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  • Real Reviewing: Getting Beyond Cliches | ARTips 13.3
    even if the awards turn out to be for T L C Original Q What 3 strengths do you want to carry forward Alternative Persuade me that you have the strengths you will need to succeed at the next challenge For every strength you claim to have I will be persuaded only if you can come up with convincing evidence of having already demonstrated that strength This is the essence of Persuasion Line in which the goal is for the group to get the facilitator from one end of the line to the other with their powers of persuasion Tip A small change in the question and answer format can pay big dividends Original Q What were the common themes across these exercises Alternative What were the common themes across these exercises OK I d now like small groups to each adopt one of these themes and judge how well the whole group performed in relation to your theme Sketch a chart showing the relative ups and downs in relation to your theme over all the exercises and then present your chart to all of us Tip Often all you need do is follow up your original question with a supplementary question or activity that looks behind the original answers in an interesting and revealing way Original Q What are the most relevant connections to work Alternative Q How will you use your learning in the workplace Tip Ask for specific practical actions rather than for general principles Also notice the personalisation of the question from the connections to using your learning Original Q What are the characteristics of a strong team Alternative Q What are the characteristics of a strong team and how would you rate yourselves on these characteristics Work together as a group to place these characteristics in rank order of importance of your own strengths as a team If each characteristic is written on a separate card then the sorting into rank order on a table top makes it more of a hands on exercise involving more of the team Tip Adapt your question so that it becomes a briefing for a task preferably a fully engaging one in which everyone can get physically involved even if only moving cards around If the group is doing a team task about their relative strengths as a team you can introduce an extra level of review Does your ranking of strengths also apply to how you did the ranking task Original Q What have you learned as a team Alternative Q Your task is to produce 2 x 2 minute action replays The first replay brings our some of the mistakes you were making in the past The second replay shows how your team performance has improved as a result of what you have been learning Tip Even people who would find role play too challenging find it relatively easy to do replays performing events again as if they were captured on video Original Q To improve as a team what must you pay attention to Alternative Q Imagine that this time tomorrow you have made some real breakthroughs and you have become a high performing team What will it feel like What will you be doing differently And how will you have got there I find that the quality of response is much richer if you first ask people to draw a picture of what they have in their minds as an individual or team task Tip To get out of a groove tap into people s imagination Both imagination and experiences are resources that can help people discover their potential Grounding learning in experience is a good principle but the past should not be a ball and chain that leaves no room for imagination For imaginal learning see John Heron s The Complete Facilitator s Handbook Original Q What words would you want to put on your team shield Alternative Q What words would you want to put on the front of your team shield so that others can see them And what words would you want to put on the back of your team shield so that you are continually reminded of them Tip A twist like this helps participants think more deeply And if any team writes Teamwork Listening and Communication on the front and back of their shield let me know and I ll try harder You have probably noticed that the Alternative Questions I have offered in this article have slowly evolved from questions into tasks I could not resist the temptation to leave the Question and Answer format and move participants into more active modes of response But I am pleased that I have offered you two kinds of solution 1 Notice what you are asking for If you are asking for an abstract summary expect cliches If you ask for examples evidence descriptions comparisons different perspectives practical ideas and you personalise your questions you are more likely to get original and thoughtful responses Everyone s happier Paying more attention to what you are asking for will help you to move responses out of the cliche zone and into the learning zone 2 Ask for a response that is more than a spoken answer Create a task that allows people to explore the question together and respond in different ways The examples above include Acceptance Speech at a team trophy award ceremony Persuasion Line persuading a facilitator who is pretending to need a lot of convincing Story Line creating a chart that links learning to events Rank Ordering making touching and moving team strength cards Action Replay snapshots of then and now showing progress Dream Drawing picturing a better future Team Shield thinking about internal and external signals To get beyond cliches pay attention to what you are asking for and try turn the response into a task that involves deeper reflection on the question you are asking Cliched responses may not simply be a reaction to the kinds of questions

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  • Facilitative Frames for Reflection | ARTips 13.2
    without falling into the traps 1 EQUALITY A circle can represent equality if everyone is at much the same level and if there is no focal seat of power within the circle If the available space is limited creating a distorted circle or if the furniture is not sufficiently uniform creating different eye levels or different levels of comfort the circle ceases to look or feel equal A workaround is to split the group in half and work with one half at a time Half the group sits in a well formed circle while the other half are observers or learning buddies during the next swap between inner and outer groups Another workaround is to work with the whole group and to ask that they return to a different seat whenever you ask them to form a circle 2 EYE CONTACT There may be times when as a facilitator you want to dissolve into the circle and be on the same level and have the same status but there are other times when you may wish to take a more dominant position and shift your status such as when giving a special input Some facilitators move their seat a little way into the circle while others stand and walk around in the middle Both of these moves mean that you instantly lose eye contact