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  • Reviewing for Results and 10 Tips for the Transfer of Learning | ARTips 9.1
    a journey People often choose goals that they are already on their way to achieving To check this out I ask the learner s partner who is the facilitator or coach to invite them to turn round and look BACK towards the beginning of their journey The coach then asks questions such as What personal skills strengths values and motivations do you already have that will help you on this journey Best asked as separate questions Apart from setting this goal what else have you already done to help you achieve this goal In what ways have other people or other external factors helped you start your journey and get this far Where you are right now on your journey Whilst answering these questions people are often surprised to discover just how far they have already travelled If surprised in this way the person on the rope should be encouraged to show this by moving BACKWARDS towards their goal This can also represent their discovery that the goal is closer more easily achievable than they initially thought It is also likely that the conversation has made the person more sharply aware of what they need to do to mobilise and harness the supporting forces that they have just identified and described This readily produces ideas for the next steps to take towards their goal From this point on the process could revert to a normal goal setting exercise But there is still plenty of scope for backwards progress towards the main goal If the coach treats the next step as a mini goal they can continue a similar line of questioning What factors that already exist will help you make this next step What have you already done that will help pave the way for making this step Another line of questioning other than searching for helpful factors and achievements in the current situation is to ask about similar situations Have you ever achieved this kind of goal before What factors helped you achieve that goal Do any of those factors exist on this occasion Have you ever attempted achieving this kind of goal before How can you use your learning from that experience help you achieve this particular goal Have you ever thought about setting yourself this kind of challenge before What has changed that has made you ready and willing to commit to this goal now What do you know about your strengths as a goal achiever that are going to help you achieve this particular goal What do you know about how you deal with your weaknesses as a goal achiever if any that could help you achieve this particular goal Every so often the person can be asked to glance at the future again The coach might ask What are going to be the most critical or important steps What do you expect to find most challenging on the journey towards your goal The answer to any such questions is often in the form of a mini goal or can readily be re expressed as one As soon as the coach has a new mini goal the pattern can be repeated with the walker facing the past and being asked a review question that invites them to draw on past experience or to identify helpful factors or forces that already exist At the end of this session the gap between the person and the goal should be much less The walker should be in an even more positive frame of mind having narrowed the gap and having been talking about all the helpful factors that already exist and the helpful moves they have already made The journey will be shorter and they will be approaching it in a more resourceful way Unlike the future walking exercise their physical movement towards the goal is not a rehearsal for steps that they will make in the future In this case the steps represent what already exists The process is a discovery and appreciation of what already exists Their movement along the line represents a more accurate view of their current position Tip don t get too hung up about the exact position on the line because the quality of the conversation is more important It is the movement within the exercise that helps to focus thoughts and raise the quality of conversation You can of course follow this exercise with future walking an active reviewing exercise that brings force field analysis alive There is nothing wrong about walking into the future But the exercise just described is about walking into the present and discovering where you really are in relation to your goal In most cases this process will reveal that you are much closer than you thought But the exercise cannot go wrong If people discover the opposite that the distance is actually greater than they first thought that is also useful learning that will help them achieve their goal I have yet to experience such a backwards move it is simply a possibility BACK TO THE FUTURE has just been described as a paired activity but there is no reason why you cannot try this alone If you don t like talking to yourself or being seen talking to yourself just hold a mobile phone to your ear as you walk backwards to the future Where two people have a shared goal it becomes a co coaching exercise asking questions such as What have you or we already done experienced decided that will help us achieve our goal Added since original publication ANOTHER KIND OF BACK TO THE FUTURE not the film Thiagi has come up with a very elegant way to the future using reverse psychology which sounds better than backwards thinking First you create a LAOG the reverse of a G O A L A LAOG is the opposite of your goal i e it is a goal that would take you in the opposite direction Now you have fun brainstorming lots of ways

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  • Reviewing for Fun | Active Reviewing Tips 8.1
    recipe for success All 49 success questions are listed at http reviewing co uk success icebreaker htm together with stories from trainers who have used Brief Encounters ICE BREAKER reviewing present experiences THE EXPRESSION GAME a heart on the sleeve exercise I originally devised this game as a trainer training exercise to focus on what the learner in a learner centred process is experiencing Not very sophisticated but quite thought provoking and playful Not suitable for the very start of a course as it puts individuals on the spot and can give them too much to cope with It is a variation of a well known game in which there is one less chair than there are people The chairless person stands in the middle continuously calling out their feelings such as cool pressured special excited tired isolated happy while others change seats The person in the middle tries to sit in a recently vacated seat which if successful results in another person becoming the chairless one Variation anyone who is looked at by the person in the middle must call out their feeling just once as soon as they are looked at and ends up in the middle if they don t Another variation take more than one chair away so that more than one person is in the middle It may then feel a bit less lonely in the middle with each person asking the other How do you feel now TELLING STORIES TAKING TURNS TO TELL A GROUP STORY FORTUNATELY UNFORTUNATELY for a balanced view This is one way in which a group of any age can tell the story about its performance One person starts with a sentence beginning Fortunately The person on their left continues the story with a sentence beginning Unfortunately Passing is allowed but the over riding rule is that sentences should alternate Example Fortunately we allocated time for planning Unfortunately we didn t read the full brief Fortunately I noticed the mistake Pass Unfortunately you didn t mention it at the time This exercise is particularly useful for groups that are over critical or under critical of their own performance This is because the alternation can help them to achieve a more balanced view And for any group it brings out achievements and problems that can be analysed in more detail later in the review Warning it can be fun Variations http reviewing co uk rounds htm THE STORYTELLER S CHAIR for recalling events and details This is another way for a group to tell its story One person sits in the storyteller s chair and starts giving a detailed account of what happened If any listener thinks the storyteller has omitted any detail they stand up and change places with the storyteller and continue until challenged and so on If at any point you want to speed things up you can jump ahead in time and continue from a new starting point People may be reluctant to sit in the chair

