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  • Common Reviewing Traps | ARTips 14.5
    question they wish to answer If you want the questions to follow a particular sequence you can number or code the questions in advance Ask participants to first talk in twos or threes Ask participants to find a picture or object that helps them to answer the question Ask participants to find their own personal thinking space or magic spot indoors or outdoors Give participants notebooks and well timed opportunities for using them Trap 4 Trivialising expecting brief answers to big questions such as when asking for one picture one word or one phrase that sums up the group view Unintentional message Simple superficial or cliched responses are OK just be sure you do not exceed 3 words 10 seconds one symbol The one word phrase or item that the group chooses is unlikely to communicate the range and depth of their experiences Their exceptionally brief answer is unlikely to capture what was special about the experience A process that encourages groupthink is even more out of place in a programme about personal growth and development Avoid Trap 4 Find the level of detail that generates clarity and significance without pruning things right down to a single unsatisfactory statement Ask for 5 or more pictures not just one to be presented in a sequence or other pattern Provide pictures that are rich with possibilities for multiple interpretations rather than simple pictures that have just one instantly recognisable meaning Ask the group to make a composite picture or collage or chart or map of their experiences and ideas Ask for several words not just one Ask for several phrases not just one These richer forms of expression are more inclusive than the one item approach they are more inclusive of people and their ideas Participants choose the level of detail and richness that is most satisfying and significant for themselves For more ways of avoiding triviality see Getting Beyond Cliches in Active Reviewing Tips 13 3 Trap 5 Controlling the whole reviewing process or trying hard to do so Unintentional message You have very little responsibility for your own learning I will guide you through the whole process You must trust me even if my controlling ways betray a lack of trust in you Avoid Trap 5 Be selective Decide which aspects to control such as the time frame or the overall purpose You can monitor or delegate other aspects rather than controlling them directly For each review method you have different controls For example in some methods you provide all the questions but in other review methods you control the framework within which questions are generated If sharing control with participants keep these questions in mind Is everyone involved Is everyone having a say Are differences being resolved in productive ways Is anyone so stuck that they need help to get unstuck The role of the facilitator in learning groups is explored in depth by David Jaques in Learning in Groups and by John Heron in The Complete Facilitator s Handbook where he provides advice about when to control when to share control and when to hand over control I have summarised John Heron s advice here Traps 6 10 will follow in the next issue of Active Reviewing Tips If you are not yet a subscriber you can subscribe for free by visiting the sign up page at http reviewing co uk ezines htm Hopefully you have gained some fresh insights into some of the traps awaiting facilitators of learning I hope you have also picked up some useful ideas about how to avoid these traps and how to avoid giving out messages that are counterproductive I welcome ideas for additions changes and improvements Your comments are welcome please write to roger reviewing co uk Roger Greenaway roger reviewing co uk http reviewing co uk Up to index 3 RESOURCES An Extra Takeaway Takeaway Tools I like to place reviewing tools in the hands of learners For a number of reasons One of these reasons is that I like to think of the reviewing tools themselves as takeaways This is not as generous as it may seem I do not give away my valuable collection of pictures nor my ropes nor my tools for action replay The real takeaways are the skills or know how to use the tools And these rarely depend on having specific resources available I do not see reviewing as a magic art that is exclusive to facilitators Reviewing is a skill that learners already have and can develop further Learners do not need a hotline to a facilitator every time they want to reflect on their experience But having instant access to some hot tools could be very useful By and large people depend on a very narrow range of skills and tools when it comes to reflecting on their experience A wise choice from a broader set of reviewing tools can really help people to escape from ruts and routines and accelerate their learning and development I ll give just one example Back to the Future is a reviewing exercise that is based on one simple question What do I already have that could help me achieve this goal Rather than rushing into making a plan the goal setter first makes an audit of their own values skills qualities achievements experiences and knowledge that they already have and that could also help them achieve their goal The basic question can also be directed outwardly towards considering the support resources relationships offers and networks they already have that could help them achieve their goal In Back to the Future the person temporarily turns their back on a distant picture word or object representing their goal and considers what they already have that could help them reach that goal Whenever they identify a helpful factor they step backwards towards their goal Large steps indicate very helpful factors small steps indicate slightly helpful factors Now I have always set up Back to the Future as a

