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  • Collected Thoughts for the Month first published in the Experiential-CPD Calendar
    to read How do you define process Reading Groups Hide and Seek UK Blogs about experiential learning Supported by research Frightening People 5 Experiential Learning Trends for 2016 download PDF Thoughts for the month 2014 When winning is losing Silence in experiential learning Teambuilding with Sheep When does experiential learning happen What learning happens when Agile Experiential Learning Not Learning from Experience The Attractions of Uncertainty Bill Looks Back Competition or Collaboration Ivory Tower Camaraderie download pdf Thoughts for the month 2013 Darkness my old friend When winter works well Walking and learning Bubble armour What do we do How do you know what we do Designing richer learning experiences The undesignables Finding inspiration Experiences for me Shared experience or unique experience download pdf Thoughts for the month 2012 The Benefits of Play Festival of Outdoor Learning In Praise of Improvisation Thank You Resource Sustainability Curriculum for Excellence and the John Muir Award On Being Resourceful Too Experiential Too Experiential A Response Too Experiential More Thoughts From Too Experiential to Making the Experience Big Whose Experience is it Anyway Getting Beyond the Caption download pdf Thoughts for the month 2011 Thinking about hybrids Guess what I m thinking Paradigms Lost

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/thoughts/index.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • Archives for SiteFinder and Active Reviewing Tips Ezines
    Tools for Change Training Workshops What s New Active Reviewing Tips Ezine Archives Ask for free delivery by email a practical feature on reviewing tips links to sites about active learning methods tips comments and ideas from readers what s new in the Guide to Active Reviewing Go to Active Reviewing Tips Archives INDEX For more writing by Roger Greenaway see Articles Index Tools for Change Research Index Publications Index

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/archives/index.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • Winning from Losing | ARTips 17.5
    8 you can also have a curved row of seats where people are simply listening or represent a balanced view Let s say you have a group of 9 plus yourself You would sit in the facilitator s seat To your left would be a row of loser perspective seats then a row of balanced perspective seats then a row of winner perspective seats to complete the circle meaning that the winner seats are on your immediate right When the conversation begins participants are expected to represent the view that corresponds to their seat Every 90 seconds the facilitator stands This is a cue for everyone to move one place to their left One complete circuit will take about 15 minutes You can choose to join in the rotation or stay in the facilitator s seat At the very end of the discussion which is a kind of role play invite everyone to stand behind the chair which they feel most closely represents their true perspective In the jargon of role play this is de roling There is no need to continue the discussion at this point but encourage everyone to look around to see where others stand This quick and simple final stage helps to get everyone out of their last role and back to reality Because the purpose of a training event is to learn a more relevant and interesting discussion will arise if you focus on learning For example one side becomes We learn more when we win succeed the next side becomes We learn more when we have mixed success and the third perspective becomes We learn more when we lose fail Or you could make it a discussion about resilience with 3 or 4 positions perspectives Position 1 Resilience means try harder next time Position 2 Resilience means be smarter next time Position 3 Resilience means focus on the positive Position 4 Resilience means keep the right goal in mind Would you try helping a demoralised group out of their low point by having them move through different perspectives in a Turntable exercise Would this improve their mood and their learning Option 2 Rather than dwelling on the problem Missing Person focuses on the solution even if the solution is an imaginary one to start with In Missing Person you ask groups of about 5 people to create a picture of a person who has the skills qualities and attributes of the kind of person who might help to bring more success to the group You add that the person should reflect strengths that already exist in the group but perhaps in greater measure as well as bringing in new talents and powers that are not apparent in the group just now You also ask them to give the new person a name as soon as possible in the process Indoors each subgroup needs a table top a sheet of flipchart paper and a mix of coloured felt pens Outdoors ideally on a beach or in a forest the subgroups scavenge for items that can be included in a sculpture of the Missing Person The subgroups then introduce their person and say why they would be a welcome part of the group The audience states why they would also welcome them Sometimes this is a suitable endpoint At other times you may want to ensure that the inspiration of these imaginary people is turned into action by asking the whole group to share out responsibilities for monitoring specific aspects that they really want to see more of in their own group These responsibilities will be reviewed in future reviews As soon as you introduce creativity into reviewing there is a risk that it may