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  • Reviewing for Peace and Conflict Resolution | ARTips 10.2
    partner and a change of activity Have a few spare activities is helpful as in the later stages partners may not be able to find a new activity unless you or they happen to have made a foolproof masterplan or Matrix You can change the balance and mix of activities to suit the group and the purpose For a big serious topic you can have just one activity and one purpose but you stay with the principle of changing partners every 10 minutes or whatever time you decide If there is a quiet park or open space nearby and the weather is facilitative you can harness the tranquility of nature to assist the quality of reflective conversations Choose a central location in the middle of a big open space as your base For this out and back version of 121 pairs walk away from your central location in all directions for 5 minutes turn around and walk back You can place turnaround markers at a suitable distance or ask listeners to be timekeepers The role of speaker and listener is swapped over at the turnaround point If the topic merits the attention the briefing can be identical for every paired conversation But even if you stay with the same topic it is likely to be more interesting and productive if you provide a series of n 1 sequenced questions One such sequence is the Active Reviewing Cycle which moves through facts feelings findings futures http reviewing co uk learning cycle A similar sequence is an integral part of Marshall Rosenberg s Nonviolent Communication observations feelings needs requests http www cnvc org For most groups you will need to provide more than single word prompts Alternatively you can co create or negotiate suitable questions at the outset of the exercise If this is achievable most people will give greater commitment to answering questions that they have had a say in producing It spoils the surprise but your purpose is conflict resolution not springing surprises If 121 Matrix seems too carefully choreographed you may prefer the more random nature of Simultaneous Survey described in previous issues of Active Reviewing Tips The survey method involves a lot of fairly brief one to one conversations with ever changing partners but it does not guarantee that each individual will talk with everyone else 8 ACTION REPLAY I have found that Action Replay see item 5 below is a method that has frequently had a healing effect in groups that were split or in conflict I once started a programme with an overnight exercise that was intended to have a group building effect The result was very clear we had created two groups which was half as good as building just the one An action replay the following morning allowed each subgroup to reenact their own story to each other Subgroups alternated as performers and audience It was the replay that brought the subgroups together as one On another occasion an individual had a dominant and isolated position in the group largely as a result of his selfish behaviour The replay allowed the whole group to enjoy their high points again And when it came to the selfish incident that no one would talk about the individual decided it was time to pause the replay explain his behaviour and apologise to the group The replay served as a means of confronting selfish and abusive behaviour I once worked with a young management team who were so proud of their achievements they found it difficult to welcome new members to their team Putting aside my usual enthusiasm for success focused approaches I asked the team to replay an occasion where they had interviewed for a new management position while giving the impression that they didn t want their cosy team to change I asked them to exaggerate the worst aspects of the real incident while one of them took the role of the applicant I paused the action checked that the applicant was feeling suitably unwanted and then asked the team to rewind and switch to a more welcoming approach in a positive replay of the negative replay A variation of action replay happened following an inter group competition in which our group believed that one of the other groups had cheated We challenged them not by replaying our own performance but by replaying what we thought the other team had said and done when out of sight from us The other group then performed their version of events which we accepted In the interests of balance the other group challenged us using the same method and invited us to show the real version of events which they had guessed Confronting people with different versions of reality could be explosive But I have only ever found that action replay sets the stage for an honest sharing of events not known to all or for an honest sharing of thoughts and feelings underlying actions The manner in which the replay is directed sets the tone for how people are likely to respond In a review the set up is along the lines of let us learn from what happened For more about Action Replay see item 5 below 9 EMPATHY EXERCISES Getting people to understand what it is like to be in the shoes of another is a strategy that seems to be an indispensable part of peacemaking whatever the scale you are working at But how do you achieve this The simple but not easy answer is talking and listening which is discussed in the review of Adam Kahane s book below While simple is best for many people you may find that some groups are more likely to see with new eyes if the method is more active and participatory Regular readers of Active Reviewing Tips will know of Empathy Test back to back guessing and of Egoing speaking as if you are your partner and of Turntable formerly known as Revolver In the classic use of Turntable there is a debate between two sides During the discussion people change sides while moving round the circle This gives practice in arguing from both positions and it can also lead to some aha moments as a result of people finding themselves in shoes they are not accustomed to wearing But for peacemaking you can create a valuable opportunity for practising such skills by creating an extra two sides One extra side is for listeners and clarifiers The other extra side is for creative compromisers or bridge builders Turntable allows people to explore an issue of common interest to view the issue from familiar and unfamiliar viewpoints and to practise the skills of a peacemaker It is a role play exercise for use in a training setting and it may be too game like for situations where bigger games are being played out But experience of Turntable in a relatively safe environment can help facilitators or participants develop conflict resolution skills that can serve them well in conflicts of greater seriousness 10 SEEING THE SYSTEM In many situations the conflict involves more than those who happen to be present There is a larger system to understand You can try to understand systems by talking about them but it is often much easier if you can see the system and your own role in the system by using suitable visual aids My two favourite tools for seeing the system are Metaphor Map and Moving Stones A short description of Metaphor Map is at http digbig com 4xhca A fuller description will appear in a future issue of Active Reviewing Tips Stones Moving Stones is described at http reviewing co uk archives art 6 2 htm 2 and is presented in a short video at http www activelearningmanual com 11 ARE YOU LOOKING FOR TROUBLE Maybe you spend time designing or looking for training exercises that simulate work by putting people under pressure and stress with problems to solve or challenges to overcome The team that was happy and smiling during your energisers now encounters your cunning exercise and obligingly fall out with each other So during your review you try to distance people from the conflict enough so that they can reflect on it dispassionately Unfortunately there is still so