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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Choking
    describe obstruction of the gullet oesophagus preventing swallowing and food reaching the stomach This is typically seen in farm animals when a large object eg a potato may become stuck during swallowing but it is also common in dogs that swallow large sharp pieces of bone which get lodged in the oesophagus usually low down where the oesophagus enters the chest or where it passes near to the heart In these cases signs include Reluctance to eat Regurgitation of food after it has been swallowed If the food is soft the regurgitated food will be sausage shaped Some animals drool excessive saliva Weight loss if obstruction has been present any length of time Treatment of choke involves removal of the obstruction and this is best done in a veterinary practice where a range of implements and the option for general anesthesia and emergency surgery are available In humans an emergency technique called the Heimlich manoeuvre has been described in which a person stands behind the patient grasps around their abdomen and quickly and forcibly squeezes upwards on the patients upper abdomen this increases pressure on the diaphragm causing the object to be ejected by rapid air movement out of the lungs However although a similar technique could be attempted in large and giant breed dogs and larger animals this technique is potentially dangerous in children and small animals If it can be visualised and lies at the back of the throat a foreign object causing choking can be removed by being grasped with long forceps or something similar passed via the mouth This is best done by a skilled person such as a veterinarian or veterinary nurse but in an emergency it could be attempted by an owner NEVER put fingers inside the mouth of a conscious animal that is

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/choking.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Frostbite
    of oxygen which is usually supplied by the blood and accumulation of toxic waste products which are usually removed by the blood In addition once blood circulation is poor and body heat is not brought to the area freezing of the tissue causes ice crystals to form in cells and these cause damage which can be irreversible Once the tissue has died bacteria that survive in the absence of oxygen eg clostridia can get established causing gangrene Wind chill factor and wetting are especially important factors in the development of frostbite so these should be avoided during cold spells Frostbite can be prevented by providing animals with shelter from the weather and warm bedding in which to lie If an animal is exposed to extremely low temperatures emergency treatment should be started to warm the tissues up Immerse the animal in a bath of warm water 38 44 o C Apply warm wet cloths to the area affected Use a hair drier The damaged tissues should be protected from further injury by dressings and if necessary the use of an elizabethan collar to stop self trauma by the animal Tissues affected by frostbite Appear pale Are cold to the touch

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/frostbite.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Road Traffic Accidents
    The most obvious signs of trauma are broken limb bones or wounds with external hemorrhage but the most serious injuries often fall under the general heading of internal injuries Many of these are potentially fatal including Internal hemorrhage eg bleeding into the lung into the abdomen from a ruptured spleen or liver or into the brain or spinal column Major organ damage eg liver kidneys intestine lungs heart Ruptured urinary bladder Ruptured diaphragm the diaphragm separates the chest from the abdominal cavity and when it is ruptured abdominal contents pass forward into the chest reducing lung function Pneumothorax a condition in which air enters the chest cavity causing lung collapse Small animals such as cats and dogs are often thrown clear of a vehicle travelling at speed and the extent of their injuries may not be obvious Some internal injuries may cause signs immediately for example the animal may cough up blood that has hemorrhaged into the lungs but other forms of internal injury may not be obvious for several days for example a ruptured urinary bladder may not be recognised until it is evident that the animal has not passed urine for several days following an accident Many internal

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/roadaccidents.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Tetanus
    produced by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani This organism survives in environments lacking in oxygen and it forms resistant spores which are found in the environment especially in damp soil and in animal and human faeces The disease occurs when the organism or it s spores gain access to a wound often a deep penetrating wound As the organism grows it produces toxin which travels around the body via the bloodstream The toxin attacks the nervous system and causes a number of signs usually within 10 days of gaining access to the body including Muscle stiffness and spasms legs ears held erect facial muscles eg lips lock jaw These spasms are painful Inability to flex one or more limbs Abnormal body posture due to muscle contractions High body temperature Abnormal reflexes 3rd eyelid protrusion Sunken eyes Increased production of saliva Increased heart rate Increased respiratory rate Difficulty breathing especially if the larynx goes into spasm Over reaction to stimuli Convulsions Difficulty eating Stop passing faeces Stop passing urine Death Treatment involves the use of an antitoxin antibiotics and other medications to help the animal Fortunately dogs and cats are not particularly susceptible to tetanus and clinical cases are usually mild