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  • Takeaways for Future Learning | ARTips 14.4
    learn from the process The takeaway could be guidance on how to set up such a partnership 3 An alternative is to make the previous option more informal perhaps because the participant does not want to suddenly make an informal relationship a more formal one The takeaway would be a commitment to seek out opportunities for mutual learning More on Reviewing for Two several options described http reviewing co uk articles reviewing by numbers htm 2 TAKEAWAY 4 USING STORYLINES Storylines are graphs Participants are often familiar with the uses of graphs in the worlds of finance and science But once people discover that graphs can be used in the worlds of emotions achievements and the self monitoring of good and bad habits then charting becomes a personal development aid with limitless variations The takeaway is a visual reviewing tool that is quick to produce by hand or on a computer Let me know if you know of an app for charting your life on a smart phone Storylines are a valuable aid to personal reflection They also work well in combination with Takeaway 3 Learning Buddies For example when I was first learning to facilitate review sessions I would record my own ups and downs by sketching a storyline The chart often became the focus of a review with a colleague after the session Yes a review of a review More at http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm STORYLINES TAKEAWAY 5 KEEPING A DIARY Maybe your participants already use learning diaries Amongst the benefits are that learning diaries are highly personalised souvenirs and can become greatly valued for that reason I encourage participants to write only on the left hand pages so that the right hand pages are reserved for another layer of reviewing when re reading their notes at a later time The right hand page can be for summarising or for recording belated aha moments or for converting learning into action points Some diary pages can be for comments from others Some pages can be for reviewing with others Other pages can be designed for showing to stakeholders after the programme Whether or not the learning diary is kept private is shared with a learning buddy or shown to a boss it is in every case a valuable takeaway The other takeaway is maintaining the habit of keeping a learning diary easily done if there are blank pages to fill and especially if some of the pages have ready made review questions to encourage further reflection at intervals after the programme Learning Diaries http reviewing co uk archives art 11 3 htm 2 Learning Journal TM with Self Facilitated Learning TM http reviewing co uk reviews krouwel ricketts willis htm ai TAKEAWAY 6 ADOPTING A STANDARD PROBLEM SOLVING ROUTINE Some people regularly get caught up in problems react without thinking and end up in greater trouble It is helpful for such people to learn and practise a problem solving routine that they can apply to future problems Instead of getting stuck or making matters worse applying their problem solving skills might just give them enough of a solution to stay clear from further trouble I first learned of this approach at the Airborne Initiative a programme for working with young men with a record of offending Each young person would leave the programme with the problem solving routine listed on a small card the size of a business card What follows is my own adaptation of the process which Airborne themselves adapted from the Cognitive Centre Foundation Programme STOP AND THINK Recognise you have a Problem What is your Goal Obstacles what is getting in the way internal external Resources what resources do you have internal external Gather Information Generate Options Consequences Select Option Take Action Review and Modify Persevere Who else can help you with any of these steps More info Cognitive Centre Foundation Programme http www cognitivecentre com TAKEAWAYS 1 6 SUMMARY Each of the above takeaways is a tool or method or routine that can help your participants learn from future experiences By investing time and resources in such takeaways you are helping your participants to become lifelong experiential learners Why not make learning skills explicit in all of your programmes and offer the best takeaways in the world I welcome your ideas about any takeaways you would like to add to this list Roger Greenaway roger reviewing co uk Up to index 3 RESOURCES Labels Limit Learning In this 20 minute video filmed for TED talks James Nottingham explains how labels get in the way of learning whether the labels are positive or negative Drawing on Carol Dweck s research he argues that labelling children stifles learning whereas labelling their actions allows children to learn from what they do For example labelling children as bright clever good bad stupid racist or naughty limits what they can learn but labelling their actions in these ways creates opportunites for learning such as why their action attracted