much conflict in the air that the team are not so obliging when you want them to step out of the conflict and learn from it What do you do I ll leave that as an open question My point is that facilitators in a teaching or training role are both troublemakers and peacemakers And whenever things seem too settled tidy or certain I for one will want to ask a provocative question to keep the learning process going Do you ever stir up trouble 12 PEACEMAKING RESOURCES FOR ALL WALKS OF LIFE Some internet resources about peacemaking in business crime relationships school higher education and between nations Recommended Reading For Conflict Resolution in Business http www businesslistening com conflict resolution books php Peacemaking Crime exploring alternatives to the war on crime http peacemakingandcrime blogspot com Using Appreciative Inquiry to Reframe Conflict and Solve Problems http digbig com 4xhbf The Conflict Resolution Education Connection http www creducation org cre home Conflict Resolution Resources for Teachers http www creducation org cre teachers Conflict Management in Higher Education Report Tools Index http www campus adr org CMHER ReportResources ToolsIndex html The Conflict Resolution Information Source http crinfo beyondintractability org essay facilitation The Association for Humanistic Psychology links http www ahpweb org involve websites html Department of Peace Studies University of Bradford the largest and we like to think the leading academic centre for the study of peace and conflict in the world http www brad ac uk acad peace The Center for Nonviolent Communication http www cnvc org Nonviolent Communication A Language of Compassion Giving from the Heart the Heart of Nonviolent Communication by Marshall B Rosenberg Ph D http www cnvc org node 393 RESOURCES ADDED SINCE PUBLICATION OF THIS EZINE Fostering Dialogue Across Divides a free 188 page guide and other free resources at the Public Conversations Project website http www publicconversations org resources guides A PENNY FOR YOUR THOUGHTS ABOUT REVIEWING FOR PEACE Maybe you have some favourite methods or stories you would like to share with readers of Active Reviewing Tips Maybe you wish to comment on what you read in this issue Please write to me at roger reviewing co uk with your thoughts I appreciate that some comments are private and not for publishing so I always check for permissions before exposing your thoughts to the wider world 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL Another New Video If you visited http www activelearningmanual com and left feedback on the three short videos Action Replay Moving Stones and Talking Knot thank you There is now a 4th introductory video which includes clips of more techniques illustrating key points about the value of active learning Here is an edited version of the script The Active Learning Manual is a collection of techniques for facilitators of active learning such as teachers trainers consultants or coaches In fact this manual is for anyone who helps people learn from what they do So what s so special about active learning Well quite simply in active learning the learner is an active participant not a passive recipient Active learning clearly involves a much wider range of learning skills which helps people become more capable and versatile learners These videos show you how to keep participants motivated and involved when you are facilitating active learning When viewing these videos notice who is using holding making or moving the various communication aids You will see that these aids are tools for participants to use once you have demonstrated how they work The first video shows participants performing action replays of the most interesting or most critical moments They use a dummy remote control and a dummy microphone to bring out more information or to ask challenging questions of each other Another video shows how holding onto a rope keeps everyone connected The knots moving round the circle give everyone frequent opportunities to speak up and join in In fact ropes have many uses in active learning Another example is Storyline where the storyteller creates a wiggly timeline showing their ups and downs The storyteller then walks along their rope while telling their story This method helps to make everyone a better storyteller Another useful story telling aid is Moving Stones This method helps people talk about how a group changes over time People touch and move the stones as they tell their story Moving Stones improves the quality of communication about how a group or team grows and develops For improving the quality of group discussions you can use Where Do You Stand Participants show where they stand on an issue by choosing their place on a curved spectrum After talking with a friendly neighbour everyone is well prepared for a lively group discussion during which everyone s point of view is clearly visible Another lively group discussion method is Turntable This method allows people to view things from two or three different perspectives Everyone gets a chance to speak on all sides of the discussion as they move around the circle You can even use active methods for feedback Spokes for example starts with each person rating their own performance by how far they move along a spoke towards the centre of a giant wheel People who seem to have undervalued their performance are invited by others to move closer to the centre of the wheel This invitation to move in is a powerful form of positive feedback As you can see active learning uses many senses skills and intelligences Active learning makes learning more inclusive while also developing everyone s learning skills Active learning helps people learn more and remember more It also makes the transfer of learning far more likely Future editions of the Active Learning Manual will help you grow and develop your own toolkit whether you are an active learner or a facilitator of active learning or a bit of both You can sign up for news of future editions of the Active Learning Manual at http www activelearningmanual com 4 10 TIPS THE LANGUAGE OF NON VIOLENT COMMUNICATION 10 TIPS THE LANGUAGE OF NON VIOLENT COMMUNICATION The Center for Nonviolent Communication CNVC would like there to be a critical mass of people using Nonviolent Communication language so all people will get their needs met and resolve their conflicts peacefully 10 Things We Can Do to Contribute to Internal Interpersonal and Organizational Peace 1 Spend some time each day quietly reflecting on how we would like to relate to ourselves and others 2 Remember that all human beings have the same needs 3 Check our intention to see if we are as interested in others getting their needs met as our own 4 When asking someone to do something check first to see if we are making a request or a demand 5 Instead of saying what we DON T want someone to do say what we DO want the person to do 6 Instead of saying what we want someone to BE say what action we d like the person to take that we hope will help the person be that way 7 Before agreeing or disagreeing with anyone s opinions try to tune in to what the person is feeling and needing 8 Instead of saying No say what need of ours prevents us from saying Yes 9 If we are feeling upset think about what need of ours is not being met and what we could do to meet it instead of thinking about what s wrong with others or ourselves 10 Instead of praising someone who did something we like express our gratitude by telling the person what need of ours that action met 2001 revised 2004 Gary Baran CNVC The right to freely duplicate this document is hereby granted Source http digbig com 4xgys The Center for Nonviolent Communication CNVC 5 DYNAMIC DEBREIFING ACTION REPLAY Dynamic Debriefing is the title of the chapter I wrote for Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning 2007 Here is Part 5 Action Replay highlights key moments and brings them alive in ways that enable focused questioning and new insights Recommended uses Action Replay is best suited to the debriefing of exercises in which there is plenty of action involving the whole group If the action was repetitive it may be too difficult for participants to synchronise their replay Games that