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  • Reviewing for Development
    to challenge if it is felt that anyone is failing to respect themselves or others A facilitator who upholds the rights of individuals to opt out or speak up will be helping to develop respect as a group norm CREATIVITY by directly encouraging creativity in reviewing Being a creative facilitator is not enough Encouraging participants own creativity is different So give half ideas not full instructions Ask for suggestions Invent a rule that states we will not use the same reviewing technique twice So if you want to use rounds for a second time ask the group to suggest a variation Arts based reviewing exercises help to meet this need but the need for creativity is much more than being arty New ideas and innovative thinking belong to all subject disciplines ACHIEVEMENT by very occasionally making a review a race against time The Survey method works well in a tight but realistic time scale In a group of 20 with 5 issues to review 5 groups of 4 specialise in one issue simultaneously conduct a survey throughout the whole group and report back on their findings Also after a particularly good or intensive review such as a review session with a high quality of feedback be sure to give credit to the group for what they have achieved in the review NEW EXPERIENCES by pointing out to the group that reviewing sessions are a time for new experiences The new experience might be the responsibility of observing and reporting back or of facilitating a discussion or of giving and receiving feedback or doing Action Replay or Guided Reflection You can use Activity Map for quickly finding out what kinds of reviewing methods participants have experienced before and how they responded If you are using methods from the Active Reviewing Guide with people who normally review using group discussion then nearly all your review sessions will be new experiences CONNECTION Personal growth can be viewed as making new connections in any of several directions UPWARD to achieve one s full potential OUTWARD to make contact and encounter others INWARD to increase our awareness of who we are and what we want need sense feel think and do and DOWNWARD to touch earth to be grounded and to connect Giges and Rosenfeld 1976 Examples of reviewing methods that help people to connect in all four directions are described in In Search of Respectable Adventure at http reviewing co uk outdoor respctad htm These outdoor examples can be translated into indoor settings SIGNIFICANCE by reviewing leadership or influence and helping everyone to become more aware of how what they say and do or don t do affects others Freeze a reviewing discussion and review the review Ask everyone to look around and think about how each other person is influencing what they are saying or doing or not doing Then go round the group and ask one at a time How is this person influencing you or the group Or at the end

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/articles/reviewing-for-development.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • Reviewing and Re-enacting Ropes Course Experiences: benefits and methods
    turning vertical movement into horizontal movement The Monty Python team famously and even humorously did this when crawling along a pavement in full climbing gear pretending they were doing a vertical climb This method suits The Wall and Jacob s Ladder For Jacob s Ladder it is best to lie an identical ladder on the ground High level journeys such as crossing a rope bridge Ask those involved to re enact the journey at ground level directly below the bridge If the bridge crosses dangerous ground or water then recreate the bridge in a safer location by laying a rope of a similar length on flat ground Individual balancing on a high pole such as Leap of Faith Use a short log with a similar diameter Alternatively a chair provides a suitable height but is less realistic If the site has a practice pole less than half a metre high you have the perfect short pole on which a re enactment can be staged Take proper safety precautions if the re enactment could include jumping off Group balancing on a high platform such as High All Aboard Re enactment at ground level can actually be more dangerous because of the danger of falling backwards onto the ground instead of dangling on a safety rope So the re enactment platform should not be raised above the ground the ground should be soft and clear of obstacles and all involved should be supported by at least one spotter each A spotter is a partner who is fully briefed on how to safely catch or prevent a fall Launching off such as Big Swing or Zip Wire A low level rope swing such as used for Low All Aboard provides a perfect venue for re enacting launches at a higher level Low level activities such as Mohawk Walk or Criss cross You can either re enact the event at ground level right beside the original location or you can mark out the journey on the ground in a different place using ropes of a similar length Ground level activities such as Spiders Web Make a line on the ground marking the position of the web The re enactment is the same as the original event minus the actual web A smooth topped splinter free round edged table is a useful addition for re enacting any moments that involved lifting In the re enactment the person passing through the web is slid across the table This reduces the physical effort for carriers during the re enactment and allows the action to be easily paused at any point even in the middle of a carry Low level traverse or Low All Aboard Low level activities are much easier to stop and start so it less necessary to complete the activity before reviewing it Five minutes into the activity ask the group to stop and remember where they are Their extra challenge is to repeat the first five minutes word for word and move for move

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/articles/ropes-course-reviewing.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • Reviewing with Ropes
    can leave at any time but the discussion does not continue until they have been replaced by someone from the outer circle Variation Everyone starts in the inner circle and sits out when they have nothing they want to say Anyone can move back into the inner circle at any time they want to speak The review finishes when no one is sitting inside the circle index to this article INDIVIDUAL HAPPY CHARTS STORYLINES Recommended uses for discovering the diversity of experiences and for enabling the telling of experience rich stories Each person makes a line graph on the ground showing their ups and downs emotional highs and lows during the experience being reviewed It may resemble a temperature chart or a sales forecast Ensure that there is no misunderstanding about which way is up and which way is down This is most easily achieved if you happen to be on the side of a hill Each person now tells their story to a partner or to the whole group Happy Chart is a useful communication aid that helps people to express themselves emotionally and that brings out the richness of an experience It is much harder to learn from experiences when they are not expressed and shared Variation Encourage participants to add symbolic objects to their chart to help them tell the story Variation Each person draws their Happy Chart on an index card for one to one sharing or on a flipchart for sharing with the group Applications Happy Charts are useful for bringing out individual differences during a group activity as well as for helping individuals talk about an experience outside the group e g an incident at school or at work For applications in the school curriculum eg English and History see Fortune Lines in James Nottingham s Blog on Thinking Skills index to this article GROUP HAPPY CHARTS STORYLINES Recommended use to discover the degree of individual variation and to increase empathy within a group The group stand in a horseshoe all holding the same rope One end represents the start of the group event being reviewed The other end represents the end Each person in the group now represents a stage in the event e g planning preparation first attempt second attempt disaster conflict re planning bright idea time up Ensure that everyone is now standing in the order in which things happened The group now turn the rope into a Happy Chart This is the interesting bit There will probably be some disputes as people learn that there was individual variation in feelings at some points during the event Allow some conflict to develop if you feel it will be productive but be ready to offer a second rope A second rope allows the group to draw