an experienced trainer Lively horses and ponies need a strong handler who can discipline them and train them to react normally and to behave for the rider Bucking becomes a serious problem in older horses which refuse to accept a saddle or rider and there are several reasons why this may occur Poor training to accept a saddle and other tack eg headgear Poor training to accept a rider Behavioural problems despite training the horse simply continues to refuse to accept human attempts to ride it The horse is experiencing discomfort through poorly fitting tack eg saddle bit headgear The horse has a medical problem making pressure on the back painful this could be due to back problems or problems in the limbs Human safety is the main concern and owners and children should not be exposed to the dangers posed by a bucking horse or pony Provet recommends that the following steps should be taken to determine the underlying cause manage the cases Have the horse pony examined by a veterinarian to

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/bucking.htm (2016-02-08)
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    and owners should ensure that their animals are properly vaccinated Some horses are more susceptible to equine herpesvirus infection than others especially Horses under 2 years of age Pregnant mares Competitive horses Horses under stress There are 2 main subtypes of herpesvirus that affect horses and ponies equine herpesvirus 1 EHV 1 and equine herpesvirus 4 EHV 4 These viruses can cause different diseases including Respiratory disease EHV 1 and EHV 4 called equine viral rhinopneumonitis or Rhino signs are Cough Discharge down the nose clear or purulent called the snots Discharge from the eyes High body temperature fever up to 106 o F The respiratory disease tends to be milder with EHV 4 than with EHV 1 Abortion EHV 1 occurs 14 120 days after exposure to the virus usually in the last trimester The mare may show no signs of illness Early death of foals EHV 1 Neurological disease weakness EHV Vaccines that are available against equine herpesvirus contain inactivated virus one or both types and they are given by intramuscular injection Initially two doses are given 3 6 weeks apart and booster vaccinations are recommended every 6 12 months Special vaccination recommendations may apply for pregnant mares

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/horsesponies/equineherpesvirus.htm (2016-02-08)
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    strains are contained in the vaccines listed below Vaccine Name Manufacturer Virus Strains in the Vaccine Duvaxyn IE Plus Fort Dodge Inactivates antigens of equine influenza virus A strains equi1 Prague 56 equi2 Miami 63 equi2 Suffolk 89 Equip F Schering Plough Inactivated antigens of equine influenza virus A strains equi1 Newmarket 77 equi2 Brentwood 79 equi2 Borlange 91 Prevac PRO Intervet Inactivated antigens of equine influenza virus A strains equi1 Prague 56 equi2 Newmarket 1 93 American type strain equi2 Newmarket 2 93 European type strain Source Compendium of Data Sheets for Veterinary Products 2000 2001 Published by NOAH All the viruses in these vaccines are inactivated which means they should not cause serious signs of flu as a side effect These vaccines are also available combined with tetanus vaccine giving protection against the two diseases in one vaccination Equine Flu vaccines should be given as follows Only to healthy horses and ponies To horses and ponies over a certain age 4 5 months specified by the manufacturers in their data sheets By intramuscular injection The initial course consists of 2 vaccinations 4 6 weeks apart Repeat vaccines are given 5 7 months and again 12 18 months after the initial course Thereafter a booster vaccine is advised every 12 months although horses exposed to the virus may be vaccinated at 6 monthly intervals Pregnant mares can be vaccinated and it is usually recommended that they be vaccinated 4 8 weeks before the foal is due to be born Side effects and reactions to the vaccine do occur from time to time including Local swelling at the injection site Abscess formation at the injection site Allergic reactions rare these require emergency treatment by your veterinarian Unfortunately other viruses can also cause equine influenza and of course these vaccines do

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/horsesponies/equineinfluenza.htm (2016-02-08)
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    has a worldwide distribution Signs of infection vary but may include No signs at all in other words some infected horses have sub clinical disease This can be a particular problem in stud stallions because the virus can be transmitted in their semen Abortion Generalised depression High body temperature fever Fluid collection oedema causing swelling in limbs or along the ventral surface of the body due to poor circulation This virus is transmitted in two main ways Aerosol spread In infected semen There is a blood test that can be used to detect horses with serological evidence of infection antibodies against the virus in the UK this is available from the Animal Health Trust in Newmarket It is such an important disease that in the UK the following regulations apply Horses being imported from a country with known or suspected Equine Viral Arteritis must be isolated for 21 days and blood tests performed on arrival and after 14 days in isolation Veterinarians must notify suspect cases under the Equine Viral Arteritis Order 1995 and Equine Viral Arteritis Order Northern Ireland 1996 and infected stallions are subject to specific movement restrictions Horses should be tested for equine viral arteritis before mating

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/viralarteritis.htm (2016-02-08)
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    for example or it can be generalised Early signs include over reaction to sounds noises movement and other stimuli hyperaesthesia This is followed by stiffness tetanic rigid paralysis and eventually tonic convulsions The muscle rigidity that the neurotoxin causes results in a stiff gait and often the tail is carried outstretched pointing backwards or curled up dorsally The animal finds it difficult to stand or lie down Ears are held pricked up the third eyelid protrudes the lips are drawn back and other facial muscles may go into spasm The animal may have difficulty opening it s mouth because of involvement of the masticatory muscles lock jaw and this causes difficulty eating dysphagia There is increased salivation increased heart rate and respiratory rate and sometimes laryngeal spasm Megaoesophagus is a common complication Eventually the animal dies from respiratory arrest Complications Diagnosis Diagnosis is made from the presenting history of a wound and the progressive clinical signs Occasionally no wound can be found in which case it often will have been a small deep puncture wound that has healed over on the surface of the skin Leucocytosis and neutrophilia may be present and increased muscle enzyme concentrations may be present in the blood creatine kinase CK and aspartate aminotransferase AST Serum antibody titres to tetanus toxin can be measured to confirm exposure but isolation of the organism C tetani from wounds is difficult to achieve and though direct smears with Gram stain may show evidence of round endospores these are similar to spores produced by other bacteria Treatment Severely affected animals require long intensive treatment which may not be rewarding as many will die despite the care and attention Initial treatment involves the administration of tetanus antitoxin intravenously to neutralize circulating toxin as soon as possible There is a risk of

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/tetanus.htm (2016-02-08)
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    your pet Horse bots are the larvae of various Gasterophilus flies which worry horses and can cause serious stomach disease The eggs of these flies are laid on the legs or near the mouth of the horse and larvae hatch from the eggs when they are warmed by the horse licking them Eventually these larvae migrate into the stomach of the horse where they cling to the lining causing damage

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/horsebots.htm (2016-02-08)
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