not take off in a useful direction as well as the risk that it might In my experience Missing Person usually brings out humour honesty useful learning and future direction If they have been failing as a whole group rather than giving them a whole group reviewing task at which they might also fail have them working in groups of around 5 because it is generally easier to function as a group of 5 than as a group of 8 or more Also there is no pass fail mark with a creative exercise Most groups of 5 enjoy presenting the person they have created If there is a reluctance to get involved because it seems silly tell them that the amount of silliness is entirely within their control and that the kind of person they create is their responsibility Remind them that if they do the job well it is a process that will help the group turn round and move on Would you try helping a demoralised group out of their low point by having them create and introduce a Missing Person Would this improve their mood and their learning Option 3 A set of Picture Postcards can be used in many ways to help with a reviewing process Whenever a picture is chosen and discussed it lifts thoughts away from the immediate situation and creates a fresh perspective from which to view it Pictures can be used in this particular scenario to help a demoralised group plan their way out of trouble The initial stage is to have the group select pictures from a large pool of pictures They are all looking for three kinds of pictures Picture that represent our current state Pictures that represent our desired state Pictures that represent the kind of journey that might help us get from current to desired states These three groups of pictures are laid out on 3 separate tables one by one as they are chosen by any individual This part of the process finishes when there are 10 15 pictures on each of the three tables Divide the group in two One subgroup meets around the current state pictures and is asked to choose 5 that best represent the current state while the other subgroup is choosing the 5 pictures that best represent the desired state When ready each subgroup then presents their choices to the other subgroup Two new subgroups are formed by combining each half of the current subgroup with each half of the desired subgroup Pictures from the journey table are randomly divided in two and given to each of the newly formed subgroups Each subgroup works independently to create an illustrated journey that could help the whole group move from current to desired Allow people to include extra pictures if needed When ready each subgroup presents their proposed illustrated journey to the other subgroup Keep the picture on display or take photos of them because it will be useful to refer to these pictures in a later review to see whether such journeys were attempted or whether the desired state came into view or was realised in any way or even surpassed expectations Easy to remove sticky labels can be a useful extra when working with pictures to remind people of the different meanings that have been assigned to each picture Would you try helping a demoralised group out of their low point by having them reflect imagine and plan using picture postcards Would this improve their mood and their learning Option 4 Doing nothing is also an option I have found that most but not all groups can readily bounce back without the aid of the facilitator When they achieve this themselves without my help I ask them to explain to me how this happened And if their answer is short on detail I explain that I am curious but they should be curious too because if they can establish and appreciate how they got themselves from demoralised to energised maybe that is a recipe they can use in future So although I might do nothing to rescue the group I do show a lot of interest in how they rescued themselves And my favourite choice in this situation would be to use Storyline which can be a very revealing way of charting a journey of ups and downs whether they are individual ups and downs or group ups and downs or a mixture Success Chart can be another good option But the key option here is doing nothing and letting the group sort themselves out Would you try helping a demoralised group out of their low point by doing nothing Even though you later show an analytical interest if and when they have succeeded Although young groups can be highly resilient the younger the group the more cautious I am about doing nothing as a deliberate strategy Which option would you choose and why Much depends on the situation and much depends on your personal style But each option has its own risks and merits and there may well be better ways of dealing with this situation If your favourite strategy is not described above please write to roger reviewing co uk and share your own favourite Further Reference You can find other versions of the methods described above at reviewing co uk See the Online Active Reviewing Course for a video based presentation of Missing Person which is is one of the 8 methods in the course More Tips Scroll down for Six of the best ways to introduce Active Reviewing and for the archived pdf on Learning from Triumphs and Disasters contents 4 ONLINE TRAINING COURSE Active Reviewing Taking part in this online course will enable you To engage your students full set of learning skills so that their learning is rapid significant and memorable To inspire long lasting results by generating immersive learning experiences To become an expert in facilitating learning from experience To master the Active Reviewing Toolkit A R T a selection of versatile reviewing