two lines showing the highest highs and lowest lows at each point Picture a temperature chart with two lines showing maximum and minimum temperatures index to this article SKETCH MAP Recommended use for reliving a journey and discovering issues that deserve more detailed review After any event that has involved a journey ask participants to illustrate their journey with the help of a rope or ropes to trace the route taken Add labels with words e g tie on luggage labels or symbolic objects to mark out different parts of the journey This is best set up as a creative project in an area indoors or outdoors where suitable symbolic objects can readily be found Much informal reviewing takes place during the making of the map Once the map is complete it can be used as a means of re telling the story and or identifying key moments on the journey for more detailed review Variation Create a sketch map using more conventional materials e g paper pens paints and materials for collage More about Sketch Map index to this article FORCE FIELD Recommended use for helping groups or individuals to get unstuck Symbolic Tug of War Safety Note discourage any real pulling because of the risk of friction burns Ask the group or an individual to set up two tug of war teams One team represents forces for change and the other team represents forces resisting change Each individual represents a force named by the group or individual setting up the teams This is simply an active way of reviewing forces that are in tension The key question to ask if change is wanted is how the forces can be changed to generate forwards momentum towards change The advantage of having individuals representing each force is that they can each think about solutions from the perspective that they represent Dialogue between forces is also possible Issue and Solution Having your whole group standing in a straight line is not good for eye contact between group members nor for generating discussion So have each person tie one rope onto a central rubber tyre or small rope circle This allows people to pull at different angles It may be appropriate for some people to pull sideways if they are representing distracting or unknown forces rather than being forces that are clearly for or against change Variation Start and finish with written diagrams Use the tug of war to bring the diagrams alive and to encourage empathy seeing feeling and being the forces and creative thinking index to this article ACTIVITY MAP Recommended use to find out what makes people tick or not This is an active and game like way of sharing likes and dislikes and getting to know each other s values At the beginning of a course it can also be a useful way of finding out participants experiences of and attitudes towards activities or processes that you are expecting to use in your course Use two long ropes Mark the ends of one rope Past and Future Mark the ends of the other rope Happy and Sad This creates a quadrant in which the zones represent Past Sad Activities I ll never do again

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/articles/ropes.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • How Transfer Happens | article by Roger Greenaway
    Matthews at Brathay Brathay Hall Ambleside Cumbria LA22 OHP tel 015394 33041 fax 015394 39701 email brathay brathay org uk Other transfer pages on this site Reviewing for Results a special issue of Active Reviewing Tips Learning to Fly Roger s review of an excellent book about learning at work The best websites about the transfer of learning selected by Roger Greenaway brief review comments How to transfer learning and

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/articles/transfer.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • Visible Reflection Techniques
    Q If the person at the back end of the Q speaks for more than 10 seconds everyone moves one place in an anticlockwise direction Anything can happen In essence it is just a simple wordless way of reflecting back the pattern of contribution in a group discussion It automatically brings the pattern to everyone s attention If the amount of movement is disrupting the discussion you can extend the time that people can speak without moving to say 20 seconds or suspend the rule You can join in as a facilitator at the head of the Q and perhaps have a secret goal of trying to get to the other end of the Q if for example you happen to be trying to develop a less dominant facilitation style Other methods for encouraging participation are described in a previous issue of Active Reviewing Tips Encouraging Participation in Reviews MOVING MARKERS makes the quality of the group process visible Recommended use for monitoring group process while working on a task This is a simple visual method for all participants to provide continuous feedback about the quality of the group process The perfect situation for this method is for the group to be seated around a large round table The method exaggerates the typical body language through which participants show enthusiasm leaning forwards or lack of interest leaning backwards Each participant has a playing card which they hold face down on the table in front of them Each person can move their own card on an imaginary straight line between the edge of the table in front of them and the centre of the table Replace the cards with soft toy animals or other objects if you want to add a touch of pizzazz The group now need a task that they can achieve while seated round the table e g a lateral thinking exercise the planning stage of a longer project a decision about how to spend the next hour of the programme a discussion about how they will transfer their learning after the course Throughout the task each person indicates any fluctuations in their support for the group process by the position of their marker Anything can happen Some of the things I like about this method are People holding their markers near the edge of the table tend to get invited to have their say about the process People who assist the process receive instant positive feedback as markers slide towards the centre It makes the level of support for the group process continuously and highly visible This micro attention to process as it happens can highlight significant moments that would be unlikely to feature in a review after the exercise A problem with this method is that people can use their markers to show their level of agreement with what someone is saying rather than to comment on the quality of the group process If this should happen this problem becomes an opportunity to clarify what group process is and is not Other ways of reviewing during activities are described in previous issues of Active Reviewing Tips Reviewing in Action Why and Reviewing in Action How CHANGING PLACES seeing yourself as others see you Recommended use for developing empathy and providing feedback One way of seeing yourself is simply watching a video It may be true that a camera does not lie but a camera does not tell the whole truth You may not see yourself as others see you Other participants may have very different interpretations of why you are behaving in certain ways Changing Places is a reviewing method that allows people to see how others see them It is a combination of several techniques in one a feedback exercise a guessing game an empathy exercise fish bowl and a buddy system The basic concept is quite simple but the method is only suitable for groups where trust is well established and where individuals are open to personal feedback First set up a buddy system in which pairs A and B take it in turns to be doers and observers If there is an uneven number the person left on their own can get useful experience as a co facilitator A task is set up For the first few minutes A s are doers and B s observers After 5 or 10 minutes call a review break Those who have just been observers the B s sit in a circle facing inwards with their buddy A sat behind them in an outer circle The inner circle of B s can now talk while the outer circle of A s remains silent B s pretend that they are the person they were observing They participate in the review as if they are their buddy The facilitator encourages all of the inner circle to take part if necessary by directing questions to particular individuals or by conducting rounds or by asking everyone to show their feelings at particular moments in the exercise being reviewed e g by asking each person to use hand height as a feelings scale The facilitator may also invite questions from participants What everyone now wants to know is how well the inner circle represented the feelings and views of those in the outer circle Ask A s to assess how well B s did on a scale of 0 10 and ask B s to guess the mark that their buddy will give them When everyone is ready ask buddies to face each other and reveal their scores using hand height or finger count Anything can happen People are often surprised how well they have been represented but some guesses can be wildly wrong After a minute or two for buddies to talk things through return to the two concentric circles and give all A s a chance to correct any misrepresentations that they would like to These misrepresentations may include important information about how they are misperceived by their buddy that