that label James Nottingham also presents the case for a focus on progress rather than on attainment He introduces the topic with this equation from Eccles 2000 APPLICATION VALUE x EXPECTATION If expectation is zero then application is zero even if perceived value is high A low level of attainment eg relative to the test scores of others creates low expectations whereas an expectation of progress will increase application For example an individual s progress can be represented in an individualised progress chart Each chart can have a different starting point for each child James points out how one off tests do not show progress whereas a pre test followed by time for learning and then a post test readily produces a progress score He also recommends the value of providing learning support in advance eg previewing the next day s lessons rather than always seeing learning support as catch up Preview makes it easier for all pupils take part in the subsequent lesson following which catch up

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  • 10 Time-Savers for Facilitators of Learning | ARTips 14.3
    of well intentioned feedback Timesaver 7 On the Byway allowing a few people to dominate a review discussion Then join the Highway create subgroups on review topics they wish to discuss Because when people do not participate the value of the learning process is much reduced for everyone especially for the non participants How to apply this principle when reviewing Find out what people want to talk about and create smaller groups around those topics If a topic would benefit from hearing everyone s views then the people who have chosen to specialise in that topic can conduct a survey at a time when members of the original bigger group are free to participate This is most easily managed if every subgroup wishes to carry out a survey for which the Simultaneous Survey process is useful See http bit ly N0JACD But There are other good ways to respond to the dominance of a few but if you find yourself forever coaxing responses from the quieter participants this is a strong sign that you need to change the structure rather than over coax Other solutions are described in Encouraging Participation http reviewing co uk archives art 3 2 htm Estimate of time saved divide the number of group members say 10 by the number of non participants say 7 and multiply by 100 70 Timesaver 8 On the Byway imposing a pre planned linear sequence Then join the Highway play the Joker skip a stage or follow the energy Because the planned sequence was your best guess about what would be most suitable but while you are implementing your plan you or the participants may come up with much better ideas as new problems or new opportunities arise Some of these opportunities might take the form of short cuts that speed up the learning process for some or all participants How to apply this principle when reviewing Start with a sequence in mind but above all keep the purpose in mind Remember that the sequence was a means to an end Do not start a session with only one plan always have a few alternatives and choices ready If you are giving a lecture you can just stick to your script but if your session focuses on participants their experiences and their reflections then you are operating in the domain of emergent learning for which there is no predetermined pathway for either content or process But I did recently write a series of three articles about designing reviews there is always a balance to strike between design and flexibility See Designs for Reviewing http bit ly LiFx0f The Art of Reviewing intuition and creativity in facilitation http reviewing co uk articles the art of reviewing htm Estimate of time saved 20 80 depending on the degree to which the original plan happens to fit with the emerging situation and opportunities Timesaver 9 On the Byway asking everyone for their thoughts on an issue Then join the Highway create a large spectrum or diagram and ask each person to show their position by where they stand Because this gives a quick snapshot of everyone s position and the pattern this reveals guides the rest of the process For example if everyone is huddled together there may not be a lot to talk about Whereas if everyone is scattered there would be a wide range of interesting views on the topic Once the facilitator can see the pattern there is plenty of scope for making this a more efficient and interesting process How to apply this principle when reviewing Horseshoe http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm HORSESHOE Activity Map http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm ACTIVITY MAP But Some issues are more complex than can be represented on a single spectrum Horseshoe or in a 2x2 grid Activity Map so there is scope for experimenting with different kinds of mapping processes to discover and work with the range of views in a group Estimate of time saved subtract 1 minute from the time it would otherwise have taken for everyone to declare their position and work out the percentage of time saved perhaps 90 or higher Timesaver 10 On the Byway every group subgroup reporting back in the big group Then join the Highway ask for an exhibition of learning with headlines on display Because reporting back in the big group can be very repetitive An exhibition changes the dynamics and allows learners to visit the exhibits of greatest interest and engage in conversations