with everyone with the result that you become less observant and risk losing connection with some participants Even in a perfect circle you can easily lose eye contact with your immediate neighbours which is one of the reasons why it is good for you and others to move around from time to time to get a different view of each other 3 PECKING ORDER In some cultures national cultures work cultures or street cultures there is an understanding that the most senior people in the group will speak first even if everyone is sat in a circle Although circles help to even out status and encourage wider participation than usual the cultural values may only be very slightly affected by rearranging the furniture If people feel that the circle is threatening their status in any way then everyone may feel uneasy uncertain and reluctant to speak including the most senior person In these cases introduce tasks and exercises that require a range of different configurations other than the whole group circle Observe the situations and configurations in which people are participating more freely and openly These are the ones to use more 4 INTIMIDATION In some groups relatively shy people can feel intimidated by the whole group circle Shy people can feel as if they are on stage because everyone else can see them This feeling can be accentuated if they have no table or desk in front of them I see this as a sign for some kind of pre work to help people feel more comfortable sitting in a circle Exercises that involve lots of short conversations with frequently changing partners help to develop one to one connections throughout the group and help to increase comfort in the whole group Also when shy participants who wish to speak have a visual aid such as a picture they have chosen they can feel more at ease because the rest of the group will tend to divide their attention between the visual aid and the person speaking rather than having all eyes on the speaker 5 SIZE MATTERS Circles can be too big or too small It is usually the case that the more people there are in a circle the more intimidating it can be But in some situations people find small circles more intimidating because it can feel too intimate or even harder to hide in a small circle resulting in some individuals feeling even more exposed This is especially true if the shy person finds themselves in an unfacilitated group in which the dominant person lacks sensitivity 6 REFLECTIVE SILENCE A circle can represent peace and harmony and high quality listening In a Quaker circle people make whatever statements they like after a pause for thought following the previous speaker Whoever chooses to speak does not need to make a connection with what the previous speaker said This is a particularly reflective kind of circle space because it includes the tradition of pausing for reflection rather than having a busy conversation But some people are uncomfortable in silences If using silence Quaker style or any other style it can be a more friendly and reflective silence if you first explain something about the value of silence for reflection 7 THE SPACE IN THE MIDDLE When the circle has no obstructions in the centre no fire no table no projector stand there is plenty of scope for mixing circle work with games tasks or performances in the central space I will often make or ask groups to make maps diagrams sculptures or storylines in this central space It is effectively an instant stage or presentation space Something to watch out for is where there is so much of interest at floor level that all eyes are looking down for a sustained period of time This is one occasion where it can be better to work at table level so that the objects being moved or the pictures being talked about are much closer to eye level making it much easier for people to communicate with each other about whatever is on display If acceptable an easier solution is for everyone to sit on the floor with the objects or pictures There are many reviewing methods that either require or fit well with the group circle I reviewed several of these in my article on Turntaking Methods which complements the more general observations above about ways in which circles can be used as facilitative frames for reviewing See http reviewing co uk archives art 11 1 htm The circle is often the basic form to which everything returns it should feel to participants as if it is their home circle rather than being the facilitator s performance space If you really want a performance space change the set up or move to a place designed for performance rather than invade a space with which the group could be developing an increasing affinity and sense of ownership It is worth investing time and effort in making the circle a place that supports learning and development for each and every individual Once the circle becomes the home and holder of such values facilitation becomes a whole lot easier BEYOND THE CIRCLE OTHER FRAMES In a paradoxical way one of the best ways of sustaining reflective work in the circle is to break up the circle from time to time and introduce a variety of reflective activities These activities might start or finish in the circle but they take place outside the circle in many different ways In case you are one of the many facilitators who likes to do all of their work in a circle please allow me to give you four more reasons for leaving the circle from time to time 1 HABITS AND PATTERNS ARE DIFFICULT TO CHANGE Habits and patterns quickly form in a group circle including your own facilitation style with a particular group And once these habits and patterns become routine they are difficult to change If you find it difficult to change how you are facilitating then imagine how difficult it would be for participants to change the ways in which they are contributing and behaving 2 EVEN SUPPORTIVE ROUTINES BECOME RESTRICTIVE Even when the group climate appears to support learning and development it is likely that some of the routines are stifling for some individuals or are locking people into fixed patterns The more satisfying the routines become the harder they are to change Both group and individual development is restricted once routines that have served them well in the past have lost their utility and value Leaving the circle means leaving the routines of the circle and finding another space in which a different kind of learning and development is possible Breakthroughs beyond the circle can make breakthroughs within the circle more likely to happen when people return 3 POSITIVE GROUP PRESSURE CAN BE TOO MUCH OF A GOOD THING Peer group pressure can be incredibly strong And when you are sat in a circle with your peers that pressure will be at maximum strength Of course as a facilitator you will be working hard to make such pressure a positive force But even positive peer group pressure can be overdone the individual also needs space to reflect and make choices away from the intensity of