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/articles/visible-reflection.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • Active Reviewing for Newcomers: Tools and Tips for Beginners | ARTips 9.4
    simple You have one or two questions that you want people to think deeply about They then look for pictures or objects that in some way answer your question s You then meet in a circle and each person introduces their picture object and explains why they chose it All you need is a good question or two But whatever your questions you are sure to get better quality responses than if you ask the same questions to the group or in a round 3 LEARNING BUDDIES an example of 1 2 ALL There are many ways of using learning buddies The simplest method is to ask individuals to write down two or three personal objectives in advance of the activity Alternatively each person can choose from a ready made set of cards Each person pairs up with a learning buddy and gives their cards to their buddy Allow time for learning buddies to add any extra explanation if needed At a break in the activity and or at the end of the activity learning buddies get together and discuss how well they have achieved their objectives To make the review more active ask each person to place each of their 3 cards on a scale on the floor showing how well they have performed self assessment Learning buddies then talk with each other about how they could improve their scores or change an objective for the next activity End by asking each person to make a statement to the larger group about one achievement they are pleased about and one objective they want to take into the next activity This version of Learning Buddies is about self assessment rather than having partners give feedback The feedback version is more ambitious and is called Goal Keepers Goal Keepers http reviewing co uk archives art 1 6 htm 1 4 HOKEY COKEY This is for younger groups Older groups may prefer a more mature way of analysing success by making a Success Chart http reviewing co uk success success6 htm charting For Hokey Cokey all sit or stand in a circle Ask What did you do well as a team As each person gives an answer they step into the circle If anyone is left on the outside others can suggest a new answer for that person to use to step inside the circle You now have a huddle of people in the middle The next question is What did someone do well as a team member This is effectively an invitation to give positive feedback to others As each person is given and accepts one genuine positive comment they step back to the original circle You reach a stage where two or three people are in the middle waiting for positive feedback You may need to prompt or coax or give feedback yourself To add value to this exercise you can encourage people in the middle to stay there until they are satisfied with the feedback they have received or you can raise the stakes and ask that everyone receives 2 3 4 or 5 positive statements Compared to Rounds Hokey Cokey is more lively and more involving as everyone works harder towards the end of each stage as they try to include everyone Unlike Rounds where there is a predictable order Hokey Cokey is a random order which tends to leave those who were not much noticed as the centre of attention and the last to receive feedback Hokey Cokey refers to the dance where there is movement into and out from the circle 5 SPOKES Like Hokey Cokey Spokes spotlights what individuals contribute to success but it starts with self evaluation and it lends itself to exploring a range of themes that contribute to success It also involves positive feedback especially for those who give themselves a low rating at the self evaluation stage http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm 6 BRIEF ENCOUNTERS This one of the most dependable methods of all but it does itself depend on having a good set of questions suited to your group and to the theme or purpose of the programme http reviewing co uk success icebreaker htm 7 SIMULTANEOUS SURVEY In Brief Encounters just above the encounters are random and there is no collating of information Simultaneous Survey looks the same from a distance but everyone is carrying out a survey and making a note of the answers and then summarising them to the whole group Depending on numbers of people and questions surveys can be carried out by small teams rather than by individuals http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm 2 8 EMPATHY TEST For this guessing game you will need a good set of questions suited to your group If ever you feel tempted to ask for a show of hands or you are looking for a scaled response showing happy levels energy levels involvement level etc then Empathy Test does this and a whole lot more A more challenging version is Egoing so is not included here but it is just a click away http reviewing co uk archives art 5 1 htm 3 9 MISSING PERSON This may seem like an eccentric method to include in tools for newcomers so here are 3 good reasons for including it Once you have briefed it well it looks after itself It is one of the most engaging ways I know of getting a group to look at its strengths and weaknesses If it takes off it provides a team with a mascot for future activities and is therefore good for learning transfer http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm 10 HORSESHOE I think of this method as the facilitator s friend You can instantly see where everyone stands on an issue You can easily warm people up to the topic at the talk to your neighbour stage And it is entirely up to you how long you try to sustain a whole group discussion before moving on to another Horseshoe topic or something else As with all the methods above the more you get to use them the better they will work http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm 2 3 TOP 10 TIPS FOR REVIEWING These tips are for newcomers and experienced reviewers alike They were first published in my article on Practical Debriefing for Fenman TRAIN the TRAINER Issue 21 Fenman Limited 2004 1 Ask What else To get beyond people s initial responses to a question try asking What else did you notice What else were you thinking What else went well 2 Ask Why Why Why To analyse success or failure more deeply just keep asking why But this may seem very aggressive So explain in advance why you will keep asking why and be ready to face the why challenge yourself The responder may stop the process at any point without explanation This works well as a paired exercise 3 Review anywhere anytime Reviewing little and often is part of the culture in BP Amoco Motorola and General Electric After Action Reviews are embedded into their way of working The little and often principle also applies to training programmes Quick impromptu debriefs can be even more powerful than the scheduled ones So use both 4 Ask What worked well However good or bad the performance it is good to acknowledge what worked well and trace the causes Performance improvement comes from studying success as well as from studying failure 5 Provide notebooks Learning from experience cannot be recorded in advance Provide notebooks for recording experiences ideas and applications Provide guidance about note taking and the time to do it well 6 Use review tasks If participants respond well to tasks but less well to debriefs then make the debrief a task The task can be to create a news report or mind map or flow chart or to prepare a demonstration showing what they would keep and change if doing the same task again 7 Keep moving If people always sit in the same seats they can both look and feel stuck Keep changing the group dynamics use subgroups vary the review tasks change the pace and style Keep some routines but you won t break the mould by staying in one 8 Review the review You will become better at debriefing if you regularly review your debriefing sessions So review the reviews as well as the training exercises Everyone will benefit 9 Use several models There is no single model that is so superior that it should be followed