involve getting the whole group from A to B are often well suited to Action Replay Games in which there is little movement such as mental puzzles or board games are less suitable Resources Dummy microphone and dummy remote control real or improvised Action Replay is a classic example of Dynamic Debriefing as well as being a challenging team exercise in its own right Action Replay involves re enacting an activity as if a video of the activity is being replayed Just as on TV the action is played back to examine an incident more closely or to replay an event worth celebrating In the age of TV and video Action Replay is readily understood and needs little explanation Compared to video work Action Replay is much quicker to set up edit and replay no technical problems it is more convenient and versatile it can be used almost anywhere it keeps involvement and energy high it is an exercise in memory creativity and teamwork it brings out humour and honesty it provides opportunities for leadership interviewing and commentating and it can be used as a search technique to find incidents or issues to debrief more thoroughly Variation A dummy microphone adds extra purpose and interest to the replay Any group member actor or audience can pick up the dummy microphone to interview someone involved in the action They

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    qualify to join in Each of these rules involves acknowledging in some way what has just been said SUMMARISE FIRST Summarise what the previous speaker has said before making your point YES AND Find some point of agreement with the previous speaker and then add your own point CONNECT Find some point of connection with the previous speaker not necessarily agreement and explain that connection PLUS Good for flow because there is always a connection of some kind Good for acknowledging the previous speaker and because people like being listened to and acknowledged for what they say they feel good about participating and are more likely to participate again When people know that their words will be summarised they tend to speak more thoughtfully The next speaker can come from anywhere in the group making the process more lively than when speaking in turn or when asked to do so Connecting processes tend to weave a group story around the topic rather than participants making a series of disconnected comments MINUS People have to think quickly in order to make the connection between the current speaker and what they wish to say and this may be too fast for reflective thought People may not be able to participate if they cannot think quickly enough so you can break the link and invite anyone who has not yet spoken to restart the process and then wait patiently until someone does so WHAT IF you routinely explain to the group why you are asking them to adopt a certain rule or method For example SUMMARISE FIRST because you are talking over each other or YES AND because you are not acknowledging the points on which you agree or CONNECT because there is little evidence that you are listening to each other or especially at a first meeting because it would be interesting for you to discover what connections you have with each other THINK PAIR SHARE Participants reflect alone then with a partner and then share their thoughts in the whole group such as in a round in which one person speaks on behalf of the pair PLUS Everyone at least gets to talk with a partner even if they don t get to speak up in the whole group The quality of the sharing is likely to be more reflective and articulate following a preliminary conversation with a partner to test out and clarify thoughts MINUS If sharing in a Round there may not be much flow or life in the sharing process The sharing round can take even longer than a normal round Because only half the group speak up in the sharing it could be faster compared to Rounds but it tends to take even longer unless you establish clear limits for what is shared WHAT IF the 1 2 Many sequence in Think Pair Share could lead into a more dynamic sharing process Horseshoe next is one way in which this can be achieved HORSESHOE Everyone stands in a well spaced horseshoe shape e g standing behind a horseshoe of chairs or by standing on a horseshoe rope Think of it as a curved Likert scale if that is helpful Define the two ends of this spectrum of opinion Each person now chooses where they stand on the particular issue that you have defined Everyone now turns to one or two neighbours for a discussion in twos or threes but not fours about why they chose their point on the spectrum The need to share as in Think Pair Share is partly redundant because people are already showing where they stand on the issue by where they stand on the spectrum This allows you to go straight into a group discussion in which it is relatively easy to ensure that each area of the spectrum is represented even if each person does not speak up PLUS Participants first talk with someone who has a similar view so there is agreement rather than argument when first airing their views on the subject Everyone s views are visible as soon as they first step onto the horseshoe spectrum through to the open discussion in the final stage This accelerates the start of group discussion relative to discussions where people start discussing a subject without knowing where others stand on the issue On most issues the spectrum draws out shades of opinion which generally leads to better quality discussion relative to discussions that slip into polarised arguments It is easier for you and participants to invite people into the discussion at suitable moments because their position on the spectrum indicates the kinds of questions that would be productive Discussion takes on a more natural flow than is possible during a simple sharing Unlike Think Pair Share anyone can join in and speak up when discussing in the whole group MINUS Unless carefully facilitated most interest is shown in those standing at the extremes so be sure to include voices from throughout the spectrum The method itself does not require 100 participation at the MANY stage but as with all methods using the 1 2 MANY sequence at least everyone is involved at the 2 stage WHAT IF we could find more ways of instantly bringing out shades of opinion and keeping these visible throughout the process This would save time by clearing the fog of assumptions that is so often present at the start of normal discussions And maintaining a visible position prevents the fog from returning FISHBOWL There are many variations of this method The basic set up is that people in the inner circle the fishbowl speak while those in the outer circle watch and listen Every so often people in the inner and outer circles swap over or individuals move in and out as they choose PLUS Because quieter people are more likely to speak up in smaller groups full participation in a group of five is more likely to happen than in a group of ten People

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  • Reviewing When Short of Time | ARTips 11.3
