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    intestine distal colon rectum anus or bleeding from the anal glands smearing the stool during passage There are several possible causes including severe inflammation with ulceration of the colon or rectum or bleeding from a rectal cancer Also damage caused by a sharp foreign body in the stool e g spicules of undigested bone fragments Bleeding higher up the intestinal tract will be changed in character and not appear as

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/signs/haematochezia.htm (2016-02-08)
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    advise on the diagnosis and recommend the treatment that is most appropriate for your pet Note for Pet Owners Melaena is a serious sign of disease and veterinary advice should be sought as soon as possible Description Dark black tarry faeces which contains blood The colour of the blood is changed to very dark brown black during passage through the gastrointestinal tract Occurrence Any condition that results in haemorrhage into

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/signs/melaena.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Haemorrhagic Gastroenteritis
    of acute intestinal haemorrhage often colonic has been reported to occur in association with pancreatitis the administration of corticosteroids and trauma to the central nervous system Breed Occurrence HGE can affect all breeds and ages but it is more common in toy and miniature breeds of dog particularly Miniature Schnauzers Dachshunds Toy and Miniature Poodles and also in Pekingese HE is rare in large breed dogs Signs HE starts as sudden onset vomiting and diarrhoea with blood in both the vomit called haematemesis and in the diarrhoea see dysentery described as looking like raspberry jam Some dogs are already in shock because of blood loss into the lumen of the bowel when they are presented to a veterinary practice Swollen fluid filled intestines can sometimes be palpated in the abdomen This disease can result in rapid death due to shock even if treatment is commenced immediately signs are noticed Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can develop in advanced cases also leading to death Age The disease most often affects young dogs between 2 4 years of age Diagnosis HGE needs to be differentiated from canine parvovirus infection Vaccination history is helpful with this On routine haematology the packed cell volume is often very high 60 75 in most patients reflecting fluid loss Treatment Nothing by mouth for 2 3 days Intravenous fluid replacement lactated Ringers solution with 5 dextrose at 45 90 ml hr for 1 hour replacement and then a maintenance dose given at 5 15 ml hour to satisfy the animals individual requirement of 50ml kg body weight day Antibiotics To minimise secondary bacterial invasion especially anaerobes through a damaged intestinal wall Penicillin trimethoprim sulpha drugs amoxycillin or ampicillin are preferred drugs However fluoroquinolones and clindamycin are also useful Gentamycin which is potentially nephrotoxic should be avoided because these animals

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/git-hge.htm (2016-02-08)
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    against infectious agents in the intestinal lumen In some cases bacterial overgrowth occurs as a complication in exocrine pancreatic deficiency or in juvenile pancreatic atrophy Signs Chronic intermittent diarrhoea sometimes with weight loss Steatorrhoea may be present and increased appetite in animals with energy deficiency Some individuals may have bacterial overgrowth but show no external signs Affects of bacterial overgrowth on the intestine Large numbers of bacteria cause various changes in the small intestine including morphological changes hypertrophy of crypt cells blunting of villi inflammatory cell infiltration functional changes altered brush border enzymes reduced brush border density decreased carbohydrate and amino acid uptake protein loss decreased enterokinase concentration deconjugation of bile acids this is achieved by large numbers of Bacteroides Clostridia Lactobacilli and cocci in the gut lumen The deconjugated bile acids are unable to form micelles so fat digestion and absorption is impaired leading to steatorrhoea In addition they affect brush border enzymes and lysosomal enzymes fat absorption in metabolizing nutrients bacteria produce short chained fatty acids which are absorbed very quickly across the small intestine taking fluid with them but medium and long chained fatty acids produced from the hydrolysis of triglycerides inhibit the absorption of fluids in both the small and large intestine This results in diarrhoea In bacterial overgrowth fatty acids are metabolized by lipases to form hydroxy fatty acids which inhibit absorption and stimulate fluid secretion I addition fatty acids can damage the intestine causing villus shortening and brush border damage again interfering with normal absorption carbohydrate metabolism in bacterial overgrowth carbohydrates are broken down and rapidly absorbed and do not contribute to diarrhoea protein metabolism in bacterial overgrowth protein is metabolized and protein malnutrition can result The proteins that are deaminated release ammonia which can be absorbed across the gut wall and converted to

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/git-bo.htm (2016-02-08)
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    attempts to eat sometimes it gets the food into the mouth prehension but then it is unable to swallow and drops it Cause There are many potential causes including painful lesions or foreign bodies in the mouth In cats linear foreign bodies such as string often get caught under the tongue the rest is swallowed PICTURE TO FOLLOW The constriction of the band around the base of the tongue in

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/signs/dysphagia.htm (2016-02-08)
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    the pharynx The cranial oesophageal sphincter won t open and the animal retches the food back out of the mouth This is a dangerous situation because some of the food can accidentally enter the windpipe and pass down into the lungs where is causes pneumonia As the food is ejected most passes through the mouth but some can also pass up the nasopharynx and out through the nose Last updated

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/signs/pharetch.htm (2016-02-08)
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    lumen of the oesophagus is passively brought up and passes out through the mouth The animal does not actively contract it s abdominal muscles during regurgitation as it does when vomiting The food brought up usually adopts a sausage shape and it consists of food mixed with saliva It has an alkaline pH because it has not reached the stomach where there is an acidic environment Sometimes animals attempt to

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/signs/regurgitation.htm (2016-02-08)
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    the vagina Recently modern technological developments have lead to the use of monitors which are inserted into the external ear canal Method for taking body temperature with a mercury thermometer The rectum should be clear of feces and the mercury must be shaken down to the bulb end of the thermometer before inserting it The thermometer should be held in place for 2 minutes before reading it Species variations Species Normal Critical point Dog 100 9 101 7 o F 38 3 38 7 o C 105 0 o F 41 0 o C Cat 100 4 101 6 o F 38 0 38 5 o C Rabbit 99 0 103 0 o F 37 0 39 4 o C Hamster 98 0 101 0 o F 36 2 37 5 o C Guinea Pig 99 0 103 0 o F 37 2 39 5 o C Horse 100 5 o F 38 0 o C 102 0 o F 38 8 o C Cattle 101 5 o F 38 5 o C 103 0 o F 39 4 o C Sheep 102 5 o F 39 2 o C 104 0 o F 40 0 o C Pig 102

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/signs/pyrexia.htm (2016-02-08)
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