to the exclusion of others There are more good ways of learning than can be captured in any single model just as there is no perfect model for a good conversation 10 Be a model The most important model is you Find opportunities to demonstrate that you are learning from experience Join in some of your own reviewing exercises Seek feedback at suitable opportunities Taste some of your own medicine 2 4 WHAT COULD POSSIBLY GO WRONG FEARS OF A FACILITATOR Big fears and little fears can get in the way of learning anything new So what fears might facilitators have about reviewing especially facilitators who are new to reviewing PARTICIPANTS MAY HAVE NOTHING TO SAY Passing is OK especially if you promote Challenge by Choice Silence is also OK especially if it is a reflective silence Participants without answers may have questions they want to ask so ask if they have questions Give learners thinking time and then time talking with a partner and they will be better prepared for speaking up in a large group Or you can use methods that do not involve learners talking such as Guided Reflection Or you can use visual methods where drawings pictures or objects do some of the talking THEY MAY FIND IT BORING It is helpful to pitch the review at a suitably challenging level You can also design the review as a challenging task such as by asking learners to reenact key events or write news reports in the style of certain newspapers or magazines or by asking subgroups to prepare balanced feedback for each individual in another subgroup Responsibilities within reviews such as observer learning buddy artist chair provide challenge and purpose especially when individuals volunteer for specific responsibilities Better still if participants receive appreciative feedback from their peers about how they perform their special responsibility IT MAY JUST REPEAT WHAT THEY ALREADY KNOW General discussion about the group s performance tend to produce repetition and cliché So ask for examples that may have gone unnoticed Or focus the discussion on individual performance This is most easily done using methods 5 and 8 above in Spokes each person evaluates their own performance on a scale and then receives positive feedback from others with specific examples where possible In Empathy Test people find out just how well they know each other s experiences or opinions related to the event being reviewed THEY MIGHT FIND IT PERSONAL OR EMBARRASSING So allow passing and opting out and you can also agree an easy way that any participant can stop the group process if they have concerns e g by using a symbol or a stop word This encourages individuals to take responsibility for themselves and for influencing the group s developing code of conduct Be clear about what you want to achieve from a review and that you want to avoid any discomfort such as acute embarrassment that gets in the way of learning I MAY LOSE CONTROL It is inevitable that you lose some control because you are not a teacher feeding data into the learning process The core process is that of learners reflecting on their own experiences In many cases you will be giving learners the tools to help them explore and learn from their own experiences The chances are that you already give learners quite a high level of independence and responsibility within the task that you will later review Assuming that they can already handle some independence and responsibility during the task there is really no need or benefit in seizing it all back in the review Try to be clear with groups when you want the reins when you want them to take the reins and when you want to share the reins By being clear to yourself and to learners about this you are more likely to have the amount of control you need to be a successful facilitator of active reviewing A PIG MIGHT WALK IN See next 3 A PIG WALKS IN THAT ELUSIVE CLIMATE FOR LEARNING A starting point for all reviewing is to create a favourable climate for learning Carl Rogers describes the ultimate favourable learning climate in Freedom to Learn 1969 When I have been able to transform a group and here I mean all of the members of a group myself included into a community of learners then the excitement has been almost beyond belief To free curiosity to permit individuals to go charging off in new directions dictated by their own interests to unleash the sense of enquiry to open everything to questioning and exploration to recognise that everything is in the process of change here is an experience I can never forget And then a pig walks in Does this happen to you You work hard to find a good venue and create that wonderful climate for learning and then with a bang or a bell or a snort or a squirt everything changes One sunny morning a pig from nowhere did wander into the centre of our learning circle Some men with guns on horseback turned up and chased it away I don t know whether it was the pig or the guns or the horses but we lost focus Another time another place We were sat in a circle I was sat opposite a portrait of the first lady and out crawled a gecko from behind it I lost my focus I can t always blame animals Last week it was an intermittently faulty fire alarm and our two minutes of quiet reflection coincided with a Jingle Bells sing along from a party happening just outside our door That was in a city centre so how about a nice country retreat run by Quakers What could be more peaceful Not on the day when the volunteer gardeners come in to clip hedges and mow lawns How about the privacy of a secluded 5 star hotel at the end of a mile long private driveway Not on the day they repair the slate roof and clean the windows The cleaner s extended hose reached up to our first floor windows but his eyesight didn t We and our papers got a soaking through the open windows This summer in Transylvania we were outside in a thunderstorm with giant hailstones Just like the movie I should have known Or there was a blizzard that closed our school for two weeks When the children came back guess what they were talking about The blizzard became the deliberate focus of my English classes for several days So sometimes just sometimes an intrusion creates a new and better focus And sometimes just sometimes even a cramped environment is OK for active learning I remember getting excited about working in a brand new learning centre I didn t know we were going to be in the boardroom with a huge oval table taking up all the space The table had an oval space in the middle making it look like a racetrack With drinking straws and screwed up paper balls it became the perfect venue for blow football racing Do you have any stories about that elusive climate for learning which you would like to share If so please write to me at mailto roger reviewing co uk with elusive somewhere in the subject line I ll assume it is for publishing unless you say otherwise 4 DYNAMIC DEBRIEFING THE EXPERIENCE OF DEBRIEFING Dynamic Debriefing is the title of the chapter I wrote for the Handbook of Experiential Learning ed Mel Silberman 2007 Part 1 defines debriefing and asks What is Dynamic Debriefing See http reviewing co uk archives art 9 1 htm Part 2 on The Role of the Facilitator is at http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm Part 3 on Models of Debriefing is at http reviewing co uk archives art 9 3 htm Here is Part 4 which was also available in Russian at http www metodmaster ru articles opyt debrifinga THE EXPERIENCE OF DEBRIEFING The experience of debriefing meaning what participants experience during a debrief is as important as the debriefing of experience What participants experience during the debrief will influence their whole attitude towards learning from experience both in the present and in the future These are some of the experiential factors that the facilitator needs to keep in touch with during the debriefing process Balancing positive and negative experiences People learn from success as well as from mistakes Reliving positive experiences can be a very powerful way of harnessing the energy and insights found in the experience In fact much debriefing in experiential learning deliberately encourages people to draw strength learning and inspiration from positive experiences Because people learn from both positive and negative experiences we should encourage and support both kinds of learning When learning comes from a negative experience people want to take the learning but leave the experience behind when learning comes from a positive experience people want to carry forwards both the learning and the experience In both cases it is helpful if the learning process itself is enjoyable vivid and memorable no matter what nature of the experience from which the learning was generated Otherwise there is a risk that the original experience sticks in the mind but what was learned from it during the debrief evaporates Creating a climate for learning Some participants may feel