about them How to apply this principle when reviewing Think through the purpose of any sharing session If you expect the small group learning process to be more valuable for participants than the large group sharing process then ensure that this is consistent with the time allocated to each Also consider the possibility of missing out any large group process or concluding with an exhibition But Sometimes you need large group events to create a sense of community and common purpose If this is the case then this should be your starting point rather than trying to create a sense of community by everyone sitting for a long time listening to a series of repetitive presentations Estimate of time saved the difference between touring an exhibition maybe 5 minutes and listening to several presentations maybe 20 minutes 75 The 19th century Scots poet Walter Wingate in Highways and Byways expressed a strong preference for the happiness of the byways But aye it s frae the byways comes hame the happy sang In the 21st century bypasses are more popular than byways We like short cuts and the quickest way from A to B I hope this article will help you to help your participants achieve their goals sooner Feedback welcome Roger Greenaway roger reviewing co uk Up to index 3 RESOURCES More Picture Cards for Reviewing Following my mention of Toon Cards in Active Reviewing Tips 14 1 on Reviewing with Cards I have come across

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  • Reviewing without a Facilitator: The Art of Not Being There | ARTips 14.2
    working until the review task is completed 1 ACTION POINTS List the five most surprising things that happened during the last activity list five aspects of teamwork which were particularly good and list five ACTION POINTS for the group which will help you to improve the quality of your teamwork 2 ACTION REPLAYS Practise two ACTION REPLAYS one which highlights what went well and one which highlights what didn t go well Incorporate these into a five minute performance on the theme of Past and Future which ends with a preview of the next activity going well 3 ART With these materials make a collage sculpture junk model about the last activity showing a mixture of obvious and not so obvious experiences associated with the activity 4 GROUP POEM Using six blank cards each individual writes down three words and three phrases about the previous activity As a group arrange all of these words and phrases together to produce a group poem about the activity using a few extra words if needed 5 GROUP SONG Write and perform a song about the last activity which mentions and involves everyone in the group Agree a theme that is related to the course objectives and require that there is consensus about the words of the song before it is performed 6 NEWS REPORT produce a front page newspaper story a RADIO NEWS item live or recorded or a VIDEO or ACTION REPLAY about the last activity In large groups you can ask for more than one product The news angle can be determined by the style of presentation associated with different media and or linked to course objectives 7 QUESTIONNAIRES Questionnaires relating to the previous activity are handed out to each person and are completed individually The notes made during this individual review exercise are then used as notes for a review discussion The reviewer should have announced at the start if individuals will be asked to read out any of their answers 8 REVIEW DISCUSSION PREPARATION In a group of ten people the group agree a five part agenda for reviewing the activity and then divide into five pairs with each pair choosing to lead one item on the agenda Each pair then has say five minutes preparation time 9 REVIEW DISCUSSION OBSERVED BY FACILITATOR The group prepare for a review discussion which will take place in your presence You describe your own role clearly which may be to observe and record but unlikely to intervene At a suitable point such as half time or at the end you provide feedback on the review process 10 FACILITATOR COACHING You help a participant prepare for facilitating a review discussion which you observe After the discussion you ask for feedback from the group to the participant who took the role of facilitator Of course it would be very difficult to give feedback to a facilitator who has decided to apply the art of not being there Not being there is an occasional tactic

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  • Reviewing with Cards | ARTips 14.1
    background music loud enough to maintain some privacy for the last conversations in the survey stage You can keep the music playing while people pass on the feedback to the person who was on their left and then present them with their card as a souvenir Depending on the group and your purpose you may want to give everyone a second card on which to turn their survey findings into art work or at least making the words colourful bold and attractive And you may also want to make the presentation of the cards a performance in front of the whole group BRIEF ENCOUNTERS SHARING POSITIVE EXPERIENCES The purpose is to get to know others while learning about their experiences of success The briefing is on the cards that you give out One side of each card has the standard briefing The other side has two unique questions about success or any topic you want to focus on This is an excellent way to start an event where people are arriving at