the group circle 4 THE FIRST RESPONSES TEND TO BE THE LEAST REFLECTIVE I have reached this conclusion through reasoning that the first person to speak in answer to your question has spent less time reflecting on your question compared to anyone who responds later to the same question And I have observed that the tone of a discussion tends to be set by the opening responses before the most reflective people have spoken up If a typical group setting is dominated by the least reflective people then some smart facilitation is needed to favour reflective responses if your intention is to encourage reflection in the group circle You can try to counter these hindering forces within the group circle but some kinds of reflection are easier to support by using facilitative frames OUTSIDE the group circle Some of these are described in the next section MORE FRAMES FOR FACILITATING REFLECTION These frames are presented in a rough sequence from frames for private reflection through to frames for shared reflection 1 THINKING Time and space for own thoughts Internal unstructured reflection No sharing expected No input or structure other than the avoidance of distractions and the participant knowing that it is a time reserved for private reflection Examples silence eyes closed magic spot mood music 2 THINKING AND PREPARATION Exactly the same as Thinking except that there is an expectation from the start that participants will be invited to share their thoughts afterwards perhaps in the group circle This is one strategy for helping to overcome problem 4 above the first response tends to be least reflective because whoever speaks first even if it is the usual first speaker has had time to reflect in some depth before speaking 3 VIEWING Seeing a visual reminder of the event as a prompt for internal reflection No sharing expected but sharing is likely to happen naturally and spontaneously Examples watching a video of the event or performance viewing photos of the event or performance For more structured reflection you can ask people to choose significant moments to pause the video or you can ask people to choose a picture See Choosing and Sharing below 4 LISTENING TO OTHER PERSPECTIVES Receiving new data related to the event Receiving new perspectives or angles More for listening than responding Examples hearing a verbal report from an observer hearing responses from other participants listening to a guided reflection receiving personal feedback This could be the conclusion of a reviewing session or it could be followed by sharing responses in a group circle or there can be an in between stage eg moving from Listening to Thinking and Preparation see above before moving back into the group circle 5 FILLING IN This might take the form of a log book in which each page has a different kind of reflective activity to complete This semi structured process is used in a range of settings from Outward Bound to online and distance learning to journals used in management development For example the Executive Edge Learning Journal TM is said to contain everything that participants need to facilitate their own learning processes activity frontloading rules and debrief questions See my review at http reviewing co uk reviews krouwel ricketts willis htm ai Examples completing a sentence a form a questionnaire filling in diagrams with words writing answers to questions completing a logbook or learning journal Such recordings tend to be quite private so it should be clear from the outset whether such recordings are for the writer s eyes only or whether they are for sharing Some more suitable options for sharing follow below 6 MAKING A SOUVENIR Reflection aided by a creative process starting with a blank page or other blank media Output for self or for sharing Examples making notes drawing pictures drawing diagrams making models making music sculpting If the souvenir is for sharing there are some important choices to make at this point One disadvantage of going straight into the circle for sharing at this point is that it can be a predictable and superficial routine the more so the larger the circle The alternative described below is more varied goes deeper generates more interesting group dynamics and takes about the same time One alternative is to share souvenirs in 2s or 3s and invite people to leave all souvenirs on display during the break After the break ask if anyone has questions about any souvenir that they would like to ask in the group circle This can result in one or two people being invited to present their souvenir to the whole group This alternative allows everyone to share their souvenir in some depth with one or two others while also allowing a chosen few to re present their souvenir to the whole group 7 CHOOSING AND SHARING For some basic choices about sharing see the comments above about sharing the souvenir Examples choosing a word or phrase choosing a picture choosing an object choosing a point on a scale or diagram choosing a place on a metaphor map or flow chart choosing a question to answer 8 REFLECTING IN SMALL GROUPS The facilitative frames presented so far in this section are primarily for individuals to collect and explore their thoughts on their own before sharing them with others in pairs in small groups or in the larger group circle But with a few tweaks most of the above processes can be initiated in 2s or 3s so that a higher proportion of reflection time is interpersonal For example pairs or small groups can answer a question together choose a picture together find an object together make a picture map or model together making music or percussion together For an example see http reviewing co uk research ivw9 htm m8 These kinds of reflecting together are a half way house between reflecting in the group circle and reflecting alone But do not think of this half way house as a poor compromise in which participants would really prefer to be reflecting on their own or reflecting in the larger group Although facilitators might like to think that the most significant kind of reflection happens in a facilitated group there is plenty of evidence to show that significant reflection also happens privately and in small unfacilitated groups This is one kind of remote facilitation which is scheduled for a later issue of Active Reviewing Tips 9 CONVERSATION DIALOGUE DISCUSSION Participating in a live fluid dynamic responsive and reflective way mutually generated in the moment interweaving reinterpreting co creating negotiating exploring learning developing Examples participating in a learning conversation with one or two others or in a whole group discussion ditto enhanced by using visual aids to enrich discussion ditto enhanced by using space and movement in special ways to aid discussion So we are now back in the whole group circle facilitating a wonderful discussion Some facilitators reach this point entirely within the group circle They are talented and I admire them I hope this article