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    in horses Pain in the abdomen can be recognised by various signs General dullness Restlessness the animal is unable to lie still for very long Tucked up appearance this is when the animal holds it s head down and its hindlegs push forward arching the spine The objective of this posture would appear to be to take pressure off the abdominal contents If pain is acute animals may collapse With some causes of colic the animal may thrash around on the floor looking similar to seizures Dogs with abdominal pain may adopt a praying position head down with forepaws facing forwards hind end in the air Animals with colic may seek out cold surfaces to lie on If an attempt is made to feel the abdomen called palpation the muscular wall may feel very hard called guarding Animals with colic often turn and stare at their abdomen Horses with colic may make kicking actions with their hindlegs towards their abdomen Most animals with colic will refuse food but they may drink more water than usual A horse with severe colic from The Illustrated Horse Doctor by Edward Mayhew MRCVS 1873 There are many different causes of colic including Diseases of

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/colic.htm (2016-02-08)
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    ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your pet In the absence of an accurate weight this formula gives an approximate guide to the body weight of a horse Body Weight Kgs Length cm 0 97 x Girth cm 1 78 Divided by 3011 Where Length is the distance in cms from the point of the

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diagnostics/horseweight.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Feeding Athletic Animals
    is usually 2 5 of body weight eg a 1500lb horse will eat 37lb food Dogs Energy requirements increase from 2 5 times the resting energy need Basically very high fat content is required for endurance exercise Horses Require 1 25 2 times the resting energy requirement for exercise Highly digestible high energy grains eg maize should be fed in preference to others eg oats Fat content 10 50 fat content Up to a maximum of 12 15 fat can be included in a ration Dogs The higher levels of fat are used in rations formulated for sled dogs which are exposed to extreme cold weather conditions as well as hard work Very high fat content diets should not be fed to normal pet animals as they can cause obesity and sometimes gastrointestinal upsets Horses Fat can be given as vegetable oil mixed with grain Soluble carbohydrate content Nitrogen Free Extract NFE 30 55 NFE for most forms of exercise Less than 15 NFE for endurance exercise Carbohydrate requirement is met by roughage in the diet see below Dogs Basically as exercise moves from sprints and mild infrequent exercise to endurance the amount of carbohydrate in the ration should decrease Protein 22 34 protein DM in the ration 8 10 of the ration should consist of protein Dog As exercise progresses towards endurance the protein content should increase within the recommended range Horses Protein intake does not have to be increased significantly for optimum performance Overfeeding protein is a common problem Digestibility of the ration Foods should have a digestibility of over 80 A high intake of good quality roughage see below Dogs The food should be highly digestible and have been subjected to feeding trials in athletic animals Horses The horses digestive system is different to a dogs and

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/athletefood.htm (2016-02-08)
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    are soft tissue structures that lie between the bone and the wall of the hoof lose their structure and unnatural movement of the bone within the hoof can occur In the most severe cases the bone can even perforate through the sole of the foot There are many primary causes which lead to the local circulatory disturbances in the foot and then to laminitis include Obesity High carbohydrate rations increases likelihood of an acidic environment in the gut lumen which leads to breakdown of Gram negative bacteria and release of endotoxins into the bloodstream Any other disease that results in toxin release into the bloodstream for example Septicaemia Kidney disease Liver disease Colic due to increased bacterial growth in the gut Retained placenta in mares Trauma to the feet due to road exercise or over trimmed hooves Inactivity eg following a fracture Hyperadrenocorticism Breed Occurrence Laminitis is most common in horses fed grain eg performance horses and obese show horses or pet horses Signs Horses with laminitis are in pain as demonstrated by some of the signs of the disease including they are reluctant to move they often stand with both front legs pushed forwards with most weight placed on the hind feet they shift weight from one foot to the other they have obvious rings on the front surface of the hoof wall they have deformity of the hoof eg a dish shaped curved hoof wall the hoof wall is dry Complications If the bone drops through the floor of the foot infection can be a serious complication Diagnosis Diagnosis is based upon a veterinary physical examination and sometimes Xrays to determine the position of the bone within the hoof rotated or dropped Treatment Treatment includes Pain relief Anti inflammatory drugs Reduce grain intake under veterinary supervision mineral oils