techniques To use tools such as the Horseshoe the Activity Map Action Replay and others in order to engage and empower your students You can view the full course content and sample the training videos for free by visiting ActiveReviewing com where you will also find reviews of the course by Sivasailam Thiagarajan Thiagi Andi Roberts Cliff Knapp and Ginette Biolan contents 5 TIPS Six of the best ways to introduce Active Reviewing 1 Just do it demonstrate Active Reviewing You can demonstrate Active Reviewing without first doing an activity This is because participants are likely to have already had plenty of experiences that are relevant to your programme And they can select an experience to share through Active Reviewing You might say something like this This course is about how to better deal with x But none of you are starting at point zero you have all had some success already in dealing with x So I would like you all to think of an example that you are happy to present that describes an occasion when you were fairly pleased with how you dealt with x You then introduce Storyline and you ask participants to share their story in pairs or small groups using Storyline Some stories can also be shared in the wider group if people are happy to do so After this session you can explain that Storyline was an Active Reviewing technique it helped people to reflect visualise and present their story as they walked along the ups and downs of their storyline You can apply much the same principle by using Spokes after a group s first group challenge This Active Reviewing method takes people quickly into a visual scaled and movement based form of positive feedback And after Spokes you can explain how this is an Active Reviewing technique 2 Explain the value of Active Reviewing Explain that learning from experience is often described as a cycle One of the simplest versions is a 3 part cycle Experience Reflection Learning Explain that the Experience is often highly engaging but that in many training programmes the other parts of the cycle are not as engaging as they should be Active Reviewing is a set of principles and methods that aims to maintain high levels of engagement throughout the process of learning from experience If after the experience people switch off or become too passive or dependent not much learning is going to happen You may want to add that Active Reviewing is also about switching on as much of our learning capacity as we can That includes our senses intelligences and skills It includes divergent as well as convergent thinking It includes critical and appreciative thinking It includes reflecting and communicating using a range of different media Not only does Active Reviewing help people learn from recent experiences it also helps to develop their capacity to learn from future experiences And if you want to make it a little more down to earth explain that the training programme is a practical one designed to help people do things differently It is not about solving problems in an ivory tower It aims to bring the worlds of action and learning close together so that learning comes from action and learning is turned into further action Active Reviewing helps to bring these worlds of learning and action closer together 3 Everyone shares examples of how they have learned by reflecting on experience A set of Brief Encounters questions can help to bring out these stories in brief one to one conversations or even in the wider group Questions might include Has a setback ever increased your determination to succeed And did reflection have any part to play in this Have you ever taken part in group problem solving What kind of reflection did this involve Have you ever experimented with a recipe or tried making your own music What part did reflection play Have you ever taken on a challenge simply because it was a challenge What did you take away from this experience and how Have you ever received unexpected praise or more praise than you expected How did you respond to this feedback internally and externally How do you like to learn a new practical skill What works best for you Do you ever gesture or draw diagrams or rearrange objects when communicating an experience to others If so is it more to help you think or to help you communicate Some of these kinds of questions might lead to conversations about the value of reviewing which is OK and some may also include aspects of active reviewing which is even better 4 Give evidence examples of how Active Reviewing has worked well for other people Your own examples as a facilitator or as a participant will have the most impact If working with managers I would give examples from their world such as how the biggest impact for one manager taking part in an outdoor management development programme was a reviewing session in which he chose to make a finger painting about the balances in his life and how he would like to change them I might share an example of how Action Replay has helped to repair conflict or how Future Walking has allowed managers to experience overcoming challenges that lie ahead If working with young people I might describe how an Action Replay was the highlight of an outdoor programme for one group I worked with I might describe how the making and receiving Gifts has been greatly enjoyed and valued Or how a youth group reflected on life in their local community and created and performed their own version of John Lennon s Imagine These were all powerful kinds of Active Reviewing 5 Tell your own before and after story about why you changed from all talk reviewing to more active reviewing I might