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  • Reviewing for Teams: Tools for Group Facilitators & Team Leaders | ARTips 9.3
    for in depth reviewing although the why question can pick up the need for a deeper review If 8 people have 4 questions to answer in less than 20 minutes and the facilitator speaks for say 4 minutes that allows 30 seconds per answer 3 Look at question 4 above What did we learn the AAR draws together learning that has ALREADY happened the review itself is not seen as an opportunity for NEW learning other than learning about what someone else has already learned 4 The opening question What was supposed to happen has the merit of getting straight to the point and resonates well with its origins in the US military But just in case that question or the others don t suit the occasion you may want an alternative to the useful but limited routine of AAR This article continues as an annotated index to alternative methods for reviewing with teams Some familiar methods are presented in a new light And where my own descriptions are thin I have provided you with links to other sources FOR REVIEWING TEAM TASK ACHIEVEMENT WHAT WORKED WELL Especially what did WE do well http reviewing co uk archives art 3 1 htm 1 http reviewing co uk success success7 htm SUCCESS CHART A symbol representing the success is placed in the middle of the floor Big labels of all the contributing factors are created to surround it These factors also had causes which are also labelled etc Doesn t work so well when the fans are turning http reviewing co uk success success6 htm charting SPOKES Take any factor from the above two exercises and ask how well did we or you individually do in relation to this factor See the second activity in this article http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm GOAL KEEPERS An observation system that is readily adapted for team goals The team first establishes say 9 goals and 3 observers flash one of their three goal cards to any team member who needs reminding or congratulating Search this page for jogger its original name http reviewing co uk archives art 1 6 htm 1 ACTION REPLAY Some teams will simply enjoy replaying the best moments as a way of celebrating success Ideally they will also want to replay moments they were dissatisfied with This apparently playful technique can be really effective at bringing problems into a sharp focus and learning from them http reviewing co uk learning cycle action replay htm http reviewing co uk stories replay htm FOR REVIEWING TEAM PROCESS ROLES DYNAMICS MISSING PERSON An intuitive and logical way of moving a team forwards http reviewing co uk learning cycle missing person htm See the 11th activity in this article http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm Or try one of my variations The Outsider http digbig com 4wbmc STONES Only described here in outline but that might be enough http reviewing co uk learning cycle stones group dynamics htm http reviewing co uk archives art 6 2 htm 2 HORSESHOE Very familiar to readers of Active Reviewing Tips It is so handy that it is best reserved for key team issues on which there is likely to be a significant spread of opinion http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm 2 See the third activity in this article http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm TURNTABLE Alternative views of the team as it is now or as we d like it to be are discussed in a way in which everyone sees and speaks from each of the views It works well in combination with Horseshoe e g if using Horseshoe before and after to see what indiviudals really think http reviewing co uk discuss discuss2 htm HUMAN SCULPTURE There is no description on reviewing co uk but I have contributed to the first two below http www psicopolis com renafop groupmandala htm http wilderdom com games descriptions GroupMandala html and this is an interesting variation I d like to try http www artinthepark co uk education study2 html SOCIOGRAM A simple tool I prefer just to put them on display like a photo display rather than attempt discussing them Words don t necessarily add value to good pictures or diagrams http wik ed uiuc edu index php Sociogram BELBIN TEAM ROLES In the right hands qualified ones this provides a useful way of helping individuals think about the team as a whole and their role within it In the wrong hands people might walk around for years with self limiting labels whether kept in place by themselves or by their stale unimaginative colleagues http www belbin com TUCKMAN STAGE OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT In my experience teams only sometimes go through these stages but there are occasions where this perspective on group development may help a team through hard times if used wisely http wilderdom com group StagesGroupDevelopment html http en wikipedia org wiki Forming storming norming performing TEAMWORK METAPHORS Many critics have pointed out that it is unhelpful for teams to adopt unsuitable metaphors from the sports world or any world even if they do make a refreshing change from naval and military metaphors clichés embedded in workspeak welcome aboard all hands on deck let s pull together scan the horizon But because teams can be so complex finding an apt metaphor can really help people communicate about how they see the nature and essence of a team So for a change of metaphor try Tuning into the Music of Groups A Metaphor for Team Based Learning in Management Education http digbig com 4wbmh Metaphors we organize by http www managementunplugged com p 19 FOR REVIEWING WHAT INDIVIDUALS BRING TO THE TEAM ACTIVE IMAGES OF TEAMWORK This follows on from teamwork metaphors It involves each team member demonstrating with the whole team their own values and aspirations about good teamwork http reviewing co uk actrev htm BACK TO THE FUTURE The team version involves everyone thinking about what from the past and present will help them achieve their objective http reviewing co uk archives art 9 1 htm 3 FOR FEEDBACK FOR TEAM MEMBERS AND TEAM LEADERS OBSERVERS One of many ways of noticing giving and receiving positive feedback http reviewing co uk success success7 htm bingo WARM SEAT Good for team leader feedback if the question is a good one http reviewing co uk feedback htm warmseat Alternatively try SEQ STYLE EFFECT QUESTION This is a less direct form of feedback and it is a reminder that feedback is not necessarily just about good bad judgements This method gets round defensiveness or reluctance to criticise while also providing useful feedback http reviewing co uk success success7 htm seq SIMULTANEOUS SURVEY This is a quick way for everyone to receive face to face one to one feedback based on the carefully chosen questions that they want to ask It is helpful for everyone to read out their questions in advance This also allows the facilitator and the team to suggest better questions if anyone is asking questions that are unlikely to give them valuable and balanced feedback http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm 2 FOR ENRICHING TEAM REVIEWS FUTURE WALKING This exercise allows the team to walk through and experience their own Force Field Analysis or SWOT diagram It makes the paper exercise much more real sometimes too real METAPHOR MAP A team that has been together for a while can use this reviewing exercise to learn from the past and move on especially suitable between projects or before a major change http reviewing co uk articles big picture reviewing htm DREAM DRAWING Everyone s pictures of the future for the team can be compared and assembled To prevent artist s block partners listen and draw their partner s dream out of sight of the person describing their dream e g back to back PICTURE THIS And to avoid artist s block altogether ask In three years from now if the strategy is successful what does our team organisation look like and where are you in this picture Ask participants to each choose an image from a stimulating variety of picture postcards Remember Please tell me if I have achieved my goal of helping you to review with teams If you want to discuss your ideas with others view the interactive option No 3 just below 3 FREE 4 FACILITATORS 4 lists 4 you NEW EXPERIENTIAL CPD is a brand new announcement list for UK events See option 4 below INTERACTIVE If you want to discuss reviewing ideas with other subscribers choose option 3 below 1 YOU ARE HERE Active Reviewing Tips for Dynamic