different times but it can be introduced at any point My own collection of questions brings out people s strengths and their humour and focuses attention on the theme of the day which in this case is success Everything you want from an icebreaker Briefing 1 Find a partner and stay on your feet 2 Ask one of the questions on the back of this card 3 Answer each other s question in 1 minute 4 Swap cards and find a new partner Be kind adapt or change your question if your partner is struggling to answer it You can copy and print out the success questions at http reviewing co uk success icebreaker htm where you can also read about the experiences of trainers who have used this exercise If you use it or have used it and have some comments to add please do so PLAYING CARDS FOR UNFACILITATED SMALL GROUP REVIEWS You need these five cards Ace of Diamonds or any diamond Facts Two of Hearts or any heart Feelings Three of Spades or any spade Findings Four of Clubs or any club Futures The Joker wild card Anything The group arrange the cards in the above order with the Ace of diamonds or any diamond on top of the stack of 5 cards While the diamond is showing everyone says something about what happened during the event being reviewed When ready to move on the diamond goes to the bottom of the stack leaving the heart card on view While the heart is showing everyone says something about what they experienced or felt during the event being reviewed When ready to move on the heart goes to the bottom of the stack revealing the spade card for digging a bit deeper This is the cue for everyone to provide explanations about why things happened as they did or why people felt as they did At this stage the group are exploring hows and whys which should lead to new findings When ready to move on the spade goes to the bottom of the stack revealing the club card which leads into a future focused discussion that is connected to any statements arising from the previous three cards When ready to move on the Joker comes into view which is the signal for a free for all This is not an invitation for chaos or rudeness it is an invitation for free flowing discussion arising from the review so far The only rule at this stage is that the cards should now follow the conversation For example it people are expressing feelings the heart should be on view if people are sharing future hopes dreams or intentions the club should be on view For more information see http reviewing co uk learning cycle index htm REVIEWING WITH CARDS Four of the above activities just require blank cards two require cards with ready made questions or statements two require a pack of playing cards Whether you regard this as resource lite or resource intensive depends on where you are coming from in your reviewing practice Wherever you are coming from I hope at least one of these ideas will help you extend your practice as a facilitator of reviewing Roger Greenaway roger reviewing co uk PS added since initial publication SORRY CARDS Cards to help young people say sorry produced by Totem Development Partly inspired by the Elton John Lyric Always seems to me that Sorry seems to be the hardest word Elton John and Bernie Taupin http t co IR0tNwfT Up to index 3 RESOURCE DIALOOGLE PICTURE CARDS A picture is worth a thousand words With Dialoogle you can kick start renew diversify and qualify communication in dialogues and group conversations Dialoogling makes use of a series of picture cards created to stimulate associations inspire creativity and to help people formulate feelings perceptions and ideas Dialoogling makes conversations flow more freely enhancing the value and outcome for all participants Dialoogle is an ideal tool for teachers and psychologists business leaders and coaches HR and management consultants for anybody striving to improve the quality of a conversations in any context See for yourself at http shop dialoogle com picture cards html Up to index 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP TOON CARDS Chris Terrell s pack of Toon Cards is a set of cards in which each card has a cartoon and a caption They are designed for personal development work with young people and Chris describes many ways in which you can use them You will find a review at Amazon Look for Toon Cards here http reviewing co uk reviews new htm Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the value and quality of the work they

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  • Designing Active Review Methods: 10 tips | ARTips 13.6
    exploring objects and talking about them 7 MAKE IT FUN TO FACILITATE Create designs that give the facilitator something more to do than simply give the brief and manage the time Although it is good to keep the focus on what the learner is doing you can add value by giving the facilitator an interesting and demanding role in the process without squeezing out opportunities for participants Here are some examples of facilitation roles that can be fun In Solo Challenge you facilitate the negotiation of suitable challenges for each individual In Turntable you can take turns like everyone else and enjoy joining in on all sides In Vote of Thanks your key role is to ensure that no one misses out on appreciation In Horseshoe or Warm Seat you can invite feedback for yourself and lead by example For more examples see What do facilitators do at http reviewing co uk archives art 13 1 what do facilitators do