explain how I used Rounds tried out some variations and then discovered Talking Knot which is a great alternative that keeps people active and lets people join in when they are ready not when it is their turn and they don t feel ready to speak I used to despair of clichéd discussions about teamwork now I am more likely to use Moving Stones because it makes it so much easier to talk about team dynamics with a dynamic visual aid a simple tool that readily enhances the quality of thinking and communication I used to try coaxing people to express their feelings but now I will often choose Empathy Test because it is a game like way into the world of feelings that can be as gentle or as tough as you want it to be Or I might explain how and why I shifted from flipchart reviews to Missing Person A long time ago and before I had come up with the Missing Person technique my typical but not very inspiring way of reviewing a failure was to collect two lists of words on a flipchart One list was things we did well The other list was things we didn t do well The merit of this approach was that it encouraged a balanced view rather than a totally negative one The huge downside was that compiling lists is not a very stimulating or satisfying exercise and it readily brings out superficial labels and clichés that are soon forgotten By contrast the Missing Person gets remembered and is a classic example of the more you put in the more you get out This principle applies to the reviewing process as much as it does to the rest of life 6 When you present the programme outline include the planned content of the reviewing sessions as well as the planned content of the other sessions Take a good look at the programme outline which you present to your participants Does it mention reviewing and allocate time for it Does it describe the likely format of each reviewing session If you have been a reader of Active Reviewing Tips for some time perhaps it does But I have seen plenty of training programmes where there is substantial detail about the content but no information about the review or the

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  • We Just Want Fun | ARTips 17.4
    experiences are realistic and reasonable and compatible with the course objectives Now ask participants to come up with a list of do s and don ts that will help them to make wanted experiences more likely and unwanted experiences less likely To add to the challenge and value of this exercise request that do s outnumber don ts Option 1 will help you bring out individual differences and create a useful discussion within the group that gives you as a facilitator much more room for manoeuvre than at first appeared You are also responding directly to the kinds of concerns that can get in the way of learning And the do s and don ts exercise can readily lead to a contract based on ground rules that will help to create a supportive climate for learning Option 2 use fun as a starting point with fun activities and fun reviews You That s a great attitude to come with because it matches the schedule for the start of this programme It s best to start with fun and get more focused later Self appointed spokesperson But we just want fun We don t want other stuff later You What s stopping us getting started I cannot guarantee that these games are going to be non stop fun for everyone all of the time Not everyone has the same ideas about what makes an activity fun But a lot of groups I have worked with have had fun doing these activities Are you ready What now happens is a series of short activities which were probably already designed into the programme The only difference is that your briefing for each activity does not use the language of learning objective and outcomes it is the minimum briefing necessary for people to understand and enjoy the activity What you are hoping for is plenty of reviewable incidents during these opening activities possibly where people are not having much fun because they are not being listened to or they are not given a turn or they feel insulted or embarrassed The theme of such reviews might be Let s do better at making things fun for everyone But reviewable incidents are not necessarily negative ones so a more positive angle would be to provide or generate positive feedback all round to bring everyone s attention to how they are contributing to fun by including others supporting others taking the initiative suggesting improvements helping with good decision making speaking up for others Option 2 is really a change of emphasis and a change of language but there is a particular risk that if reviews are experienced as dull and boring or not fun that you end up with an activities only programme with any useful learning left to chance So option 2 needs to be combined with review methods that are mostly fun and positive For example Action Replay can be fun and Spokes can be very positive If you are not familiar with these methods search for them at http reviewing co uk Option 3 use your powers of persuasion Talk about other groups you have worked with who arrived with a similar attitude had a fun time and left with lots of useful learning in fact they are now regular customers because they are an organisation that believes that fun and learning are fully compatible If people are not having fun it suggests that their basic needs are not being met and these need to be attended to before it is possible to do much useful learning But we just want fun I hear what you are saying Can you hear what I am saying Wanting fun is a temporary stage that all groups go through But there are many different