    add one new observation 8 Find a PICTURE or OBJECT that represents a positive quality that you saw in the group or in yourself Place the picture object in the centre of the circle Explain it Invite others to move in a little or a lot or an in between amount depending on how much they noticed the same quality in the group or in themselves 9 FISHBOWL Half the group sit in an inner circle and use an alternating round Fortunately Unfortunately or Predictably Surprisingly to tell the story of the last activity or of a particular incident within it Inner and outer circles swap The new inner circle use a future looking alternating round Let s Let s not or I will I won t 10 AFTER ACTION REVIEW 1 What was supposed to happen 2 What actually happened 3 Why were there differences 4 What can we learn from this A review routine adopted by the US Army 10 TIME SAVING STRATEGIES 1 BE HIGHLY SELECTIVE Selectively pay attention to just one theme question or person in each short review If you plan this well you can achieve breadth and balance over a series of reviews even though each individual review is narrow and unbalanced Optionally finish by asking the group What are we not paying attention to that we should pay special attention to next time 2 USE LEARNING DIARIES Design a learning diary to accompany your programme Some pages can be for completion by others for feedback Some pages can be for reviewing with others Other pages can be designed for showing to stakeholders after the programme It clearly takes time to complete diaries but individuals can do this in spare time during a programme 3 SET UP A LEARNING BUDDY SYSTEM For example buddies talk in pairs finding one thing they agree about and one thing they disagree about in relation to the last activity Share in the group if time allows or postpone sharing to the next review session To keep sharing brief ensure that you ask for brief statements as in the above example 4 FINISH EARLY BUT Instead of having a rushed review finish the session early and ask the group to turn up the same number of minutes early for the next session when you will start with a review Prime the review before the break if you want to get off to a quick start after the break 1 minute for announcing negotiating the restart time and priming the review 5 INTERRUPT THE ACTIVITY for sharpening deepening or widening Build reviewing into the activity so that you never run out of time for review For example pause the action to enhance here and now awareness or to provide positive feedback to each individual or to help participants make sense of their experiences or discover their wider significance 6 SET UP INDIVIDUAL REVIEW PROJECTS Establish review tasks at the beginning of a programme Everyone can have identical tasks or each person can have a unique task possibly tailored to their needs goals or interests Everyone is responsible for finding or making time to complete their tasks by an agreed deadline within the programme For assisting transfer projects can be continued after the programme The review project becomes a transfer project 7 AROUSE PARTICIPANTS RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THEIR LEARNING Ask each person at the beginning of a programme to write down a description of the programme as if it has already happened and was really worthwhile and resulted in desired changes after the programme Every so often ask participants to review and record what they have done or said in order to make their optimistic predictions come true 8 INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS IN SETTING AND REVIEWING THEIR GOALS Before an activity ask everyone to write down 3 goals e g one related to group achievement one related to personal performance and one related to a personal learning objective At review time ask everyone to award themselves a score and explain to a partner why they deserved the score they gave themselves 9 USE REVIEW CARDS Make different sets of review cards each colour coded or clearly marked so that you can readily choose a suitable set of review cards to feed into a reviewing system whether individual in pairs small groups or the whole group The cards can have review questions or half sentences feedback statements or review tasks 10 SET UP A VISUAL HISTORY PROJECT This could be a cartoon tapestry a graffiti wall a web log or a photo or video project The concept is that the group create a record of events on the programme that can be regularly added to and developed throughout the programme This can save time in three ways if participants are motivated to contribute to the record outside programmed time if such a project can be substituted for another activity in the programme because it is itself a group exercise requiring all of the usual skills in any group project if participants are jogged into reflective mode whenever they look at the visual history on display Some of these strategies can be carried out without preparation Others need considerable preparation Do let me know if you would like help or advice in creating any of these time saving reviewing resources The help and advice is free to start with I will give you advance warning if my help becomes billable at any stage Help is just an email away roger reviewing co uk A LINK TO QUICK REVIEWS The above article picks up where my 2001 article on Quick Reviews left off So you may also wish to refer to Quick Reviews in which you will find 5 reviewing methods for each of these time frames reviewing in 1 2 5 10 and 20 minutes http reviewing co uk toolkit quick reviews htm The 10 best tips from this 2001 article are described in Section 7 below DOES REVIEWING IN ADVANCE REDUCE THE NEED TO REVIEW AFTERWARDS Last month s Reviewing for Starters features strategies that awaken reflective thinking at the start of an activity If successful this could reduce the time needed for reviewing after the activity On the other hand once you engage people in satisfying review processes they may want more reviewing not less http reviewing co uk archives art 11 2 htm 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL HOW TO SAVE MONEY WITH A CAMERA The Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to demonstrate active learning methods You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos Action Replay Moving Stones Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com If you are a client or potential client who has access to the equipment and skills to take and edit 2 minute videos of a similar style and quality to the pilot videos at http www activelearningmanual com For a limited period I am now offering a third day s training free in exchange for two minute videos that I can add to the Active Learning Manual collection To discuss this or other possibilities please write to me at roger reviewing co uk 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP FREE UK DELIVERY UNTIL 2010 12 DAYS OF CHRISTMAS SALE NOW ON http digbig com 5barap Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised over 1 350 for Save the Children since January 2006 Thank you for your purchases Christmas shoppers may like to know that you can get FREE UK DELIVERY for the rest of 2009 there is no minimum purchase for Super Saver Delivery Super Saver excludes 3rd party sellers where the product is not despatched by Amazon Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the value and quality of the work they do Please support them by buying your books and any other Amazon goods via ROGER S ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP at http reviewing co uk reviews 5 DYNAMIC DEBRIEFING HORSESHOE AND TURNTABLE This is the last of a series of extracts from my chapter on Dynamic Debriefing that was published in Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning Since writing Dynamic Debriefing I have produced a more detailed description of Horseshoe it is a 2 page description of the latest refinement of this method with examples of 12 sample topics HORSESHOE Recommended use for exposing and discussing different views Resources One long rope or other marker in the shape of a horseshoe The rope should be about twice as long as the length of the group when standing shoulder to shoulder This debriefing method is a variation of a scaling technique that goes under many names including spectrum line up positions and silent statements The main difference is that the horseshoe is a curved line In this method you simply define the two ends of the spectrum and ask everyone to stand at a point on the line that represents their point of view The benefit of the horseshoe shape is that everyone is more likely to be in eye contact with each other which makes facilitating whole group discussion much easier Example One end represents We worked well as a team during that exercise the other end represents We did not work well as a team during that exercise Everyone chooses their point on the line and then talks to one or two neighbours who are likely to have a similar point of view Ask everyone to notice where individuals are standing as well as at the overall pattern of distribution Ask Any surprises Any comments Any questions Given a natural tendency to focus on the two extremes ensure that attention is also paid to other positions Encourage participants to move as and when their views change and invite them to explain why they are moving You can also ask stationary participants why they