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    Weight loss Inappetance Lethargy depression Bleeding eg cut nails Polydipsia and polyuria Bright green urine due to the presence of urates called biliverdinuria Overgrowth of the upper beak rhinotheca Self trauma to the feet seen in Amazona spp CNS signs due to hepatic encephalopathy is rare Ascites rare 3 Laboratory tests Care is need when interpreting laboratory results of samples taken from laying birds because they often have a hormone related hepatomegaly and elevated blood results eg cholesterol Decreased blood concentrations of albumin bile acids cholesterol glucose triglycerides or uric acid Increased blood concentrations of cholesterol bile acids globulin Increased liver enzymes in blood may be found but normal levels do not rule out the presence of liver disease AST most sensitive indicator GDH and GGT less sensitive very specific for liver disease AP and LDH are occasionally increased ALT rarely increased Haematology inflammatory response 4 Other diagnostic aids XRays liver size shape position Ultrasound detects tumours abnormal tissue density Laparoscopy visualise liver surface Liver biopsy histopathology Treatment A variety of treatment regimens have been used in birds with liver disease including Nutritional and fluid support force feeding if anorectic Low iron ration less than 100ppm if the birds have

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/birdsliver.htm (2016-02-08)
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    recognised between a flu like disease in humans and contact with parrots so called parrot fever This disease later became known as psittacosis because it was contracted from psittacine birds and it was found to have a high mortality rate in humans up to 20 in some reports The cause was originally thought to be a virus but we now know that it is caused by bacteria that can only live inside cells Chlamydia psittaci This organism is found in many normal healthy birds worldwide and they only develop the disease when they become stressed It is the same organism that causes a disease called ornithosis in ornithine birds and it can cause disease in other species as well The clinical signs of psittacosis in parrots and humans are Birds Infected birds can appear healthy Depression Inappetance Respiratory disease rapid breathing rate open mouth breathing gasping Eye discharge Nose discharge sneezing Watery green diarrhoea Ruffled feathers Weight loss Sudden death in severe acute forms of the disease Humans Conjunctivitis Flu like disease Headache Fever Pneumonia CNS signs Diarrhoea uncommon Renal failure Death mortality rates of up to 20 have been reported The infection is transmitted through direct contact with secretions

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/parrotfever.htm (2016-02-08)
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    stock in 24 rearing units were observed to develop a neurological condition causing signs ranging from mild ataxia and loss of balance to recumbency and torticollis The authors of the report Welchman D de B et al Veterinary Record 2000 147 93 97 were unable to identify a specific infectious agent or other cause and on post mortem a non suppurative meningoencephalitis was present mainly affecting the cerebellum and myelitis

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/pheasantataxia.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
    recognised types PBFD virus 1 and PBFD virus 2 Signs Signs of the disease include Bilaterally symmetrical feather dystrophy replacement feathers contain blood in their shafts have retained feather sheaths shortening and deformity There is also a change in colour Bilaterally symmetrical feather loss Beak deformities overgrowth change in colour reduced glossiniess and fractures Death The significance of PBFD virus 2 causes is that it causes less severe lesions identified

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/PBFD.htm (2016-02-08)
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    are species specific eg Chlamydofila felis affects cats Breed Occurrence There is no specific breed predisposition to develop psittacosis Signs C linical signs depend upon the species involved Birds Infected birds can appear healthy Depression Inappetance Respiratory disease rapid breathing rate open mouth breathing gasping Eye discharge Nose discharge sneezing Watery green diarrhoea Ruffled feathers Weight loss Sudden death in severe acute forms of the disease Cats Conjunctivitis Cattle Pneumonia Arthritis Dogs Cough Fever Lameness Humans Chest pain common Cough common Conjunctivitis Flu like disease Headache Fever Muscle pain Pneumonia CNS signs Diarrhoea uncommon Vomiting Renal failure Death mortality rates of up to 20 have been reported Pigs Pneumonia Arthritis Sheep Abortion called enzootic abortion Spread of infection is through direct contact with secretions from infected animals or aerosol spread Complications Stress often precipitates the disease in animals which are carrying the organism but which are otherwise healthy So capture and transportation of wild parrots commonly causes sufficient stress for them to succumb to the disease Animals that recover from infection may remain carriers of the organism and can relapse later Diagnosis Diagnosis depends upon isolation and identification of the organism from samples of faeces swabs eg taken from eyes eg in cats or tissue collected at post mortem At post mortem attempts to prevent transmission to humans should involve wearing protective clothing and masks and wetting the carcase to reduce aerosol spread Treatment There is a serious human health risk so a decision to treat an infected animal or bird must not be taken lightly The treatments of choice for psittacosis are tetracyclines Dosing through water intake is unsatisfactory as it is necessary to maintain high therapeutic levels in the blood and this cannot be guaranteed by adding antibiotic to water supply Birds Up to 45 days therapy with