kinds of fun and there are many ways in which groups develop Groups do not just travel in one direction from an appetite for fun to an appetite for serious stuff and that s it Groups that continue to grow and learn keep cycling through stages of hard work and relaxation and sometimes fun can even happen alongside the hard work Just fun is a good place to start So let s start at square one and go back to square one from time to time but let s not get stuck at square one Option 3 depends entirely on your powers of persuasion It does not include activity and it does not include much dialogue There is a risk that if you sustain this line for too long that you win the argument but you lose the group you have silenced them And then later on in the course you wonder why it is so difficult to get them to speak up Which option would you choose and why Much depends on the situation and much depends on your personal style But each option has its own risks and there may well be better ways of dealing with this situation If your favourite strategy is not described please write to roger reviewing co uk and share your own favourite contents 4 ONLINE TRAINING COURSE Active Reviewing Taking part in this online course will enable you To engage your students full set of learning skills so that their learning is rapid significant and memorable To inspire long lasting results by generating immersive learning experiences To become an expert in facilitating learning from experience To master the Active Reviewing Toolkit A R T a selection of versatile reviewing techniques To use tools such as the Horseshoe the Activity Map Action Replay and others in order to engage and empower your students You can view the full course content and sample the training videos for free by visiting ActiveReviewing com Take Your Training Skills to the Next Level The best way to learn the procedures and principles related to actively reviewing is to enroll in this e learning course You will enjoy your learning experience from this practical hands on approach to active learning

    Original URL path: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/archives/art/17_4_we_just_want_fun.htm (2016-02-10)
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  • The Forgetful Navigator | ARTips 17.3
    but these are the three outcomes I would be expecting People discover the variation in stories and that not everyone has the same story to tell even if they have been working closely together in the same team This is a particularly valuable insight for leaders The navigator s storyline about his dilemma makes it easier for him to show how the situation developed and may give him and others fresh insights about how to cope with such dilemmas in future when making a mistake in a leadership role Group members may also take away useful learning on the same theme and may even offer to share similar experiences which they have had in leadership roles This not only spreads the learning opportunities it also saves the navigator from feeling too isolated which is not a position in which it is easy to be open to learning Option 2 Action Replay could work well I would first explain the purpose This is not about humiliating our navigator who already feels bad enough and who is probably not looking forward to this review Although I cannot say at this stage what you will each learn from this review I think there are two main questions worth exploring Why did it take so long for the group to question or challenge the navigator Why did the navigator not inform the group sooner that he had left the map behind You are all here to learn about leadership We all make mistakes And we can all learn from mistakes Any one of you might find that you do the equivalent of forgetting the map at some time and that you need to decide on the best course of action I would choose to direct the replay starting at the planning stage I would pause the replay to ask those who had taken on special responsibilities How confident are you about fulfilling this responsibility And I might ask others How well do you think the group will perform at this task I would then fast forward to launching and getting in the boat And I would then fast forward to the first question asked to the navigator I would ask others about whether they were also curious at the time and why they had not asked the question I would then fast forward or rewind to the point where the navigator first realised that the map was back in the planning room I would ask about the reasons for the delay between this realisation and his eventual confession If the group recovered quite well from this point on after the navigator s original confession I would hand over the replay controls and ask the group to use them to show and explore the story of how they recovered from this difficult situation If during the replay the navigator has worked out a better course of action on realising he had left the map behind a variation of Action Replay could be used for him to rewind to the point where he would have said or done something differently From this point you can offer a Take Two And if the group approve of this different strategy they will appreciate it and in doing so this vivid demonstration of learning will also have diminished the navigator s discomfort and will have diminished the group s disappointment Option 3 Horseshoe could work well The starting point could be a search for questions that participants think it would be useful to explore during the review Or you could have some ready made questions up your sleeve such as At the start how successful did you think you would be as