htm Fun for participants can be even more important and is included within the next tip For more on fun see Reviewing for Fun http reviewing co uk archives art 8 1 htm Reviewing for Fun 8 PULL OUT ALL THE STOPS Playing the organ with only one stop pulled out is timid and cautious and does not reveal the full range of sound that is possible Pulling out all the stops when designing reviews means engaging more than one kind of intelligence more than one kind of learning style more than one kind of thinking style more than one part of the brain and more than one part of the body Ideally the method you design will require a rich mixture of abilities while also being in a social context that fulfills a range of personal and social needs Needs to consider can include the needs for belonging and acceptance for care and friendship for praise and recognition for responsibility achievement self respect creativity new experience connection significance contribution fun and power Yes you can achieve all of this through reviewing if your design encourages participants to pull out plenty of stops Even simple designs such as Simultaneous Survey pull out most of the stops listed above For more about how reviewing can meet a variety of needs see Reviewing for Development http reviewing co uk articles reviewing for development htm 9 TREAT PARTICIPANTS AS EXPLORERS Think of reviewing as a journey in which participants are searching and exploring Many reviewing methods could be viewed as exploring aids The traditional discussion host facilitator does all the exploring through the questions they ask Whereas well designed reviewing methods treat participants as the main explorers For example people can explore by carrying out a survey or by finding out what it s like to be in the shoes of others or by seeking patterns in events or by searching for reasons why things went wrong or right or by exploring options for their next move Exploring readily fits with making and using maps such as Metaphor Maps and with charting progress towards a goal Ideally each participant will feel that the review itself is a journey and not simply a motionless resting point between journeys One way of working with the idea of review as a journey is to finish a review in a way that reflects where it began and how it might continue For ideas about matching or echoing beginnings and endings see Facilitative Frames at http reviewing co uk archives art 13 2 facilitative frames htm 2 10 INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS AS CO DESIGNERS Perhaps you have half an idea Present the idea to participants and they might well provide the other half Here are some examples I feel we could all do with some fresh air but how can we use the time well for reviewing if we go outside We might make better progress in smaller groups What could a small group realistically achieve make or produce in 15 minutes that would assist the whole group review process Whenever we use the picture postcards there seems to be more energy and focus to what we are doing Is there any way that using the pictures might help us just now When you return from your review in subgroups each subgroup has 3 minutes in which to report back in a unique way that is different from every other group Review design is not so precious that we should do it all ourselves leave scope and space for participants to be designers too Participants can even be given 100 responsibility for design but that is another story and strays beyond the frame of this article which has been to provide you with tips for creating your own designs for active reviewing For fuller descriptions of methods mentioned above search for the name at http reviewing co uk Roger Greenaway roger reviewing co uk After writing this article I felt I should challenge myself to design a new method using some of the tips above The starting point was tip 6 above Draw on Popular Culture I chose the chat show format and named the method Couch Potatoes See next item below Up to index 3 METHOD COUCH POTATOES This is a fun confidence building reviewing method for drawing attention to successes achievements and aspirations It is suitable for boosting the self worth of young people Couch Potatoes is a reviewing method based on a popular TV format tip 6 in which three celebrities sit on a couch tip 4 and and are interviewed by the chat show host The chat show host appears to work from a set of prepared questions and the chat typically ends up with the celebrity plugging an upcoming event such as a film a show a book launch a sporting event etc Couch Potatoes fits well towards the end of a programme Each participant is asked to design part of the process tip 10 by preparing questions and answers for their time on

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  • Designing Review Sessions: 10 tips | ARTips 13.5