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/tetanus.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Surgical Wounds
    around the wound may fill with fluid and become hot and painful Wound healing may be delayed The wound may not be strong enough to withstand biomechanical forces put on it Wound healing starts as soon as a wound has been created Within 24 hours wound edges have developed some strength to resist separation Non absorbable skin stitches can usually be removed after 7 10 days and the wound is sufficiently strong for a return to normal physical activity by about 3 weeks For some specific tissues eg tendons and ligaments a longer period eg 6 weeks may be required before a return to normal activity can be recommended For wounds to heal first time the following should be avoided Movement across the wound site Contamination of the wound with bacteria or other microorganisms Trauma to the wound site eg licking rubbing biting Normal wound healing requires the presence of adequate concentrations of several nutrients including Protein Vitamins eg Vitamin A Minerals eg zinc On the other hand excessive amounts of some nutrients eg Vitamin E can delay wound healing Owners can take several precautions to avoid problems occurring Make sure the animal is on a complete and balanced ration

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/woundspf.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Cattle Vaccines
    septicum CSo Clostridium sordellii CT Clostridium tetani DV Dictyocaulus viviparus EC Escherichia coli FMDV Foot and Mouth Disease Virus HS Histophilus somni IBRV Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus LB Leptospira borgpetersenii LH Leptospira hardjo MH Mannheimia haemolytica R Rabies SA Staphylococcus aureus SD Salmonella dublin ST Salmonella typhymurium SV Schmallenberg virus TV Trichophyton verrucosum Vaccine Components Brand names Marketing License Holder Inactivated Bacterial vaccines CB Coxevac Ceva CC Blackleg vaccine Blackleg vaccine Zoetis Intervet CC CH CN CS CT Tribovax T Intervet CC CH CN CP CSe CT Covexin 8 Zoetis CC CH CN CP CSe CSo CT Bravoxin 10 Covexin 10 Intervet Zoetis EC SA Startvac Laboratorios Hipra SA HS MH Hiprabovis somni lkt Laboratorios Hipra SA LB Spirovac Zoetis LH Leptavoid H Intervet MH Pastobov Rispoval pasteurella Merial Zoetis SD ST Bovivac S Intervet Inactive Viral and Bacterial vaccines BPi BRSV MH Bovilis bovipast RSP Intervet BC BR EC Bovigen Scour Lactovac Rotavec corona Rotavec corona Trivacton 6 Forte Healthcare Ltd Zoetis Intervet Kernfarm B V Merial Inactivated Viral vaccines BPi BRSV BVDV Rispoval 3 BRSV Pi 3 BVD Zoetis BPi BRSV BVDV IBRV Rispoval 4 Zoetis BT Bluevac BTV8 Bovilis BVT8 Btvpur Alsap 1 BTVPUR Alsap 1 8 BTVPUR Alsap 8 Zulvac 1 bovis Zulvac 1 8 bovis Zulvac 8 bovis CZ Veterinaria SA Intervet Merial Merial Merial Zoetis Zoetis Zoetis BVDV Bovidec Bovilis BVD Novartis Intervet FMDV Aftopur AlSap Aftopur DOE Aftovaxpur DOE Merial Merial Merial IBRV Bovilis IBR Ibraxion Rispoval IBR Intervet Merial Zoetis R Vanguard R Zoetis SV SBVvax Merial Live and Inactivated Viral vaccines BPi BRSV BVDV Rispoval 3 BRSV Pi3 BVD Zoetis BPi BRSV BVDV IBRV Rispoval 4 Zoetis Live Fungal vaccines TV Bovilis Ringvac Intervet Live Parasitic vaccines DV Bovilis huskvac Intervet Live Viral vaccines BRSV Rispoval RS Zoetis BVDV Bovela Boehringer Ingelheim IBRV Bovilis IBR Hiprabovis IBR Rispoval IBR Tracherine Intervet Laboratorios hipra SA Zoetis Zoetis IBRV BPi Imuresp RP Rispoval RS Pi3 Rispoval RS Pi3 Zoetis Zoetis Kernfarm B V Contraindications Cattle should not be vaccinated if they Are not well Have a high body temperature Are within 6 weeks of having been given corticosteroids or other drugs that can reduce the immune response Have been treated with antibiotics which might affect the live organisms in a vaccine Stressed Side Effects There are a number of side effects that may be seen following vaccination including the following The organisms in live vaccines can sometimes cause mild signs of the disease and they can be transferred to other animals in a herd and cause mild signs of disease in them as well Live vaccines may damage the fetus in pregnant animals so they should not be used in pregnant animals if a killed vaccine is available Some live vaccines can result in a long term latent infection which may affect blood tests and have implications on the future movement of animals Vaccines can cause a local reaction and irritation at the site of injection Hair loss and sometimes a change of