are not moving Facilitate discussion for as long as it is productive Variation Choose different points in time For example How would you each have rated this team before the exercise started What was the quality of teamwork like up to the end of the initial planning What is your personal prediction for the quality of teamwork in the next exercise Horseshoe is a classic example of the 1 2 Many sequence described earlier in this chapter 1 is the silent statement when choosing a point on the line 2 is the conversation with a neighbour Many is the facilitated discussion Whenever you feel tempted to ask for a show of hands during a debrief try Horseshoe instead It is more accurate because it allows a scaled response It is also more participatory and more fun TURNTABLE Recommended use to allow participants to see and experience two or more sides of an issue Resources Two semicircles of chairs facing each other The simplest form of a Turntable Discussion is to set up two teams facing each other in a semicircle This is how I would brief a Turntable discussion about teamwork When you are sitting in this semicircle you have a positive view about your performance and progress as a team but when you are sitting in the opposite seats you may only express negative views about for example performance problems and slow progress as a team So that you don t get stuck in one position and to give you the chance of achieving a balanced view you will be spending roughly equal time on both sides of the argument In this exercise you may find yourselves saying things you don t really believe That s OK You are allowed to adopt an attitude that is not your own but you should not make up untrue facts to support your argument and you should generally promote your own side s view rather than seeking to undermine the other side s view Every minute or so I will stand up as a signal for you to move two places to your left Variation To assist with the transfer of learning near the end of a training programme have one semicircle of pessimistic seats for expressing pessimistic views about being able to transfer their learning arranged opposite a semicircle of optimistic seats Warning Rearrange the furniture and participants to mark the end of Turntable otherwise people can get stuck in their last position which is not where you want to end an exercise about helping people to appreciate other points of view Other Variations The ideal group size for Turntable is 10 for a five a side discussion For a group of 20 you can create two groups of 10 to operate independently or have an outer circle of listening chairs included in the rotation A better way of including more numbers is if you discuss a topic in which a third view is worth exploring If fact three and four way discussions are generally of a higher quality than two way discussions A third side can bring in lateral thinking to unlock the confrontation and a fourth side can be an opportunity for practising facilitation skills If there are mobility problems in a group you can pass round coloured hats signs or ropes with each colour representing a different side But moving round in a circle has more impact Moving always has more impact Minds move when bodies move That was the last of the instalments from Dynamic Debriefing a chapter I wrote for Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning Previous instalments were 1 What is Dynamic Debriefing in ARTips 9 1 2 The Role of the Facilitator in ARTips 9 2 3 Models of Debriefing in ARTips 9 3 4 The Experience of Debriefing in ARTips 9 4 5 The Sequencing in Debriefing in ARTips 10 1 6 Action Replay in ARTips 10 2 7 Objective Line Back to the Future in ARTips 11 1 8 Missing Person and Metaphor Maps in ARTips 11 2 All are indexed at http reviewing co uk ezine1 art001 htm 6 EVENTS FACILITATION TRAINING VARIOUS PROVIDERS If you are a provider of facilitation training please send me the details if you would like the details included in future issues of Active Reviewing Tips Reviewing Techniques for outdoor educators and trainers These 1 day workshops are provided by Roger Greenaway and hosted by the Southern Region of the Institute for Outdoor Learning Broadstone Warren Tuesday 23rd February 2010 Sparsholt Wednesday 24th February 2010 facilitatethis invites you to take part in Advanced Facilitation Skills Harrogate England 9 10 March 2010 a chance to add still more depth and breadth to your facilitation competency with this 2 day programme designed to dig stretch and build on your skills and understanding of these core skills through a mixed programme of core input work sessions profiling case studies challenge in the great outdoors with our partners Log Heights peer review and facilitated sessions http www facilitatethis co uk training Annual Festival of Outdoor Learning Sharing best practice Castleton Derbyshire England 13 14 March 2010 Building on the success of previous years we are planning another full schedule of great workshops at our Hollowford Centre in Castleton Festival Pricing NO INCREASE FOR 2010 50 for the Saturday inc 2 cooked meals 40 for the Sunday with a hot lunch and overnight B B at 16 per night all including vat Discounts are available for organisations sending three or more staff For more info call 01433 620377 or email jess hollowford org http www lindleyeducationaltrust org hollowford index htm Nick Eve s The Facilitator s Development Programme Kington Herefordshire England 16 19 March 2010 http www elementsuk com fdpopencourse html Footprint Consulting invites you to take part in Natural Change Facilitators Course Doune Bay Lodge Knoydart Scotland 19 24 April 2010 Natural Change is an experiential programme designed to engage and support leaders of pro environmental behaviour This Facilitators Course trains people to lead Natural Change programmes This course is a professional development programme for those interested in facilitating groups outdoors using approaches pioneered on WWF s Natural Change Project It is the first course of its kind in the UK and is being run to create a community of professionals who are able to lead future programmes using the Natural Change approach info footprintconsulting org http digbig com 5baqyr takes you to a pdf with course info 14th Experiential Education Europe Conference Denmark 2010 Annual meeting of experiential educators and trainers PRE CONFERENCE 26 28 April 2010 CONFERENCE 29 April 3 May 2010 These unique occasions are well worth tracking down and experiencing Meeting is an understatement http www eeeurope org Taking Learning Outdoors Active experiential learning 22nd 28th May 2010 APPLY BY EARLY JANUARY 2010 Schilpario Italy In service training course Course description http digbig com 5barfc Comenius database and here http www adventurascotland com education php CLOSING DATE FOR APPLICATIONS EARLY JANUARY 2010 Email info adventurascotland co uk REVIEWING SKILLS TRAINING WORKSHOPS If you would like to host an open event or arrange for an in house customised trainer training programme please get in touch Write to roger reviewing co uk 7 ARCHIVES TOP TEN TIPS FROM QUICK REVIEWS 2001 Here is a selection of 10 tips from my article on Quick Reviews 1 THREE WORDS LESS IS MORE Choose three separate words not a phrase that describe what you experienced during the activity Allow 30 seconds thinking time then share in a round This is usually much quicker than doing sentence completion in rounds And it often happens to be an example of less is more a lot can be communicated in just three words after a bit of thinking time 2 POSITIVE FEEDBACK FOR THE GROUP 10 good things about you as a group during the activity Encourage comments from within the group but throw in some yourself Go beyond 10

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  • Reviewing for Different Ages