    to view mingle and learn about other perspectives 4 x 4 is so called because I first used this with a group of 16 people who were reviewing in 4 subgroups but this sharing method can be scaled up or down for other group sizes Within each subgroup each person is identified by a number starting with 1 Then all 1s meet all 2s meet all 3s meet and all 4s meet etc Each and every individual is now responsible for sharing the output from their former group An optional extra stage is that people can then return to their former group for further sharing or discussion Have a representative from every subgroup do a flip chart or Powerpoint presentation but now that you have read the other options you may decide that this is not the most time efficient and engaging way of achieving your purpose 7 BUILD IN TIME FOR EVALUATING THE REVIEW SESSION WHY So that you and participants can learn how to improve the reviewing process HOW If you sneak in a quick evaluation at the end of a reviewing session do not expect high quality data But perhaps some evaluation is better than none In some situations mid session evaluation may be more productive because it has a more immediate purpose and it allows you to make instant adjustments to the review process For evaluations of up to 10 minutes you can ask a series of questions that can be asked on a spectrum I like the physical version Horseshoe in which you ask people where they stand on a curved scale that you have defined Depending on the purpose of your evaluation you may find some of these questions useful Do you feel that people are listening well to each other in this group very well not well Do you feel that other participants are facilitating your learning in any way a little a lot Do you get sufficient opportunity to reflect on experience a little a lot Do you get sufficient opportunity to participate in reviewing processes a little a lot Do you find that reviewing processes are adding a little or a lot to the value of this event How do you find the pace of reviewing sessions Too fast just right too slow If anyone makes a proposal for improving reviewing sessions turn these into a question that can be answered on the spectrum how much do you support this proposal a little a lot Unless everyone is bunched together and the message is clear I like to invite people to talk with their friendly neighbour about why they chose their position As a minimum I would then sample views from 3 points on the spectrum at or near this end at or near the other end at or near the middle For longer evaluations of around 20 minutes or more I would use Simultaneous Survey About 8 evaluation questions are shared out throughout the whole group Each individual walks around finding answers to their own question while also answering any questions they are asked After about 8 10 minutes people with the same question meet up and prepare a summary of their findings to share in a plenary session or put on display 8 HIGHLIGHT KEY LEARNING AT GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL LEVELS WHY From a design perspective team reviews can be readily fitted into the time available But for reviewing at the individual level the time needs to be more carefully allocated and controlled A session in which every individual is expecting to receive quality feedback cannot suddenly stop when there are still one or two individuals waiting their turn Review sessions with an individual focus need to be well timed and well structured to ensure that everyone has a fair share of this key learning opportunity HOW Some facilitators seem to review mostly at the group level eg What are we learning from these experiences about us as a group about how teams work about how this team can improve Whereas other facilitators emphasise personal learning eg What are you learning from these experiences about yourself about your abilities what you need to work on This difference in emphasis is partly influenced by programme objectives and partly by facilitator preferences But in most programmes there is a need to reflect at both of these levels and at other levels too It is important to achieve the optimum balance between these levels So ensure that you include all relevant levels and that you find the optimum balance for the occasion 9 CONNECT LEARNING WITH OTHER PARTS OF THE PROGRAMME AND LIFE COMMUNITY WORK WHY Although connections to work community life can be made at any point in a review session there is an argument that the sooner such connections are made the more seriously they will be taken and the more thoroughly they will be explored But there is also an argument that introducing work community life connections too soon may limit what can be learned from the most recent experience Both arguments are right The situation determines which is approach is best HOW Although this is point 9 in this tips list it might be the first thing you do at the start of a review session You may wish to ask How was this like unlike other experiences on this programme or How do you anticipate this experience could be of relevance to you at work in life The review that follows would delve deeper into any suggested connections For example Action Replay lends itself to replaying scenes from a the recent experience b earlier associated programme experiences c associated work life experiences 10 CLOSE THE SESSION WITH A LINK TO THE NEXT EVENT WHY Reviews tend to be backward looking because the primary process is reflecting on the recent past But there should also be a sense of movement and moving on So it is always useful to help learners anticipate their next opportunity to use what

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  • Designs for Reviewing: 10 tips | ARTips 13.4