a team in this exercise try not very to very Ask participants about the factors that made them hopeful of success and explore some of these on the spectrum For example Some of you expected good quality teamwork to contribute to a successful outcome So I ll ask you to rate the actual quality of teamwork during the activity try poor to excellent Ask participants about their priorities as a team in future tasks Perhaps start with the basic question For the next task will you take much the same approach as a team or would you want to change how you work as a team in some way try same to change Ask participants about the kinds of changes they would like to see in how they approach things as a team If the suggestion is not made you may want to explore Let s give feedback to people with leadership or other responsibilities during the tasks vs Let s wait to the end before we give feedback to people or question them Whatever decision they come to on this point you could also explore statements about the frequency of giving and receiving feedback in the workplace such as It is better to go through day to day work without giving or receiving any feedback vs It is better to give and receive feedback continually in the workplace Which option would you choose So which is likely to be the best option given the scenario and the context of this being a leadership training programme I think the main challenge is to find a way of moving the navigator on from his deep embarrassment and maximising the learning for him To settle for the learning being summed up as be honest would I think be letting him down I think he needs to think through how he ended up in this situation and how to avoid repeating this pattern in the future even if this is the one and only time he has experienced this kind of situation A secondary challenge but probably the more important one for most of the group is to conduct the review in a way that everyone learns something of significance for themselves Therefore I would be tempted to use a combination of Storyline mainly because it engages everyone instantly in

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  • Zooming In and Out when Facilitating Learning - Part Two| ARTips 15.3
    to another Part two shows how zooming has featured in some learning models that you may know One way zooming the funnelling model Zooming both ways some more balanced models followed by some practical examples Which zoom setting when Examples of zooming in for close up reviewing Examples of zooming out for wide angle reviewing Examples of reviewing methods that zoom both ways some thoughts on zooming and the transfer of learning Zooming and the transfer of learning and some follow up links and references for those who want to explore zooming further References and useful links You will now discover more about why and how we can all benefit from the frequent use of a zoom lens when our purpose is to learn from experience or to help others to do so The full article on zooming in and zooming out parts one and two together is now available at http reviewing co uk articles zooming in and out htm contents 4 Book Review The Well Played Game 2013 The Well Played Game A Player s Philosophy by Bernard de Koven 2013 Reviewed by Roger Greenaway If the title sounds familiar it might be because The Well Played Game was first published in 1978 and was followed by a revised edition in 2002 which is currently on sale at Amazon for 637 Its re publication in 2013 gives these playful insights a new lease of life and at a more affordable price The 2013 edition also includes a new foreword by Eric Zimmerman and a new preface by the author Bernie de Koven The Well Played Game is difficult to classify because it is so original and unconventional For example it ends with a Nonconclusion comprising four Inklings The three main reasons that I enjoyed re reading this unique treatise are 1 It is a detailed forensic analysis of how games of all kinds work providing clear insights into the social DNA of a well played game 2 The style is entertaining and playful making the journey wonderfully consistent with the subject of a well played game 3 There is an unrelenting focus on the experience of a well played game As with all good books it can be enjoyed at many levels as a player of games as a play leader as a game designer or as a designer facilitator of any activities educational or recreational By the end of the book I could even accept the author s Inkling 3 that If we can create even larger games that we can all play together all of us then there will be no separation between us and others no we and they We will all be one community All one species Bernie s writing makes me smile and brings me many aha moments It has been a considerable influence on my own approach to designing and playing debriefing games such as making it easy for people to opt in and out designing half games that leave space for

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  • Zooming In and Out when Facilitating Learning | ARTips 15.2