    people were giving lots of feedback to each other when they arrived and it was 100 critical Because this created such a negative environment for learning we worked hard to change this from the very start of the programme And I remember applying one lesson that I learned from Stalham Primary School many years earlier If everyone knows that they will each have their own turn at both giving and receiving feedback they will readily become more responsible and conscientious about doing so One method we used was to have young people lie down on paper from a newsprint roll and have their outlines traced by a partner Using pens and paint everyone would then move round each other s life size portraits adding colour features clothing and items as a way of sharing their impressions of that person Collective Portraits http www evaluationservices co uk 25 Creative Portraits Other visual feedback methods http reviewing co uk feedback htm Active Learning the importance of feedback Ages 5 18 Professor John Hattie has sifted through 500 research reviews or meta studies of teaching methods from around the world His summary of findings from effective control group research is presented in a top twenty list of the teaching methods which have the greatest effect on achievement feedback comes top His analysis included 253 of the most rigorous studies on active learning His findings show that students in the experimental group perform on average a grade and a half better than if they had been placed in the control group Active Learning adds a grade and a half to achievement http www geoffpetty com activelearning html When using active learning include suitable opportunites for feedback Remember that feedback can be active and creative too Creating a safe place to talk frankly the Diary Room Ages 15 16 Dr Kaye Richards tells me that she and Alison Butcher created a novel but familiar context when interviewing young people for a research project at Brathay http www brathay org uk They recreated the Big Brother Diary Room The young people would go into the diary room one at a time and sit in the comfy chair Big Brother s voice would come through from the other side of a screen This appeared to have the effect of encouraging young people to speak more openly than might be the case in a normal interview But just as thumbs up thumbs down had a limited shelf life I suspect the same is true for the Big Brother Diary Room It is novelty that captures imagination and shifts people into a different way of thinking and communicating And if the idea is a good cultural fit the chances of success are greater A change of context can help to engage people more deeply especially if the context is both novel and familiar Letting young people explain things in their own language Ages 15 16 How do you explain experiential learning to young people If they are expected to be more active as learners more responsible more adventurous more creative more reflective and more co operative then it seems like a good idea to find some way of ensuring that young people appreciate that they are in a different kind of learning environment that requires different attitudes and behaviours from them I remember trying to explain experiential learning to young people who were mostly doing quite well at school Having to switch into a new way of learning in which the teacher did not know the answers did not make much sense to them Fortunately the group included a boy who had been truanting from school for much of the previous year He seemed to have an intuitive understanding of what I was trying to say and he explained it in his own words far more effectively than I had done This led me to a better way of explaining experiential learning We would simply do and review something and I would then ask How is this different from how you learn at school Rather than trying to explain by explaining I was explaining by facilitating a comparative review of two different ways of learning which the young people had now experienced And so the young people were able to explain the differences to me and to each other In experiential learning the best explanations arise from facilitated reflection on experience even when learning about learning Letting young people explore their world through improv drama Ages 15 16 I was teaching the leavers class the class that would be leaving school with few or no qualifications In fact many of them had left this class already and my first task was to track them down and persuade them to attend To cut a long story short we ended up doing improv theatre about changes in the local community that were already affecting employment and their own employment prospects The drama we were creating together was directly related to an issue that mattered to all of them Their acting skills were better than their reading and writing skills so I helped them produce a playscript closely based on their own improvisations The leavers performed this play about leaving again and again sometimes changing roles sometimes adding new scenes and even writing their own scripts Unfortunately they did not have the confidence to perform the play to other students but they did allow the playscript to be used by other classes Just before leaving school they gained an unlikely reputation as playwrights This is probably the closest I came to active reviewing as a teacher before encountering it as a trainer The work stayed close to the experiences and concerns of the young people The primary method improv acting was something they enjoyed and it played to their natural talents rather than dwelling on their lack of ability in reading and writing As their confidence in acting grew they got drawn in to reading and writing the playscript And they received congratulatory feedback from many students from other classes who had read and performed the play which they had created Finding an active way in which these students could reflect on their experiences as leavers helped to engage them in the learning process Genuinely believing that these students had the ability to create and perform a play was also an essential ingredient Learning from young people how important reviewing is to them Ages 15 16 When I was evaluating our residential programmes at Brathay http www brathay org uk young people told me what they valued so much about reviewing often rating it higher than the activities in the progamme They valued reviewing because they were listened to and taken seriously in review time In reviews they felt valued and respected they felt it was a safe space where they could speak without being knocked down and where they felt supported where everyone got a turn and was treated fairly and with respect They also liked the attention of others especially when it was supportive It is not just 15 16 year olds who have such needs but it was 15 16 years olds who told me how important these aspects of review sessions were for them For practical tips on reviewing in ways that meet such developmental needs across a wider age span see my article on Reviewing for Development http reviewing co uk articles reviewing for development htm By reviewing activities we show that we care about what people experience that we value what they have to say and that we are interested in their progress When people feel cared for valued and respected they will be better learners Communicating with parents with the help of a clay model Ages 15 16 Katriona Rioch told me this story when she was project leader at the Clydesdale Youth Project At our parents evening it was rare to see so many parents turning up and showing an interest in their sons A lot of the conversation was about the clay models that the boys had taken back home Each model was a self portrait in clay Few parents knew or cared much about what was happening in this group until they saw the clay models The models prompted conversations with parents about the young person s self image how they saw themselves and thought about themselves For many this made a welcome if awkward change from being ignored or reprimanded The clay model and the subsequent discussions with the young person and then with their youth workers resulted in parents showing renewed interest in their sons and in their responsibilities towards them A creative process such as the making of a clay model promotes reflection and dialogue with all who see the product Reflecting on street life with poetry Ages 18 22 At Ladymuir Youth Project Sandy told me how he found the courage to read his poems to his mates You had to read out your own personal feelings and I had to do it first It wasn t as hard as I thought it would be That was