    cycle to a longer time scale The first two stages of the cycle are FACTS and FEELINGS Taken together these stages typically involve storytelling stories of experience Focusing on facts produces a descriptive account of what happened and focusing on feelings draws attention to individual and group feelings experienced during the event being described This means that in the early part of a programme I will mostly be using methods that help learners to tell stories about experiences This places experience at the centre of experiential learning Paying attention to experience can be a remarkably effective way of generating a mutually supportive and evidence based learning climate Around mid way in a programme I will tend to focus on the third stage FINDINGS This stage is represented by the spade symbol and involves digging deeper into the reasons why things happen The review methods at this stage help people to find and discover new learning from their experiences Towards the end of the programme I would have a concentration of reviewing methods that focus on the FUTURE while still making strong connections with experiences and learning so far Some FUTURE methods also fit well at the beginning of the programme and immediately before an activity but if you do too much future work there is a risk that you are neglecting the core process of reflecting on past and present experience Single review sessions will generally include at least one complete reviewing cycle but over the programme as a whole reviewing methods that bring out FACTS and FEELINGS tend to be used most near the beginning methods that are good for bringing out FINDINGS are most useful in the middle and methods that look to the FUTURE are most useful towards the end There are many other good rationales for sequencing and shaping a programme but if you want to see some examples of reviewing methods matched to the Active Reviewing Cycle see http reviewing co uk learning cycle index htm 7 WORK BACKWARDS FROM THE END FORWARDS FROM THE START AND OUTWARDS FROM THE MIDDLE This kind of planning is most easily done with cards and a time line and ideally with other people in your planning design team Ask your planning team which reviewing methods they think will be most suitable and effective for the participants to achieve their learning objectives For each proposed reviewing method write down its name on a card one name per card The first card sort involves placing each card into one of three sets beginning middle and end If you provide pre work and follow up create extra sets of cards for reviewing methods that can be used before and after the programme The next card sort involves arranging each set of cards into a likely sequence If the timeline includes start finish and break times you can also do a provisional test to see if you have too many too few or about the right number of cards methods to fit the schedule With different coloured cards you can now create cards for each activity or input or any other element that you want to fit into your programme 8 PLACE THE ACTIVITIES AND OTHER PROGRAMME ITEMS IN THE SPACES A useful experience focused question to ask is What kind of activity is likely to create the kinds of experiences that would be good to review using this method Some examples might help if you want to use Action Replay then the more action there is in the activity the more suitable it will be for a replay Action Replay is a struggle if the activity involved a lot of sitting or standing around without a lot of movement Because Action Replay can be used for subgroups to inform each other about what they were doing in a separate location a replay does not need to be limited to activities in which the whole group was together if you want to use the Missing Person method it works best when the group can refer to a number of group activities rather than referring to just one activity It also fits better after a challenging activity that highlights the need for better teamwork and while there are still a few activities to come in which the Missing Person can help the group focus on better performance if you want to use a group feedback exercise such as Spokes then it is important that the activity being reviewed was one in which everyone was busy doing something that was mostly in the view of everyone else In other words if everyone has had the chance of being noticed during the activity there is more chance that others will be able to comment on their performance for paired feedback exercises such as Learning Buddies Goal Keepers Empathy Test or Egoing the quality of feedback is better if each pair was working closely together during the activity Such activities might be ones where pairs sit together or walk together or where the group moves in a line and they are next to each other in the line This also works for activities where the group is split into two shifts that alternate between the doing shift and the observing shift The more that you use active reviewing methods the more you will notice a blurring between what is an activity and what is a review I choose to put a positive spin on any such confusion by referring to it as integrated practice I feel that I have reached this point both by working backwards from review processes and by developing review methods that pay attention to what participants are doing and experiencing during the review method itself I will save examples of integrated practice for a future issue because to do so now would spoil the relative tidiness of the programme design processes that I am outlining in these tips 9 HOLISTIC CHECKS AND BALANCES When designing a programme in which you want to

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