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    of CJ WildBird Foods Aflatoxin is produced by a type of fungus called Aspergillus and it is believed that the aflatoxin forms on the peanuts during transportation particularly if they are stored under warm humid conditions Members of the public have been advised by the BTO not to feed peanuts to birds unless they meet UK bird food standards and have been properly tested to ensure that they are not

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/aflatoxinpeanuts.htm (2016-02-08)
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    birds Signs Birds should be examined regularly to make sure they are not showing any signs of illness and breeding birds that fail to lay eggs should be examined by a veterinarian Typically the disease presents suddenly with affected birds showing swelling oedema of the head cyanosis of the comb and wattles dullness lack of appetite respiratory distress diarrhoea drop in egg production sudden death Complications The main problem is that apparently normal birds may carry the disease Diagnosis Any bird that dies unexpectedly should be examined for evidence of H5N1 avian flu virus Signs at post mortem may include congestion and hemorrhages affecting any organs necrotic foci in the kidneys liver lungs and spleen exudates in the air sacs and peritoneum fibrinous pericarditis egg peritonitis Treatment There is no satisfactory treatment for this disease and infected birds should be culled and disposed of using effective biosecurity measures to prevent cross contamination or transmission to other birds or human handlers There is a vaccine available against the H5 avian flu strain Nobilis Influenza Intervet which also provides protection against H7 and H9 strains but use of the vaccine is strictly controlled by Government Regulatory Authorities Prognosis The prognosis is poor for infected birds with clinical signs Long term problems The possibility of a carrier state presents problems for other birds that may come into contact with an infected individual and this may also result in spread of the disease across Continents through migratory wild birds Influenza viruses frequently undergo genetic modification and one of the main concerns is that this highly pathogenic avian virus might mutate so that it can be transmitted readily between humans and so result in a human pandemic Pet bird owners should be given the following advice Do not allow pet birds to come into contact

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/avianfluH5N1.htm (2016-02-08)
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    vulnerability to predators and other natural dangers In captive birds cataracts are only of cosmetic significance unless they are associated with another condition Opacity of the lens in avian species is not uncommon and a variety of causes have been recognised including Developmental abnormalities seen in raptors Genetic cataracts autosomal recessive cataract formation in canaries cataract with crooked toes in Brahma chickens cataract with hypoplasia of the optic nerve in

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/birdcataracts.htm (2016-02-08)
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    s metabolic size a function of body surface area and body volume Whenever possible birds should be given drugs that are licensed for use in the species and the dose rate should be that recommended by the manufacturers datasheet However if the dose rate of a drug has to be calculated a useful formula to calculate the dose of a drug for a bird is as follows E W x

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/drugdosesbirds.htm (2016-02-08)
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    the bird will show a variety of signs Collapse exhaustion depression Straining Swelling of the abdomen Sitting on cold surfaces As a result of the straining the cloaca and occasionally the oviduct itself can prolapse Several factors are thought to be involved in the cause of this condition including Obesity overweight birds are more likely to develop the condition Low environmental temperatures Dietary calcium deficiency Disease or age related disorders

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/birdseggbinding.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Feather Plucking in Captive Birds
    Nutritional deficiencies Hormonal disorders Poor environmental conditions eg too small a cage so that the bird can not exercise or there is no private area in the cage for the bird to hide Infection of the feather follicles bacteria or fungal Parasites on the skin rare Treatment involves identifying and treating the underlying cause and preventing self mutilation by the use of an elizabethan collar around the neck The bird should be examined by a veterinarian in case the cause is a nutritional deficiency an infectious disease or ectoparasites in which case medical treatment eg antibiotics or antiparasitic drugs will be needed Other medical treatments which have been used successfully in some cases include Tranquillizers Thyroid hormone replacement therapy Oestrogens megoestrol acetate medroxyprogesterone Behavioural self mutilation can be modified by changing the birds environment and daily routine Various methods can be used to increase stimulation during boring parts of the day for example Get a companion bird although occasionally it has been reported that both birds may feather pluck Increase human bird contact by talking to it regularly Introduce a toy that the bird will play with Introduce a mirror Leave a radio or TV switched on when the bird

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/featherplucking.htm (2016-02-08)
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    found abandoned on the ground will only be a short distance from its nest and its parent will be very close watching The best advice is to leave the bird alone do not touch it and try not to loiter for too long near to the fledgling otherwise its parent may be frightened off Fledglings are always at risk from predators domestic cats birds snakes and others and unfortunately the evolutionary rule of survival of the fittest comes in to play A fledgling that is unable to fly properly when it should may have a serious disorder which may prevent it from surviving very long by itself Under such circumstances a rapid death by becoming a meal for another animal may be preferable to a lingering slow death from hunger or disease Sometimes it is impossible for people to leave a fledgling to take its chances particularly if there is a cat or other predator in the vicinity In a situation like this it is reasonable to attempt to put the bird out of harms way If possible wear a pair of protective gloves to protect yourself from being pecked and to minimise the transfer of smells from you to the fledgling Hold the bird firmly and securely but do not be too rough Keep the handling time to a minimum otherwise the stress caused can be a further risk to the bird Ideally place the bird back in its nest look above you If it is a bird that usually nests in buildings look under eaves if it usually nests in trees or bushes look for those If the nest can not be located place the fledgling in a secure elevated place for example on a ledge or branch where it would be physically difficult for a cat to

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/fledglings.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Haemochromatosis in Birds
    birds Clinical signs associated with the disease include Anorexia Ascites Dyspnoea Liver enlargement Weight loss Sudden death The disease is characterised by excessive iron deposition in hepatocytes and other organs For these susceptible birds their daily ration should be low in iron content and foods high in iron content should be avoided Fresh fruit should be provided rather than prepared fruits because the concentration of iron can vary greatly Fruit Iron content mg 100g Fruit Iron content mg 100g Apples 0 1 Lychees 0 5 Apricots 0 5 Mandarin Oranges 0 5 Apricots ready to eat 3 4 Mangoes 0 7 Avocado 0 3 Melon 0 3 Bananas 0 3 Nectarines 0 4 Blackberries 0 7 Olives 1 0 Blackcurrants 1 3 Oranges 0 1 Blackcurrants canned in juice 5 2 Passion Fruit 1 3 Cherries 0 2 PawPaw 0 5 Cherries canned in syrup 2 9 Peaches 0 4 Currants 1 3 Pears 0 2 Damsons 0 4 Pineapple 0 2 Dates 0 3 Plums 0 4 Dried mixed fruit 2 2 Prunes canned in juice 2 2 Figs dried 4 2 Raisins 3 8 Gooseberries 0 3 Raspberries 0 7 Grapefruit 0 1 Rhubarb 0 3 Grapes 0

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/haemochromatosisbirds.htm (2016-02-08)
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