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/laminitis.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Swelling of the legs in Horses & Ponies
    under the skin Tendons A joint The underlying bone If the swelling is associated with infection there may be an obvious cut or puncture wound in the skin and for swelling of the pastern there may be a wound or foreign body such as a nail in the foot so careful cleaning and examination of the foot is needed Infection and other causes of inflammation may cause a local increase in temperature of the swelling so it is hot to the touch There are many causes of leg swelling including Trauma kicks knocks wounding by sharp objects falls tendon or ligament injuries strains sprains or ruptures Infection Circulatory problems cause fluid accumulation in tissues called oedema This may involve more than one leg Pregnancy can cause leg swelling by impairing circulation Joint diseases arthritis osteochondrosis epiphysitis dislocations Bone diseases fractures Cancer uncommon Heart failure Protein deficiency dietary deficiency or excess protein losses seen in various diseases Allergy Vaccine reactions Viral infections flu or viral arteritis Swelling at any particular site may be due to a variety of causes for example swelling around the fetlock due to inflammation called windgalls may be due to Too much work Injury Nutritional problems Two

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/eqlegswelling.htm (2016-02-08)
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    although the underlying causes may be different the clinical presentation is similar Damage in the muscle causes the release of pigment called myoglobin into the bloodstream where it is transported to the kidneys The myoglobin can damage the kidneys causing kidney failure and in some cases death The myoglobin may be passed out as coffee coloured urine Early treatment of horses with myositis is important The disease is most often seen in horses returned to exercise after a period of rest and horses either Show discomfort after a few minutes exercise type A myositis Show discomfort after several hours exercise type B myositis Other possible associations include Influenza virus Vitamin E selenium deficiency Overnutrition Stress excitement Hormonal influences Abnormal energy metabolism in the muscle High lactic acid accumulation in the muscle seen in horses working at over 20mph Electrolyte losses during endurance work especially potassium and chloride Dehydration especially during endurance work Rest followed by vigorous exercise At risk horses include Some breed lines especially heavily muscles and draft breeds eg Clydesdale Shires Belgian Percheron Appaloosa and American Quarter Horses This suggests inherited genetic factors and may be a defect in muscle energy metabolism Females are more likely to develop

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/horsesmyositis.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Treating Equine Sarcoids
    at different body sites Recurrence is a common problem following surgical removal and no single method of treatment is generally accepted as being the best In a paper published in the Veterinary Record 2001 149 665 669 the authors reported on the success of a variety of different treatment regimens for equine sarcoids The following table summarises their results Procedure Number of Horses Tumours Success Rate Comments Surgical removal with at least an 8mm margin from the visible tumour tissue using Scalpel with electrocautery OR CO 2 laser 53 Horses 148 sarcoids 18 22 horses 82 were successfully treated by surgical excision scalpel and electrocautery 20 28 horses 71 were successfully treated by CO 2 laser A wide margin of healthy skin was removed in all cases to reduce the risk of recurrence Great care was taken to avoid local contamination of the wound with cells from the tumour during excision Cryosurgery following surgical removal of most of tissue 15 Horses 19 Sarcoids 11 14 horses 79 were successfully treated Two freezing cycles were used to at least 32 o C thawing back to 20 o C Local BCG vaccination following surgical removal of most of tissue except for periocular

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/horsesponies/sarcoidtreatment.htm (2016-02-08)
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    by Provet for educational purposes only You should seek the advice of your veterinarian if your pet is ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your pet Question What is the difference between Skewbald and Piebald Answer 1 Piebald is a black and white horse 2 Skewbald is a horse with white and another colour eg

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/skewbaldpiebald.htm (2016-02-08)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-24