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/health/diseases/psittacosis.htm (2016-02-08)
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    behaviour or associated with a variety of diseases When a bird brings up food after eating it can be difficult to be sure whether the food has been vomited regurgitated or retched back In most cases regurgitation of food is going to be a normal process but it can also be associated with a wide range of diseases In all cases the bird should be weighed daily to determine whether or not it is losing weight which is a poor sign Potential causes of vomiting regurgitation or retching back food are Normal courting behaviour between male and female birds or sometimes between male birds and toy birds or reflections in mirrors Stress related behaviour in males kept by themselves Bacterial infection of the upper alimentary tract crop gizzard or proventriculus Viral infection of the upper alimentary tract Parasitic infection eg trichomoniasis of the upper alimentary tract Fungal infection eg candidiasis of the upper alimentary tract Tumours in the upper alimentary tract Ulcers in the upper alimentary tract Foreign material obstructing the upper alimentary tract Poisoning especially heavy metals eg zinc lead but also other toxins eg aflatoxins on seeds or disinfectants Goitre enlarged thyroid gland in the neck Diagnosis requires

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/birdsvomiting.htm (2016-02-08)
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    environment and so it isn t surprising that cases of poisoning are seen from time to time Common sources of zinc include Metal that has been galvanised wire cages wire mesh nails staples Cosmetics healthcare products skin lotions and creams shampoos zinc oxide eye washes Household products fertilizers paints Agricultural products fungicide Chemicals for industrial use zinc acetate zinc chlorate zinc sulphate Currency some coins contain zinc Zinc poisoning is regarded as being rare in most species but it is the second most common type of heavy metal poisoning in birds Clinical signs associated with zinc poisoning are not specific and so they may be confused for other diseases Common signs include Regurgitation Diarrhoea Sudden death Fits seizures Paralysis or weakness of the legs Staggering inability to walk fly Wing tenting in waterfowl Anaemia may occur in psittacines Abdominal pain may be present especially if the bird has developed inflammation of the pancreas pancreatitis These signs are similar to those caused by other heavy metals such as lead Zinc poisoning should be suspected if birds showing these signs have had contact with a possible source of the metal The diagnosis is confirmed by analysis of a blood sample Very high

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/Petfacts/healthtips/birdszinc.htm (2016-02-08)
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  • PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Where to buy a fish?
    Store is well run clean practices good hygiene and they can give assurances about the origin of the fish See Guidelines below Guidelines Here are some Guidelines to follow before you buy fish If you follow these Guidelines you should reduce the chances of disappointment with your new fish a Consider your situation first Do not buy fish unless you are sure that you can afford to look after them properly and that you have the time to commit to them See What type of fish should I get NEVER buy on impulse for example when you see a stunning aquarium collection of fish in a shop window don t rush in and buy it Can you afford to look after the fish properly Have you got the time to look after fish properly b The premises It is important to be satisfied about the health standards of the establishment that you are buying the fish from The most important single Guideline is this Whenever possible buy from a source that has been recommended to you by an independent person a friend neighbour a well known breeder or member of the family Someone whose judgment you can trust Satisfy yourself that the premises are clean and tidy Are the fish tanks clean Are there any dead fish in some of the tanks Ask to inspect behind the scenes Do the fish look clean healthy and active Is the tank water clean and well aerated Are fish from different sources kept separately advisable or are they mixed together not desirable as this increases the likelihood of exposure to disease If you have not been given a personal recommendation about the establishment ask them to give you the names of three reference sites where you will get a positive endorsement Where appropriate

    Original URL path: http://www.provet.co.uk/fish/Wherebuyfish.htm (2016-02-08)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-24