Experiential Learning A free newsletter to recharge your reviewing and facilitation skills maximum frequency monthly a practical feature on reviewing tips links to sites about active learning methods tips comments and ideas from readers what s new in the Guide to Active Reviewing dates for Roger s open workshops 2 RECENTLY REVIVED Adventure Plus Adventure and Experiential Education SiteFinder Ezine Free site reviews for outdoor educators trainers and researchers maximum frequency monthly reviews of adventure plus websites the hows and whys of experiential learning how to find or promote adventure plus sites directory updates dates of workshops conferences Go to http reviewing co uk panel top left 3 THE INTERACTIVE PARTNER TO ACTIVE REVIEWING TIPS Active Reviewing Exchange ARTips Exchange Active Reviewing Exchange is a moderated discussion group for subscribers to the Active Reviewing Tips newsletter This group is for facilitators to exchange ideas stimulated by the newsletter and to help each other develop ideas and practices in active learning The focus is on maximising learning from experience using reflection and discussion or more creative and dynamic methods 4 A BRAND NEW LISTING OF UK EVENTS EXPERIENTIAL CPD continuing professional development Experiential CPD is a new moderated announcement list where you can announce or learn about upcoming training events in the UK for outdoor educators and experiential trainers on topics such as facilitation skills groupwork skills course design activity design working with specific client groups etc Short relevant announcements are welcome from all UK providers of CPD for outdoor educators and experiential trainers Announcements may be delayed for a week or so to group them into one message Go to http reviewing co uk panel top left 4 DYNAMIC DEBRIEFING MODELS OF DEBRIEFING Dynamic Debriefing is the title of the chapter I wrote for the Handbook of Experiential Learning Silberman April 2007 Part 1 defines debriefing and asks What is Dynamic Debriefing See http reviewing co uk archives art 9 1 htm Part 2 on The Role of the Facilitator is now at http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm Here is Part 3 also available in Russian was at http www metodmaster ru articles dinamicheskii debrifing modeli debrifinga MODELS OF DEBRIEFING If the purpose of debriefing is to facilitate learning from experience it follows that a complete model of debriefing would need to integrate experiential learning theory with facilitation theory Just as there are different kinds of experiential learning so there are different kinds of facilitation This creates many potential combinations for producing a theory of debriefing John Heron above is one of the few writers who combine both kinds of theory Below is a list of what I would consider to be the minimum requirements for a complete model of debriefing Against each requirement I have suggested models that have the potential for fulfilling that requirement if known A complete model of debriefing would include 1 A model for sequencing questions to create a suitable flow and direction to a learning conversation There are so many sequencing models to choose from mostly presented as cycles that these are discussed later in a separate section on sequencing in debriefing 2 A model for keeping all learners engaged when debriefing in a group The pattern 1 2 All is a good way to start a debrief or a new stage within a debrief 1 solo thinking time or writing time or making a brief personal statement 2 talking in pairs All whole group discussion This kind of preparation helps to generate higher levels of involvement and a higher quality of group discussion At any time you can reverse the process using All 2 1 The same or different pairs talk together and each individual makes a note of their learning or of the next step they wish to take If appropriate a session can end back in the whole group with each individual invited to speak 1 2 All 2 1 can be used with most question sequences because it is about patterns of interaction rather than about the content of what is said 3 A model that captures the rhythm of learning and change John Dewey used the analogy of armies moving and resting George Kelly wrote about tight and loose construing Kurt Lewin used the terms freezing and unfreezing for David Kolb it was convergent and divergent thinking for Terry Borton it was about switching between analytic and contemplative modes Borton recommends that questions based on his What So What Now What cycle are asked in two quite different manners The first is the analytic mode hard driving pointed sharp logical tough and rigorous But writes Borton it is difficult for people to change if they are put under much pressure so we also employ a contemplative mode a more relaxed approach which avoids picking at one s self and allows alternatives to suggest themselves through free association and metaphor Borton 1970 89 These various to and fro motions are like the rhythm of pistons driving a wheel over dependence on one piston could bring learning to a grinding halt The alternation of activity and debriefing provides a large slow two stroke rhythm there is also scope within debriefing to facilitate these to and fro rhythms of learning and change 4 A model for focused questioning The debriefing funnel uses a succession of filters that focus in at every stage Priest and Gass 1997 196 The six filters are review recall and remember affect and effect summation application and commitment Priest and Gass describe it as an expansion of Borton s three questions What So What Now What The image of the funnel and its filters clearly aligns the model with Borton s analytic mode but provides little encouragement for divergent or contemplative thinking as part of the debriefing process A more complete model might include an inverted funnel to prompt lateral or creative thinking or to promote a helicopter view The authors do encourage adaptation of this model and encourage readers not to be bound by a single view of debriefing as the only way to guide reflection Thiagi s advice on preparing questions for debriefing follows a similar pattern moving from open to probing questions within each of his six stages How do you feel What happened What did you learn How does it relate What if What next Thiagarajan Thiagarajan 1999 37 47 5 A model that keeps in touch with learners motivations Ripples on a Pond Race 2003 emphasizes the driving force that is missing from other learning models Professor Phil Race has developed his model based on questions he has asked to tens of thousands of people from schoolchildren to training managers He places wanting to learn or as a second best needing to learn at the centre of his ripples model The ripples lead outwards through doing making sense feedback training and understanding Race says you should also ripple inwards and keep revisiting the central wanting to learn As an example the right kind of feedback at the third ripple adds to people s desire to learn The outer ripples will disappear if there is no energy at the centre Race points out that unlike cyclical models of learning all factors in his model are involved at the same time This is why he writes Any model based on a cycle won t do If following a cycle too rigidly the learning process becomes fragmented and loses touch with the whole as well as losing touch with the heart wanting to learn 6 A model that recognizes the importance of what learners experience during the debrief Race above underlines the importance of learners wanting to learn but this sixth requirement goes further by recognizing that the quality of the experience during the debrief also has a significant impact on learners motivations It can also have a significant impact on their learning and development both the experience being debriefed and the experience of the debrief are potential sources of learning and development These possibilities are explored further in the next section about the experience of debriefing 7 A model that helps to keep the learning process moving Perhaps spinning plates is an apt metaphor here It illustrates how a facilitator needs to pay attention to many different factors when debriefing in a group and especially to the plate that is most likely to fall next The plate most likely to fall next may well be the wanting to learn plate as in Race s model but it could be any plate that has escaped recent attention and this keeps changing Greenaway 2004 8 A model about working with whole persons throughout the debrief This is partly about how models are readily misinterpreted As soon as a model can be used as a sequence it is whatever its author might say Borton writes of his Sensing Transforming Acting model The model s three divisions are arbitrary for the processes do not function in a simple 1 2 3 fashion but are interwoven in a dynamic fashion Borton 1970 78 After describing all the factors in his Ripples in a Pond learning model Race writes All these factors are involved at once Race 2003 It is difficult though not impossible to represent dynamic simultaneous or interweaving processes in a model Unfortunately anything that looks like