the turning point for me when I d seen that I could open up in front of these other guys It was a great experience If that group was still there the other boys might not be in jail because they were getting all sorts of kicks out of it The kick was out of everything You d get a high off everybody else Everything just ran about the group and made everyone really high I found that I came out of my shell even more and could speak about things that I wouldn t normally speak about I think that s what that group done for me It just brought me right out made me more aware of things that s happening Through that group I broke away from the street life that I was used to cutting several links not all links I ve still got my pals Source http reviewing co uk mta htm When participants write and read poetry the reflective and mutually supportive nature of a group can be transformed Giving feedback using a football metaphor Ages 18 22 A group of apprentices were talking a lot about football Perhaps they understood the world of football better than any other So I used their interest in football and their knowledge of the game for setting up and managing a feedback session The starting point was to identify the skills and qualities needed for different positions on the field of play I then asked them to put aside any knowledge they happened to have about each other s footballing skills Now they had to place each other physically on the field of play giving reasons why they were suited to a particular position For example a centre forward might be seen as a talented individual who does very little until someone shouts at them or a defender might be seen as someone who is reliable but is always cutting others down Once they got going the quality of feedback was surprisingly sophisticated much more so than if I had asked them to give straight feedback to each other Start from strengths and existing knowledge These apprentices knew about teamwork on the football field but had not so far applied these insights to their own teamwork and team roles Reflecting on leadership with pictures Ages 25 In a research project that involved adult leaders reflecting on their experiences as leaders it was their choosing and arranging of pictures that enabled them to reflect and communicate more clearly about what it was like to be a leader This use of pictures allowed them to explore what helped them to thrive in their role as leaders Details http www evaluationservices co uk p thriving leader A varied collection of pictures can really help people think things through especially when touching moving and rearranging pictures is also part of the process Reflecting on working relationships and change with music Ages 25 A participant in a management development programme told me We decided that in our drama we wouldn t use words we would just use drama and music and percussion and be fairly creative The theme was working relationships and change So we were thinking about chaos into harmony Percussion and wind instruments discord trees panic and fear and harmony and we brought together the rhythms and with the harmony and the tune at the end and that was very powerful because it wasn t constrained by jargon or language or anything That was why it was powerful because it was a totally different setting and yet we were asked to produce a drama on working relationships and change and we did Source http reviewing co uk research ivw9 htm m8 Using music for reflection removes the normal constraints of words and jargon and can lead to a deeper understanding For the use of music in organisation development see http www facethemusic com Reflecting on a management development programme with paint Ages 25 Another participant told me I think it came together for me quite well at the end the collage hand painting It demonstrated how we were feeling at the time and what we got from the course And that was quite nice because that put me in touch with a bit of myself that I think was there but I hadn t been conscious of for a while of creativity doing things that were generated from within me and that I gave fairly free rein to I just dipped my hands in a load of paint and was splashing about making things that were 3D that were textural and that flowed I was mixing paints up and mixing mediums up and didn t put any straight lines in this thing at all which was symbolic to me symbolic to me about how I d like to be really I d like things to flow around and for there to be peaks and troughs I don t particularly want to work on an even plane nor do I want to compartmentalise things in straight lines I would like to think there s some purpose to everything I do that relates to something else I wasn t conscious of anyone around me or anything I just got into the exercise and let my thoughts run free Source http reviewing co uk research ivw9 htm m6 To get in touch with your creative self and let your thoughts run free it is helpful to use a creative medium for reflection Reflecting and leading creatively Ages 25 The Center for Creative Leadership has explored and developed the use of creative methods in leadership development The research findings of Charles Palus and David North are described in The Leader s Edge Among their proposed six key competencies for leaders are imaging serious play and crafting Creative arts have a useful role to play both in reflecting on leadership and in being effective leaders The Leader s Edge is at the top of the list in the leadership section of the Active Learning Bookshop http reviewing co uk reviews leadership htm Managers guaging opinion more quickly with active reviewing Ages 25 Jacob Lindeblad writes CSC a large private company realised they could cut time dramatically by using the Horseshoe reviewing technique It took them a workshop about active reviewing to realise that instead of spending valuable working hours interviewing and guessing what people thought of a topic all they had to do was to ask the question 10 seconds and then have people position themselves in a well defined Horseshoe It was a revelation to the project leaders and all over the offices in Copenhagen you see teams and their project leader working with the Horseshoe Jacob Lindeblad http www lindeblad dk Horseshoe http reviewing co uk archives art 11 3 htm 5 Challenge norms and take risks if you want to leave safe routines and discover more effective ways of learning Reviewing with a defensive group letting the group decide Ages 25 35 Bill Krouwel writes Working with a group from the I T department of a financial institution we found that we just couldn t penetrate the rather defensive attitude which the group seemed to share At our wits end we shared our concerns with the group and gave them space 45 minutes and a place the group room to reflect on this After 20 minutes or so we heard thumps bumps and silly laughter A little later we ventured back into the room to find the group playing tig AKA tag After the game was over there was a relaxed and cheerful atmosphere On reflection I think they were probably a little wary of making fools of themselves in front of each other but after tig nothing we might inflict on them would look as silly So the group adopted a childrens game Bill Krouwel Sometimes the smartest move is to share your concerns leave the room and let the group surprise you with their solution Reflecting with drama Ages 30 50 As a group facilitator on a management development programme I found that my group was cruising through everything They were so capable at project management that they appeared to be demonstrating their high levels of competence rather than learning anything new I expressed my concerns and wondered whether we should change tack Among the options I mentioned was drama On saying the word drama I noticed a kind of recoil so I added It looks to me as if we should do some drama This is not the way I usually sell drama but the group accepted the challenge and we then re enacted incidents from the programme as well as incidents from their work place We then explored alternative possibilities through role play It worked Drama presented a different kind of challenge and drawing as it did on their

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