has helped you to appreciate the value of other frames and how these can support circle work I hope you will discover how moving between these various facilitative frames can be even more effective for supporting experience based learning WHAT NO LEARNING CYCLE Most writers about experiential learning tend to present a sequence or cycle as the primary frame through which to understand and facilitate experiential learning From within this frame the main focus of the facilitator is What kind of question shall I ask next But as I argue in my writings about the Joker there is nothing special or magical or theoretically superior about any particular sequence for learning Cycles are weak frames on which to build a successful facilitation strategy I think it is valuable to keep a range of different kinds of facilitative frames in mind including learning cycles group circles and other frames described above and to use these to construct your own strategies If every way of seeing is also a way of not seeing then every facilitative frame is facilitative in some ways and unfacilitative in others so use more than one And if you have a favourite frame that is not included above please write to roger reviewing co uk and if you like I will include your frame in the next issue 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL HOW TO SAVE MONEY WITH A CAMERA The Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to demonstrate active learning methods You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos Action Replay Moving Stones Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com I am interested in making or collecting further short videos of a similar quality add to the Active Learning Manual collection If you already have or wish to make suitable videos please write to me at roger reviewing co uk 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised 1 776 for Save the Children since January 2006 Thank you for your purchases Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the

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  • What do facilitators do? | ARTips 13.1
    may find some useful insights from John Heron in the Complete Facilitator s Handbook where he describes the value of moving around between three basic facilitation modes hierarchical cooperative and autonomous 6 DELEGATE FACILITATION Question When you work with groups how many facilitators are there Answer Everyone All influence each other s approach to learning through their motivation curiosity support example etc So Bring this to participants attention Praise facilitative behaviour and give opportunities for participants to praise each other s facilitative behaviour Assign responsibilities for facilitating eg using learning buddies coaching in Goal Keepers giving feedback or facilitating reviewing such as in Simultaneous Survey 7 STIMULATE CONVERSATION Activity Map and Horseshoe provide great opportunities for this See http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm 8 CHALLENGE PARTICIPANTS Persuasion Line and Turntable if participating allow you to be challenging within the rules of these reviewing methods See http reviewing co uk archives art 11 2 htm ACTIVE AUDITS for an early version of Persuasion Line See http reviewing co uk discuss discuss2 htm for an early version of Turntable TEN REVIEWING METHODS WHAT EXACTLY DO YOU DO Here are the 10 reviewing methods I described in my article Reviewing for Newcomers now at http reviewing co uk archives art 9 4 htm 2 Each method requires different action on the part of the facilitator 1 Mid Activity Review don your Teflon jacket temporarily 2 Find a Picture or Object plan to focus on what matters most 3 Learning Buddies set high expectations for the review method 4 Hokey Cokey choose a method and remember why you chose it 5 Spokes encourage behaviour that facilitates learning 6 Brief Encounters be prepared be welcoming be focused 7 Simultaneous Survey calculate how long each stage will take 8 Empathy Test ask the best possible questions 9 Missing Person hope it goes right but let it go wrong 10 Horseshoe enjoy facilitating focused discussion 1 Mid Activity Review WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL DON YOUR TEFLON JACKET TEMPORARILY Intervene in a way that draws attention to what matters without making your own intervention the issue Be decisive but try to leave final or significant decisions to the group so that they have full ownership of decisions made Disrupt the normal pattern of waiting until the review if groups tend to be unfacilitated during activities and facilitated during reviews try mixing things up a bit But mix with care and with purpose IN MORE DETAIL If the mid activity review is during a natural activity break try a low key How s it going and improvise from there possibly directing questions at those who seem to be left out or who may have a different view If the mid activity review is an intrusive break because you have spotted say a safety issue a teachable moment or you sense that there is little value to be derived from letting the activity continue you will want to be quite directive Even so it is usually more facilitative to intervene with a question rather than a judgement because a judgement can make your intervention the issue and draw attention away from what was happening in the group If you want the mid activity review to be a brief one that you will follow up later then invite people to pause and notice You may want to guide their noticing by suggesting what they pay attention to such as the original briefing their feelings questions that are on their mind if any their personal goals how satisfied they are with their own performance how well they think that they and others are keeping in mind what they learned from the last review 2 Find a Picture or Object WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL PLAN TO FOCUS ON WHAT MATTERS MOST Ensure that the question that everyone will be reflecting upon is one that is big enough and matters enough to include and engage everyone for the duration of the exercise Plan ahead ensuring that the quality of materials the quality of questions and the time for sharing are all sufficient for the desired quality of reflection IN MORE DETAIL Ensure a suitable range and variety of pictures or objects are available Ensure that the question to which the picture object is the answer is a question that is a worthwhile question for everyone in the group and is worth spending time exploring and sharing Anticipate how long any sharing process will take ensuring that there is sufficient time within the whole process for achieving the depth of thought and quality of sharing that will make the whole process worthwhile 3 Learning Buddies WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL SET HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR THE REVIEW METHOD State that learning buddies or paired reflection can be the most valued part of a