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  • Reviewing for All: How To Include Everyone in a Lively Debrief | ARTips 9.2
    IT FOR ME Each person may be privately asking themselves What s in it for me and sitting back and playing wait and see Until the review gets going they don t really know if it is going to benefit them in any way This passive wait and see approach is more likely to happen when participants have little or no responsibility and are simply waiting for someone else to make it worthwhile One solution is to involve participants in the planning of the review This can be done in advance with participants declaring before the activity or before the review what topics or questions they wish to explore The facilitator can act as consultant suggesting ways in which participants learning goals can best be achieved in a review As a facilitator you can suggest a ground rule that encourages anyone at any time to ask What s in it for me This could of course be very disruptive and selfish but done in the right spirit such a ground rule gives encouragement to those who feel neglected or bored in a review to speak up and work with the facilitator and others to find a way of making it Reviewing for All REVIEWING FOR HEARTS AND MINDS A review strategy for engaging MINDS might involve listing all the issues topics or questions that people want to explore prioritising them and then working through them I don t know about you but this kind of process may start full of promise but after a while my HEART is not in it and then my MIND is not in it whatever the topic A review that engages the HEART is a review that appeals at many different levels and meets many different needs This typically involves paying attention to the here and now and to what the reviewing process feels like for each participant The HEART prompts questions such as Do I belong here Does this feel good Do people care about me Am I listened to Am I respected Am I valued by others Can I be me Is this fun Is this exciting Is this what I want Is there something in this for all of us Do we have the power to make this work for us Do I have the opportunity to make this work for me These questions are based on some of the development needs listed in my article Reviewing for Development http reviewing co uk articles reviewing for development htm By using a variety of reviewing processes that appeal to both HEARTS and MINDS you make reviewing more engaging and inclusive This helps to achieve Reviewing for All FEELING AT HOME In events where there is an alternation between activities and reviews it is possible that some people will feel most at home in reviews while others feel most at home in activities Other people may not feel at home in either The ideal to strive for is to create a group climate that supports learning and development both during activities and reviews Ask people what is helping or hindering their learning and development in the group If such a question does not lead to instant improvement it should at least bring out some useful ideas for creating a group that becomes a better place to be First and foremost everyone must feel at home in the group seeing it as a place where they feel safe and where their needs are met especially in reviews Enlist their help and ideas for making the group a better place to be and a better place to learn But see Comfy Chair next for another view NO NO NOT THE COMFY CHAIR In a Monty Python comedy sketch the comfy chair was one of the most feared forms of torture So perhaps a comfort zone is a form of torture for those who prefer adventure and living on the edge Too much comfort can stifle learning and change This is yet another balance that needs to be carefully maintained if you want to achieve Reviewing for All If people find reviewing too challenging they may react in a negative way and those who want more challenge in review sessions may also react negatively even if they do not shout out NO NO NOT THE COMFY REVIEW We seem to readily accept that each person may have an adventure threshold in physically challenging activities We should also try to be aware of each person s adventure threshold in reviews especially because it is around this threshold that significant learning happens Discomfort is not necessary for learning but it is often associated with more profound learning especially where unlearning has to make way for new learning BEING COMFORTABLE IN THE STRETCH ZONE If you want to achieve Reviewing for All then look through your reviewing toolkit and at your programme and anticipate which reviewing sessions are going to be most stretching and most significant for participants One kind of reviewing that is frequently challenging for participants and facilitators alike is when giving and receiving feedback Another kind of review that is often challenging is when presentation or performance is part of the reviewing process One of the secrets of success in this area is to ensure that learners are well prepared for the big challenges by building up their skills with smaller challenges This means planning a progression in your reviews and having some communication with learners about the pace of this progression Learners themselves are often the best judges of the level of challenge that will be most worthwhile By giving learners a say you are more likely to provide the right kind of stretch This also gives learners a chance to buy in to the process and makes it less likely that they will drop out TURN TAKING In most groups there is a strong sense of fairness The occasional use of turn taking techniques can serve as useful reminders of the fact that each person s contribution is valued and that reviewing is for all But over use of turn taking techniques does not give you the chance to discover the group s actual commitment to this value Groups will only support structures and routines that they feel are necessary Structures like turn taking are temporary enabling measures Used too much they become stifling and disabling Facilitation is a dynamic art so don t make routines too permanent This point is explored further in the extract from Dynamic Debriefing below REQUEST STOP Make it easy for a participant to say Stop or This isn t working for me Without an easy way of saying stop participants may suffer in silence while feeling that reviewing is not for all or they may disrupt the process in ways that are even more challenging for the facilitator A stop signal is an early warning that something isn t working well It is better to pick up an early warning than it is to get the message later on when a participant may have been experiencing discomfort or exclusion for some time How can you best respond to a stop signal You may want to think through some basic options in advance However you respond you will no doubt want to show gratitude but without overdoing it You will also not want to make a mountain out of a molehill so try to assess the situation quickly by quietly asking the person why they have requested a stop You will usually want to respond to the stop request straight away Occasionally it is better to offer to deal with the request later such as by putting it in the Parking Lot see below You also need to decide who should solve the problem the requester the group or yourself or all of you together Don t expect the requester to solve the problem unless they are using the stop signal to announce their solution On the other hand don t assume that the problem is yours to solve What do you use for a request stop signal I ll leave that one to you CHALLENGE BY CHOICE IN REVIEWS Challenge by Choice is a trademarked term from Project Adventure It is a principle that is applied to activities rather than to reviews It underlines the participant s right to opt out The right to opt out should in my view be in place throughout the whole process including reviews The more challenging your reviews become the more important it is to explain how participants can opt out during the review Making it easy for people to opt out ultimately encourages Reviewing for All because if it is not reasonably easy for people to opt out they may suffer in silence and the appearance of Reviewing for