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    nail beds and in the mouth Without treatment the disease can be fatal Cause The cause is an autoimmune disorder in which an IgG autoantibody binds to intracellular adhesion molecules causing a loss of cohesion between keratinocytes resulting in acantholysis vesicle formation and eventually ulceration Breed Occurrence Pemphigus vulgaris is the commonest autoimmune skin disease in humans but it is rare in cats and dogs Most authors now agree that there is no breed sex or age predilection for this disease but some breeds are mentioned by other authors eg German Shepherd Dog Signs Vesicles ulceration and crusting can affect the whole body but especially affects the muco cutaneous junctions and oral mucosa Secondary infection of the open ulcers can occur The onset of the disease can be sudden acute or gradual over many weeks chronic Affected animals are usually depressed and inappetent with a high body temperature Complications Secondary infections Diagnosis Diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination of biopsies The lesions typically reveal acantholysis with an intraepidermal suprabasilar cleft Direct and Indirect immunofluoresence show positive staining of intracellular particles Differential diagnosis Candidasis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Bullous Pemphigoid Drug eruption Skin cancer Treatment Prednisolone at dose 2 4 mg kg body weight every 12 hours by mouth If corticosteroids alone do not induce remission after 14 days a cytotoxic drug should be added to the regimen the following have been used successfully Azothiaprine 2 mg kg body weight 50mg m 2 on alternate days Contraindicated for use in cats Cyclophosphamide 2 mg kg body weight 50mg m 2 for 4 days per week Aurothioglucose 1mg kg body weight by intramuscular injection once weekly Auranofin 0 05 0 2 mg kg body weight by mouth every 12 hours Chlorambucil preferred for cats 2 5mg m 2 every 1 2 days by

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/pemphigusvulgaris.htm (2016-02-08)
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