programme and ask why this can be so Also discuss why paired reflection might not turn out well Yes you are asking participants to review the benefits and drawbacks of paired work as a way of setting up a paired exercise IN MORE DETAIL Think through the pros and cons of the different ways in which people find learning buddies Options include random pairing no choice choose any partner choose any new partner choose a partner who will continue to be your learning buddy after the programme To keep pairs to task make the buddy exercise something that leads on to the next activity or to some kind of scoring sharing or exhibiting Keep a conversation going about what people find useful about having a learning buddy and what they like about having their own personal coach and being someone else s personal coach This increases the chances of people appreciating the value of having a learning buddy and using the time well Watch out for partnerships that are not working well and provide options 4 Hokey Cokey WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL CHOOSE A METHOD AND REMEMBER WHY You would choose Hokey Cokey because it gives everyone in a large group a chance to make a brief statement and because unlike Rounds it brings increased energy and focus as the last few people join in So you would not let discussions happen during Hokey Cokey and because you are trying to get everyone into the habit of speaking up you would be unlikely to challenge what someone says Within this method you might even find yourself accepting cliches At other times you will welcome discussion and you will make challenges but to do either of these things in the middle of Hokey Cokey would detract from your main purpose of encouraging everyone to speak up IN MORE DETAIL Enjoy the playful nature of this exercise It is primarily a way of giving everyone a chance to speak up when they have something to say In large groups of 15 20 you may need to work hard to keep things moving The exercise is designed to give everyone a say so ensure that everyone is heard If anyone seems not to have been heard ask them to repeat what they said or ask someone else to repeat what they said or repeat what they said yourself The most interesting point comes when only a few people are left to speak judge the moment when to take the pressure off the remaining individuals and turn it into a team challenge to come up with a new statement If the statements are about individual contribution encourage the receivers of feedback to insist on quality rather than to accept the first suggestion made 5 Spokes WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL ENCOURAGE BEHAVIOUR THAT FACILITATES LEARNING Make the giving and receiving of feedback enjoyable so that people want to take part in this kind of learning experience Monitor the giving of feedback encouraging specific examples Monitor the receiving of feedback ensuring it is acknowledged but that it is not automatically accepted Replying is OK Encourage everyone to think of themselves as givers of feedback and encourage them to look around with the likely but unasked for consequence that people will tend to give more feedback to those who rate themselves relatively low IN MORE DETAIL One of the most important requirements for Spokes is to have a suitable set of questions You can generate these with the group either before the activity or at the start of the review by asking What will or did you each need to do in order to achieve this task successfully The answers to this question become the questions for Spokes When Spokes moves from self evaluation to positive feedback encourage those giving positive feedback to be as specific as possible but take care not to raise the bar so high that people are discouraged from making invitations Be aware that missing out on positive feedback is not a positive experience so look out for those who regularly stay on the outside and try to include them more by asking everyone to look around while thinking about who deserves to be rated higher Or ask people to come up with a new question for self assessment that would allow those further out to move further in 6 Brief Encounters WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL BE PREPARED BE WELCOMING BE FOCUSED Double check the questions and the briefing and think where it could go wrong The worst time for a participant to feel alone or on the spot is in the early stages of an open event so ensure that any potentially unsuitable questions that people will be asking each other are weeded out and also that people know what to do if faced with a question they do not wish to answer IN MORE DETAIL Brief Encounters is easy to set up and manage As it is usually used as an early exercise to raise energy and focus for everyone ensure that a pool of alternative question cards are readily available If using it as a welcoming event while latecomers are still on their way ensure you are at the entrance to welcome and brief people as they arrive If using the blank card version it is better to have people first generate ideas for questions in small groups rather than have individuals struggle to come up with a question before they are warmed up or tuned in Much better is to be well prepared and have plenty of suitable event specific ready made question cards 7 Simultaneous Survey WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL CALCULATE PRECISELY HOW LONG EACH STAGE WILL TAKE Unless there is plenty of time and you finish when you finish announce the times for each stage and keep your eye on the clock If the report back is intended to kick start discussions then your gaze will move from the clock to the participants and your priority becomes the facilitation of a good discussion IN MORE DETAIL Do the maths Work out how many survey questions would suit the group size and the time available Allow for things taking a little longer so that the sharing stage does not finish in a rush If you want to have discussion arising from the sharing stage allow even more time With big groups or when there are lots of questions the collation of results and reporting back can become a slow process so consider alternative means of sharing such as a poster exhibition Remember that people can get upset if their own views are not represented in the final report back So always ask something like Does anyone feel that their views or ideas did not make it through to the summary 8 Empathy Test WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL ASK THE BEST POSSIBLE QUESTIONS Prepare more questions than you will need select the questions that you think will be most effective and keep the best of the rest as reserve questions IN MORE DETAIL It is a simple concept that can take a while to brief So consider using a demonstration with two volunteers to add clarity and save time Remember to say something like However good your guessing there will always be something to talk about because the real purpose is