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/cattlevaccines.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Pig Vaccines
    details for these vaccine brands at the Veterinary Medicines Directorate website www vmd defra gov uk Key ADV Aujeszky s Disease Virus BB Bordetella bronchiseptica CN Clostridium novyi CP Clostridium perfringens CSFV Classical swine fever virus CT Clostridium tetani EC Escherichia coli ER Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae FMDV Foot and Mouth Disease virus HP Haemophilus parasuis LI Lawsonia intracellularis MH Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae PC 2 Porcine circovirus 2 PM Pasteurella multocida PP Porcine parvovirus PRRSV Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus S Shigella SIV Swine influenza virus Vaccine Components Brand names Marketing License Holder Inactivated Bacterial vaccines BB PM Porcilis AR T DF Rhiniseng Intervet Laboratorios Hipra SA CN CP EC Suiseng Laboratorios Hipra SA CP EC Gletvax 6 Porcilis ColiClos Pfizer Intervet CP CT Lambivac Intervet EC Neocolipor Porcilis Porcoli Merial Intervet ER Porcilis Ery Intervet HP Porcilis Glasser Intervet MH Hyoresp Ingelvac MHyo Ingelvac MycoFlex M PAC Mypravac suis Porcilis M Hyo ID Porcilis M Hyo Stellamune Mycoplasma Stellamune Once Merial Boehringer Ingelheim Boehringer Ingelheim Intervet Laboratorios Hipra SA Intervet Intervet Eli Lilly Eli Lilly S Ecoporc Shiga IDT Biologika Gmbh Inactivated Viral and Bacterial vaccines ER PP Porcilis Ery Parvo Suvaxyn Parvo E Intervet Zoetis Inactivated Viral vaccines FMDV Aftopur DOE Aftovaxpur DOE Merial Merial PC 2 Circovax Ingelvac CircoFlex Porcilis PCV Suvaxyn PCV Merial Boehringer Ingelheim Intervet Zoetis PP Parvovax Suvaxyn Parvo ST Merial Zoetis PRRSV Ingelvac PRRS KV Progressis Boehringer Ingelheim Merial SIV Gripovac 3 Respiporc Flu3 Merial IDT Biologika Gmbh CSFV Porcilis Pesti Intervet Live Bacterial vaccines LI Enterisol Ileitis Boehringer Ingelheim Live Viral vaccines ADV Suvaxyn Aujeszky 783 Zoetis PRRSV Porcilis PRRS Unistrain PRRS Intervet Laboratorios Hipra SA Contraindications Pigs should not be vaccinated if they Are not well Have a high body temperature Are within 6 weeks of having been given corticosteroids or other drugs that can reduce the immune response Have been treated with antibiotics which might affect the live organisms in a vaccine Are stressed Side Effects There are a number of side effects that may be seen following vaccination including the following The organisms in live vaccines can sometimes cause mild signs of the disease and they can be transferred to other animals in a herd and cause mild signs of disease in them as well Live vaccines may damage the fetus in pregnant animals so they should not be used in pregnant animals if a killed vaccine is available Some live vaccines can result in a long term latent infection which may affect blood tests and have implications on the future movement of animals Vaccines can cause a local reaction and irritation at the site of injection Hair loss and sometimes a change of hair or skin colour can occur at the injection site If the vaccine is administered by injection without cleaning the skin surface infection may be introduced into the site resulting in abscess formation Rarely an individual animal may show a severe shock anaphylactic reaction following vaccination Prompt veterinary attention is needed or the animals life can be