    out Make a headline for this event for a big circulation news publication of your choice From snapshot to storyboard to video clip of future expectations Zooming in Choose one picture or photograph to accompany the story of this event Zooming out Choose a series of pictures or photographs that tell the story of this event with no words or few words Zooming in on behaviour and zooming out to the future Create some short video clips that demonstrate how you expect to apply your learning From capturing significant learning to building into a future scenario Zooming in Produce a group poem or collection of phrases that captures the essence of some of your most significant learning Zooming out Draw an imaginary future team project working like a dream adding in captions speech bubbles or thought bubbles that re cycle or adapt most of the words and phrases from the group poem From reflecting indoors to reflecting outdoors Zooming in Spend time completing your reflective journal or talking with your learning buddy Zooming out Make a leisurely journey walking or canoeing with a learning buddy in a relaxing and inspirational natural environment For out and back journeys switch roles at the turning point so that each person takes it in turns to be the centre of attention WHY ZOOM The value of zooming for facilitators learners and transfer of learning As you zoom in new details appear that were previously invisible and as you zoom out the broader view reduces the visible detail but creates an ever widening context and panorama Zooming out reveals the macro system zooming in reveals the microsystem Sometimes the patterns discovered at the micro level are similar to patterns found at the macro level Search for fractal images for some beautiful illustrations When we are shown photographs without any clues about scale it can be difficult to work out whether we are looking at a span of kilometres or a span of millimetres Whatever you current focus it is always worth considering whether to go large go small or stay much the same You are not looking for the perfect focus that you make permanent This is because there is a value in changing focus and making connections from one scale or zoom setting to another It is valuable for facilitators to be adept at changing focus in a timely fashion It is even more valuable for participants to develop such skills Perhaps our hope as facilitators of learning is that zooming in such as detailed personal feedback sessions will reveal insights that allow participants to zoom out and discover their broader relevance Transfer of learning often equates with zooming out But sometimes the initial experience is a mind opening horizon broadening confidence building eye widening life affirming whole world of possibilities kind of experience And transfer arises from settling on a small achievable project through which to channel these mind expanding discoveries So transfer of learning can also equate with zooming in on the

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  • Avoiding Common Traps in Reviewing - continued | ARTips 15.1
    out of the review with much the same learning Unintentional message Difference is inconvenient It would be so much more convenient if individual views or minority views make way for the emerging mainstream version of events Some useful learning can happen at a general level For example a group might say We all experienced the disappointment of running out of time to complete the task and we all learned that we must manage our time better in future But underneath this headline could be a whole range of different experiences that point to other factors that are far more significant and critical for group learning for individual learning and for better task performance Avoid Trap 9 Use methods that bring out the range of experiences and that acknowledge diversity and difference Discourage generalisations rather than asking for them Look for exceptions Use reviewing methods that give everyone a voice Discourage statements beginning We think Until everyone has spoken speaking for others is guesswork Check that statements made on behalf of others are based on facts not assumptions Check that statements about learning are based on evidence When the evidence for learning is experience based check the connections Are the findings over generalised Are people jumping to conclusions When checking it is better to prompt others to check How confident are you in your conclusion that rather than making your own direct assessment as the checker index of traps Trap 10 Welcoming certainty Unintentional message Learning is about creating certainty and agreement It is not about casting doubt or looking for holes in arguments or introducing evidence that does not fit or creating alternative explanations Your job is to generate learning So whenever learning makes an appearance your instinct is to welcome it But learning also comes in the form of unlearning finding flaws in previous learning And unlearning can be more difficult and more profound and more valuable than new learning Unlearning is often accompanied by uncertainty So we should perhaps have an even bigger welcome for uncertainty Avoid Trap 10 Unless you are doing fire drill training or any other kind of training drill appreciate the value of uncertainty and ambiguity and appreciate the value of mixed endings to a review there may be greater certainty in some areas and greater uncertainty in others To ensure the quality of learning Interrupt assumptions Bring out alternative interpretations Challenge confidence in conclusions Explore ambiguities and other possibilities Ask What else Consider re examining the conclusions of a previous review if they now seem unsound and or too tidy While writing this article I learned of the death of Sir Patrick Moore the British astronomer who once gave a lecture entitled What we don t know This suggests an interesting strategy for avoiding the certainty trap I think that What don t we know could become one of my favourite review questions index of traps Trap 11 Talking too much as a facilitator Unintentional message I don t value what you have

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