for people to have a conversation that is stimulated by the guessing part of the exercise so that they end up knowing each other better whatever their starting point As always a good set of questions helps Questions should be specific to the event being reviewed should mostly be linked to goals and should also take people into new territory 9 Missing Person WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL HOPE IT GOES RIGHT BUT LET IT GO WRONG Be flexible Although this is a reviewing task some groups may find it more challenging than the activities you are reviewing So if the group do not cope well with the challenge you can treat it as a significant group experience that you can now review in some other way With younger groups you may want to be more helpful IN MORE DETAIL Some groups may find this a bit strange so be clear about why you think this exercise will be useful and relevant for them but without selling it too hard or promising benefits that are not guaranteed For example This exercise tackles team development in three ways by looking at your past as a team by looking at your future needs as a team and working together to create a new person is itself a team exercise Being a creative exercise it can take off in many different directions including apparently disastrous ones If the exercise happens to lead to conflict in the group the exercise can become a significant group experience that you will want to review in some other way Avoid defending the exercise or challenging people directly unless you are making a deliberate choice to become a teacher at this point rather than maintaining your more neutral role as a facilitator If it all goes well you need to treat the new person with respect rather than making fun of them or thoughtlessly putting them in the bin Whether the group feel proud or dissatisfied with the person they have created you can add value by asking them which features of the new person will be of greatest value in the next exercise event thus reminding them of the purpose 10 Horseshoe WHAT DO YOU DO IN A NUTSHELL ENJOY FACILITATING FOCUSED DISCUSSION Once everyone is standing in a position on the scale that represents their point of view everyone can see each other s position which makes it easier for you and others to bring individuals or subgroups into the discussion IN MORE DETAIL There is plenty of scope to play a significant facilitation role in Horseshoe You have a lot to pay attention to mostly to keep everyone involved throughout the whole process This means moving to and fro between paired discussion and whole group discussion while also ensuring that this active method does not keep people on their feet so long that the discomfort is getting in the way Experience with using Horseshoe alerts you to predictable patterns to look out for For example attention usually turns first to those with the most extreme views on the issue so ensure that the more balanced views from other parts of the spectrum are included Horseshoe combines well with Turntable especially when you are discussing a significant issue where people have a lot they want to say Be ready to introduce Turntable which has the added merit of allowing people to be seated for most of the time REVIEWING FOR NEWCOMERS For more information about the 10 methods listed just above see http reviewing co uk archives art 9 4 htm 2v WHAT DO FACILITATORS DO LINKS TO MORE ANSWERS TURNTAKING IN GROUP REVIEWS How to share out opportunities and involve everyone http reviewing co uk articles turntaking htm THE ART OF REVIEWING http reviewing co uk articles the art of reviewing htm PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION You may have been trained to be neutral and distanced and non directive so that you retain the freedom and independence of being an objective outsider Such advice usually applies to a different kind of facilitation where there is a vibrant conflict to resolve If this describes your role you may like to look up an earlier article on Peace and Conflict Resolution at http reviewing co uk archives art 10 2 htm THE ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR See the section 5 below for an extract from John Heron s Complete Facilitator s Manual about what facilitators do 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL HOW TO SAVE MONEY WITH A CAMERA The Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to demonstrate active learning methods You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos Action Replay Moving Stones Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com I am interested in making or collecting further short videos of a similar quality add to the Active Learning Manual collection If you already have or wish to make suitable videos please write to me at roger reviewing co uk 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP NEW BOOKS NEW BOOKS http reviewing co uk reviews new htm Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised 1 776 for Save the Children since January 2006 Thank you for your purchases Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the value and quality of the work they do Please support them by buying your books and any other Amazon goods via ROGER S ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP at http reviewing co uk reviews See my review of OBLIQUITY in section 7 below 5 ARCHIVE THE

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  • Engaging Participants in Reviewing | ARTips 12.2
    when walking together the speaker can more easily choose whether to get absorbed in their own story or whether to look at their partner for reassurance or other reaction In suitable outdoor locations it is easier to have confidential conversations And regarding the optimal level of activity pairs tend to automatically find the mutually perfect pace for walking and talking Beyond these basic benefits you can frame and structure the conversation as much as you like by providing topics or questions for each section of a walk 7 Use maps for meaningful journeys Why So much of our language about personal and career development is wrapped up in the metaphor of life as a journey or of a project as a journey that it seems fitting to create a map on which people can walk their journey past and future Examples Story Line Objective Line Back to the Future Future Walking Metaphor Map Each of these methods involves constructing a map on which the learner walks and talks In most cases there is a starting point and a destination Metaphor Map is the exception it is a more complex map on which many different journeys are possible past present or future Physically moving along a line or from location to location seems to result in more focused reflection perhaps because the map becomes a stage on which the learner becomes a player Storyline http reviewing co uk archives art 11 4 htm 5 Objective Line forerunner of Back to the Future http reviewing co uk archives art 11 1 htm 5 Metaphor Map http