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    the advice of your veterinarian if your pet is ill as only he or she can correctly advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your pet Control of parasitic worm infections in pigs is important because they result in poor production performance and some eg Trichuris spp can potentially be transmitted to humans The basic principles when treating pigs are Use broadspectrum products that

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/wormingpigs.htm (2016-02-08)
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    does it matter During foetal development the testicles develop high up in the abdomen near the kidneys In most domesticated species horses cattle sheep and pigs by the time male animals are born the testicles have moved backwards and have already descended into the scrotal sac In dogs they descend within 5 days of birth If they do not descend testicles may be retained in the inguinal canal in the groin or within the abdominal cavity itself Retained testicles are always smaller than descended testicles and they are unable to produce sperm because they are not kept at the correct temperature A cryptorchid animal with one descended testicle is not sterile and it is quite able to sire youngsters On the other hand hormone production by the retained testicle can continue as normal so the animal retains male characteristics and behaviour However the trait to develop undescended testicles is thought to be genetically inherited so affected animals should not be used for breeding One of the physiological purposes for the scrotum is to keep the testicles outside the body and at a lower temperature than they would be if kept inside the body One consequence of being retained and therefore

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/cryptorchidism.htm (2016-02-08)
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    organs This organism is quite resistant and can survive for over 2 years in the environment but there is no evidence of spread to other animals or to people Mycobacterium bovis The main host for this organism is cattle and the organism can be transmitted to humans rarely and other animals including cats and dogs The route of infection is by drinking infected unpasteurised milk or by eating infected uncooked meat It causes disease mainly in the gastrointestinal tract cats and respiratory tract dogs and people M bovis does not survive long in the environment less than 28 days In some countries wild life reservoirs of infection eg badgers in the UK may have a role in the transmission of this disease between animals Mycobacterium tuberculosis Humans are the main reservoir host for this organism but dogs and cats are susceptible to it as well Cats and dogs contract the infection from humans and there has not been any reported cases of transmission from pets to people so this is an inverse zoonosis Infected people and dogs have infected sputum and spread of the disease is by aerosol or direct contact A Variant of M tuberculosis bovis This organism occurs in the UK and it has been found in cats and is thought to originate in rodents which are their natural prey Breed Occurrence The Bassett Hound Miniature Schnauzer and Siamese cat may be over represented in reports of M avium complex infections Animals with impaired immune function are at greater risk of developing the disease if they are exposed to it Signs Infected cats and dogs may not show any clinical signs of the disease Th e most common signs are Dogs respiratory signs mainly Fever Weight loss Cough Inappetance Increased salivation Cats gastrointestinal signs mainly Weight loss Diarrhoea

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/Tuberculosis.htm (2016-02-08)
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    you know as well as being a potent toxin arsenic is an essential nutrient for some species and may be beneficial in the prevention of some cancers Arsenic is considered to be an essential nutrient in Chickens Goats Pigs Rats Humans possibly Some work published in 1983 suggested that arsenic may prevent some forms of cancer in humans Arsenicals are present in Insecticides Rodenticides Weed killers Anthelminthics Whilst modern less

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/arsenic.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Chromium Poisoning in Livestock
    processes of metal coating Accidental contamination of the environment especially water sources can occur leading to signs of toxicity in livestock especially cattle but rarely sheep goats and poultry Signs of chromium poisoning are non specific and similar to those seen with other heavy metal toxicity including Inappetance Depression Diarrhoea dysentery Dyspnoea Paralysis Death within a few hours At postmortem ulceration of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract may be

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/chromiumpoisoning.htm (2016-02-08)
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    with industrial pollutants crops grown in soil near old lead mines Fishing weights Golf balls Gun shot Linoleum Lead roofing tiles Lead smelters Motor oil from lead based petrol cars Old paint poisoning can occur by licking old paint Old lead toys eg toy soldiers Plumbing equipment repairs to lead water pipes in old houses disturbs a protective layer of lead carbonate that usually coats the inside of the pipes releasing lead into the water this was a common source of poisoning when lead pipes were still used Solder Tops off wine bottles Usually animals get poisoned by ingesting lead but it can also be absorbed across the skin or inhaled a common source in the past was vehicle exhaust fumes from lead based petrol engines Lead is a heavy metal which can accumulate in the body over a very long period of time It interferes with the production of haemoglobin the the bodies red blood cells which reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood High concentrations of lead damage the central nervous system brain and other nerves in the body Animals most often affected by lead poisoning include Birds eg swans ingesting lead fishing weights Cattle Dogs Ducks Geese Sheep Signs of lead poisoning include the following Nervous signs Fits seizures Behavioural changes excitation walking in circles head pressing vocalisation aimless running or pacing around aggression muscle spasms weakness paralysis loss of reflexes staggering Ocular signs Blindness Dilated pupils Alimentary tract signs Salivation Vomiting Constipation or diarrhoea Abdominal pain Inappetance Death can take several days Birds get similar signs Inappetance Ruffled feathers Weight loss Neurological signs fits staggering etc Death can be rapid These signs may occur with a variety of different disorders so the diagnosis has to be confirmed by measuring the amount of lead in body

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/lead.htm (2016-02-08)
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    cyst is a fluid filled swelling and cysts which form in the ovaries of female animals may occur in the follicles or corpora lutea Corpora lutea form at the site of the follicles once they have released their eggs These cysts form spontaneously and can be associated with abnormal amounts of hormone circulating in the blood Cysts may also form in the remnant tissues following surgical neutering ovariohysterectomy There may be no signs associated with ovarian cysts but signs that may be seen include In dogs Persistent oestrus the bitch stays On heat this occurs with some follicular cysts Delayed return to oestrus delay in the occurrence of next heat this occurs with some corpora luteal cysts usually high blood concentrations of progesterone concentrations are found in this condition In horses and ponies The mare does not show oestrus called anoestrus Continuous or long and irregular heat periods In cattle Delayed return to oestrus called anoestrus Persistent oestrus or returning to oestrus bulling every few days called nymphomania Increased sexual behaviour called virilism In pigs Irregular heats with increased sexual behaviour called virilism Prolonged but not continuous heat Some sows behave aggressively Ovarian cysts are usually identified on ultrasound scans

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/cysticovaries.htm (2016-02-08)
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    of blood cell Red cells also called erythrocytes White cells The red cells are produced by specialist cells in the bone marrow One of the main roles for red blood cells is to carry oxygen around the body The oxygen that is breathed into the lungs gets bound to haemoglobin in the red cells and in the body s tissues the oxygen is released If there are not enough red cells in circulation the tissues get starved of oxygen called hypoxia with serious consequences because oxygen is essential for normal cell function There are 3 main causes of anaemia The animal loses red cells due to bleeding at a rate that exceeds it s ability to produce more red cells from the bone marrow Sometimes bleeding is obvious but on other occasions it may not be Bleeding externally is obvious bleeding into urine is usually noticed as a pink or red discolouration and bleeding into the large intestine eg colon may be seen as fresh red blood in a stool but bleeding high up in the gut in the small intestine gets changed producing a black sticky stool called melaena Vomited blood often looks brown in colour like coffee grounds The bone marrow is unable to produce adequate numbers of red cells to maintain adequate circulating numbers If the disorder of the bone marrow also affects white cell production there can be low white cell numbers in the circulation called leukaemia as well Sufficient red cells are being produced but they are being destroyed in the bloodstream and have a shorter lifespan This occurs for example when the body produces antibodies against it s own red cells causing them to disintegrate called haemolysis this disorder is called autoimmune haemolytic anaemia Haemolysis can also be caused by infectious agents including Feline

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/anaemia.htm (2016-02-08)
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