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/pigvaccines.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Sheep Vaccines
    of individual vaccines may be changed so you are advised to check the current details for these vaccine brands at the Veterinary Medicines Directorate website www vmd defra gov uk Key BT Bluetongue CA Chlamydofila abortus CC Clostridium chauvoei CH Clostridium haemolyticum CN Clostridium novyi CP Clostridium perfringens CSe Clostridium septicum CSo Clostridium sordellii CT Clostridium tetani DN Dichelobacter nodosus LI Louping Ill virus MH Mannheimia haemolytica MP Mycobacterium paratuberculosis OV Orf virus PT Pasteurella trehalosi TG Toxoplasma gondii Vaccine Components Brand names Marketing License Holder Inactivated Bacterial vaccines CA Mydiavac Novartis CC Blackleg vaccine Blackleg vaccine Pfizer Intervet CC CH CN CP CSe CT Covexin 8 Pfizer CC CH CN CP CSe CSo CT Bravoxin 10 Covexin 10 Intervet Zoetis CC CN CP CS CT MH PT Hepatavx P Plus Intervet CC CP CS CT MH PT Ovivac P Plus Intervet CP CT Lambivac Intervet DN Footvax Intervet MH PT Ovipast PLus Intervet MP Gudair CZ Veterinaria SA Inactivated Viral vaccines BT Bluevac BTV8 Bovilis BVT8 Btvpur Alsap 1 BTVPUR Alsap 1 8 BTVPUR Alsap 2 4 BTVPUR Alsap 8 Zulvac 1 ovis Zulvac 1 8 ovis Zulvac 8 ovis CZ Veterinaria SA Intervet Merial Merial Merial Zoetis Zoetis Zoetis Zoetis FMDV Aftopur AlSap Aftopur DOE Aftovaxpur DOE Merial Merial Merial LI Louping ill vaccine Intervet SV Bovilis SBV Intervet Live Bacterial vaccines CA Cevac Chlamydia Enzovac Ceva Intervet Live Parasitic vaccines TG Toxovax Intervet Live Viral vaccines OV Scabivax forte Intervet Contraindications Sheep and Goats should not be vaccinated if they Are not well Have a high body temperature Are within 6 weeks of having been given corticosteroids or other drugs that can reduce the immune response Have been treated with antibiotics which might affect the live organisms in a vaccine Stressed Side Effects There are a number of side effects that may be seen following vaccination including the following The organisms in live vaccines can sometimes cause mild signs of the disease and they can be transferred to other animals in a herd and cause mild signs of disease in them as well Live vaccines may damage the fetus in pregnant animals so they should not be used in pregnant animals if a killed vaccine is available Some live vaccines can result in a long term latent infection which may affect blood tests and have implications on the future movement of animals Vaccines can cause a local reaction and irritation at the site of injection Hair loss and sometimes a change of hair wool colour can occur at the injection site If the vaccine is administered by injection without cleaning the skin surface infection may be introduced into the site resulting in abscess formation Rarely an individual animal may show a severe shock anaphylactic reaction following vaccination Prompt veterinary attention is needed or the animals life can be at risk Storage Vaccines will lose their potency if they are not stored properly They should be stored as specified by the manufacturers and usually this will require storage

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/sheepvaccines.htm (2016-02-08)
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