reviewing co uk archives art 11 2 htm 5 8 Use physical scales for reflecting on how much questions Why If you just ask for a show of hands indicating how much people quickly forget the relative heights of each other s hands Whereas if you have a linear scale on the ground people stand in their chosen position and everyone s answer remains clearly visible Example Spokes is a two part method which starts with each individual moving to a point on their own individual scale which shows how they assess their own performance in answer to the question asked People then look around and are encouraged to invite others to move further along their scale if they feel they have under rated their performance while also providing evidence to support their invitation It is called Spokes because each self assessment line converges into a central hub like a wheel with spokes Spokes http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm 9 Use physical activity that fits the desired mental activity Examples If you want to walk through what s happened then get walking don t just talk about it If you want people to see something from a different perspective then ask them to move to a new position that represents that perspective as in Turntable If people are talking about how they would do something better next time create a quick test of that learning intention by letting them try out some key aspect of this better way perhaps through a short role play Whatever the situation that people are talking about past or future bring it to life by inviting them to enact key aspects If envisioning ideas through diagrams is useful then enacting those ideas allows people to see and even test the ideas in action Facilitate that move from envisioning to enacting from seeing the change to being the change 10 Review the review Once you recognise that the level of activity in reviewing can help to engage focus and intensify the quality of a review then be sure to keep a dialogue going with learners about how the activity is helping or hindering their learning If this extra layer of review evaluation would be intrusive then put time aside for getting feedback relating to the optimal level of activity in review Through this dialogue learners will become more wise and responsible for how they learn and you will become wiser about the level and nature of activity in reflection that will be optimum at this time with this group in this situation You get bonus marks if you use an active method for getting feedback And double bonus points if you write in with suggestions for tips 11 12 13 etc for full engagment and active participation to roger reviewing co uk 3 INTERVIEWS Experiential Learning for Universities What are the advantages of Experiential Learning for Universities Universities regularly ignore the research finding that demonstrates the ineffectiveness of lecturing as a teaching method If universities paid more attention to research about learning especially to research about adult learning they would become much more committed to experiential approaches to learning and would become much more successful too According to Colin Beard author of The Experiential Learning Toolkit Speech and visual presentations are dominant in lectures and seminars but can discriminate and exclude some people they represent one type of learning experience and they can be very linear in format Speech for example is not good for example to explain spatial relational complexity or even a simple shape Experiential learning requires and develops a broader set of learning skills Students are exposed to a fuller range of learning experiences which help them become more versatile and successful learners Experiential learning is also more inclusive and offers something for everyone it can serve to stretch gifted students while also more readily engaging students of all abilities PhD students become more employable if given the opportunity to develop interpersonal skills through experiential learning What kind of learners and educators are developed by experiential learning Educators become more versatile because experiential learning gives them a broader range of strategies for facilitating learning And students develop a broader set of learning skills and are more likely to thrive in the workplaces where reading the situation can matter more than reading the book Once teaching skills are considered to be important experiential learning offers a wider range

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  • Reviewing for Different Ages - part two | ARTips 12.1
    reviewing is to them By reviewing activities we show that we care about what people experience that we value what they have to say and that we are interested in their progress When people feel cared for valued and respected they will be better learners 13 Communicating with the help of a clay model A creative process such as the making of a clay model promotes reflection and dialogue with all who see the product 14 Reflecting on street life with poetry When participants write and read poetry the reflective and mutually supportive nature of a group can be transformed 15 Giving feedback using a football metaphor Start from strengths and existing knowledge These football enthusiasts knew about teamwork on the football field but had not so far applied these insights to their own teamwork and team roles 16 Reflecting on leadership with pictures A varied collection of pictures can really help people think things through especially when touching moving and rearranging pictures is also part of the process 17 Reflecting on working relationships and change with music Using music for reflection removes the normal constraints of words and jargon and can lead to a deeper understanding 18 Reflecting on a development programme with paint To get in touch with your creative self and let your thoughts run free it is helpful to use a creative medium for reflection 19 Reflecting and leading creatively Creative arts have a useful role to play both in reflecting on leadership and in being effective leaders 20 People gauging opinion more quickly with active reviewing Challenge norms and take risks if you want to leave safe routines and discover more effective ways of learning 21 Reviewing with a defensive group letting the group decide Sometimes the smartest move is to share your concerns leave the room and let the group surprise you with their solution 22 Reflecting with drama Drama presented a different kind of challenge and drawing as it did on their own experiences it proved to be highly relevant 23 Telling a life story through drama Enthusiasm for learning and development is not age related And those who know most about learning from experience are probably those who have done most learning from experience 24 Reflection through movement dance and song If talking isn t working remember that there are whole other worlds and channels through which people can recall reflect and discover