All is illusory OPT OUT OPTIONS Here are some examples WARM SEAT The person in the warm seat receiving feedback can leave the seat at any time As soon as they leave it the feedback stops This rule gives the receiver a temperature control If the seat gets too hot for them they leave the seat and stop the feedback Simply knowing they have control makes the warm seat feel much safer http reviewing co uk feedback htm warmseat HORSESHOE On some issues people may not have an opinion or may not wish to express an opinion or may even object to the group discussing a particular issue The Horseshoe is a curved line representing a range of opinions between the two defined ends People can show where they stand on an issue by placing themselves at a chosen point on the Horseshoe By providing a no comment position in the gap between the two ends you can make opting out a little easier I recently defended the right of silence for a person who chose the no comment position when he was challenged by others to explain his position http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm OPTING OUT A WELCOME EARLY WARNING SIGN Participants may choose to opt out using the procedures you have carefully set up But the real opting out is when they may opt out of your opt out procedures and just opt out in their own way This is a very clear signal that you are not achieving Reviewing for All If you can engage opters out in a conversation and listen carefully to their point of view the chances are that this conversation itself is a worthwhile review whether or not you can use it as a basis for negotiating changes that will make people want to opt back in In my experience these conversations around the edges are in the zone where a lot of critical reviewing work can happen What is being reviewed in these conversations is likely to be the experience of reviewing itself and the fundamental purpose of the whole event What better way to develop your reviewing skills You can even apply the reviewing cycle to the problem so that you bring out the relevant facts feelings and findings on the way to creating a solution People who opt out of a large group process can respond very favourably to much the same process if they are in smaller groups getting more attention and feeling more able to participate Personalisation works PARKING LOT The Parking Lot is a display board or similar where issues for reviewing later are recorded If used well the Parking Lot helps to achieve Reviewing for All by ensuring that issues important to participants do not get forgotten Parking Lot is an agenda setting process that is always on and continually available It is a Parking Lot in which there are always spaces If used badly Parking Lot becomes a way of avoiding issues rather than addressing them But it can give you and participants valuable thinking time about the issues and how best to review them The Parking Lot typically focuses on topics and not on processes A growing agenda of topics does not necessarily mean that everyone wants to sit through a long review meeting This is where your skill in designing and facilitating active reviews comes in Working with agendas created by participants does help to ensure Reviewing for All but unless you use inclusive and participatory methods for exploring the topics you will find that despite the relevance of the topic not everyone is buying into the process This is where the Stop Signal see above can help If anyone is dissatisfied with the process including yourself you can stop the process and seek a better way of conducting the review one that involves both hearts and minds SIMULTANEOUS SURVEY This is a highly participatory way of getting through a long agenda Pairs or small groups carry out a survey each specialising in one of the agenda items They collate results and report back to the whole group You need to do the maths carefully in advance to ensure that you set suitable time limits to achieve the whole process in the time available for the survey collation report back and any subsequent discussion Simultaneous Survey exemplifies Reviewing for All because it allows for everyone to be consulted on all issues it involves everyone in responsible roles and everyone gets to hear the result of each survey It is difficult not to take everyone s views into account in any discussion that follows MID PROGRAMME EVALUATION You may resist doing mid way evaluations if you think it will take up too much time off task or if you think learners will find it dull and uninteresting But a mid programme evaluation helps to ensure that you are on task and on track for each individual And there is no reason for it to be dull You can readily turn any evaluation form into a Simultaneous Survey for example and if you are not careful the evaluation becomes more fun and participatory than what was happening before The evaluation questions I use for this process are at http reviewing co uk evaluation evalform htm LEARNING BUDDIES Each person in the group pairs up with another Each is responsible for supporting the other person s learning The existence of such relationships in a group ensures that everyone has at least one person in the group supporting their learning The support can take the form of listening clarifying encouraging observing representing or giving feedback The facilitator will usually give specific instructions to learning buddies that are suited to the particular activity or review Learning Buddies shares the benefits common to most paired work no one gets left out reviewing is personalised for each individual paired reviews prime group reviews In addition the roles of buddy and learner are regularly reversed with learners developing skills both as learners and as facilitators for each other s learning Developing the habit of reciprocity in pairs makes it easier to develop this value in the group as a whole making the group a place where everyone gives and gets ALWAYS NEW PAIRS In Learning Buddies participants are guaranteed at least one buddy but in the Always New version participants eventually get to be learning buddies with everyone else Clearly some pairings will work better than others so Always New Pairs helps to ensure that no pairs get stuck as learning buddies in name only A potential downside of Always New Pairs is that there is not enough time for pairs to settle in and learn well with each other So if using this system it is up to you to judge when learning buddies should stay together and when they should change partners TOOLS FOR PARTICIPANTS Making participants more skilled in reviewing is a key strategy for achieving Reviewing for All This way of thinking is unlikely to happen if reviewing skills are associated entirely with the facilitator s own skills If you see your job as developing learning skills then it is clearly helpful to give learners a range of reviewing tools and develop their skills in using them For example visual aids are traditionally seen as aids used by the teacher or trainer to communicate to learners But in much reviewing the greatest value of visual aids is to place them in the hands of learners to help learners communicate what they have to say If you want to achieve Reviewing for All then ensure you have a suitable range of tools And train participants to use them well ALL 2 1 In the description of 1 2 ALL above the emphasis was on ensuring that everyone is involved early on in the reviewing process It can be just as important to ensure that each person leaves the review with something of value such as a lesson learned a treasured moment a better relationship a question to explore or a commitment to action You can achieve this personalisation at the end of a review by asking pairs to discuss what they want to take with them from the review or from the experience under review Individuals are encouraged to record their answers and or speak them to the group SOMETHING OF VALUE The ALL 2 1 sequence can be enacted in many ways One good option is to ask participants to find an object or picture representing something of value from the review Each person explains their choice to a partner and then everyone explains their partner s choice to the whole group If using picture postcards these can be left on display on a sticky wall as visible reminders of what each person found to be of value At the end of the event people may wish to take photos of pictures or symbolic objects that have taken on a special meaning for them unless they are able to take the originals away as souvenirs WHO SPEAKS FOR YOU One of the benefits of reviewing in groups is that some people put into words what others struggle to

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