If you wish to add in your own examples it is never too late because this is a web text to which I will be more than happy to include your own contribution to this growing document Please write with your comments or contributions to roger reviewing co uk The full article including all examples received so far is at http reviewing co uk articles reviewing for different ages htm 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL HOW TO SAVE MONEY WITH A CAMERA The Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to demonstrate active learning methods You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos Action Replay Moving Stones Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com If you are a client or potential client who has access to the equipment and skills to take and edit 2 minute videos of a similar style and quality to the pilot videos at http www activelearningmanual com For a limited period I am now offering a third day s training free in exchange for two minute videos that I can add to the Active Learning Manual collection To discuss this or other possibilities please write to me at roger reviewing co uk 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised over 1 500 for Save the Children since January 2006 Thank you for your purchases Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the value and quality of the work they do Please support them by buying your books and any other Amazon goods via ROGER S ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP at http reviewing co uk reviews 5 POETS ARE MASTERS OF TRANSFER In Transfer of Learning 2001 Professor Robert Haskell reviews 100 years of research about the transfer of learning He summarises his findings into 11 Principles of Transfer Haskell attaches greatest importance to his eleventh principle Finally and most importantly learners must observe and read the works of people who are exemplars of transfer thinking This means reading systems thinkers accounts of scientific discoveries of invention and innovation it means reading the great poets Poets are masters of transfer The most important point in Haskell s general theory of transfer Number 11 is a fascinating one Poets are masters of transfer It has inspired me to set up debates within trainer training events on the question of whether a poem or a plan is a better vehicle for the transfer of learning Here are some of the ideas that have been stated during these debates POEMS VS PLANS You discard even the best plans when they are finished You keep the best poems they last forever and can inspire many plans Poems capture the essence of the experience Plans capture what you can use and do with it A poem is a reminder of good times it inspires A plan is a pathway to better times it inspires Poems convert an ordinary experience into something special Plans convert an ordinary experience into something special Poems create something that was not there before Plans create something that was not there before You need imagination creativity rhythm and timing and a careful choice of words to be a poet You need imagination creativity rhythm and timing and a careful choice of words to make a plan Plans know when to stop they have deadlines Poems don t they are lifelines

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  • Reviewing for Different Ages | ARTips 11.4
    http www brathay org uk They recreated the Big Brother Diary Room The young people would go into the diary room one at a time and sit in the comfy chair Big Brother s voice would come through from the other side of a screen This appeared to have the effect of encouraging young people to speak more openly than might be the case in a normal interview It is novelty that captures imagination and shifts people into a different way of thinking and communicating And if the idea is a good cultural fit the chances of success are greater A change of context can help to engage people more deeply especially if the context is both novel and familiar LETTING YOUNG PEOPLE EXPLORE THEIR WORLD THROUGH IMPROV DRAMA Ages 15 16 I was teaching the leavers class the class that would be leaving school with few or no qualifications In fact many of them had left this class already and my first task was to track them down and persuade them to attend To cut a long story short we ended up doing improv theatre about changes in the local community that were already affecting employment and their own employment prospects The drama we were creating together was directly related to an issue that mattered to all of them Their acting skills were better than their reading and writing skills so I helped them produce a playscript closely based on their own improvisations The leavers performed this play about leaving again and again sometimes changing roles sometimes adding new scenes and even writing their own scripts Unfortunately they did not have the confidence to perform the play to other students but they did allow the playscript to be used by other classes Just before leaving school they gained an unlikely reputation as playwrights This is probably the closest I came to active reviewing as a teacher before encountering it as a trainer The work stayed close to the experiences and concerns of the young people The primary method improv acting was something they enjoyed and it played to their natural talents rather than dwelling on their lack of ability in reading and writing As their confidence in acting grew they got drawn in to reading and writing the playscript And they received congratulatory feedback from many students from other classes who had read and performed the play which they had created Finding an active way in which these students could reflect on their experiences as leavers helped to engage them in the learning process Genuinely believing that these students had the ability to create and perform a play was also an essential ingredient COMMUNICATING WITH PARENTS WITH THE HELP OF A CLAY MODEL Ages 15 16 Katriona Rioch told me this story when she was project leader at the Clydesdale Youth Project At our parents evening it was rare to see so many parents turning up and showing an interest in their sons A lot of the conversation was about the clay models that the boys had taken back home Each model was a self portrait in clay Few parents knew or cared much about what was happening in this group until they saw the clay models The models prompted conversations with parents about the young person s self image how they saw themselves and thought about themselves For many this made a welcome if awkward change from being ignored or reprimanded The clay model and the subsequent discussions with the young person and then with their youth workers resulted in parents showing renewed interest in their sons and in their responsibilities towards them A creative process such as the making of a clay model promotes reflection and dialogue with all who see the product GIVING FEEDBACK USING A FOOTBALL METAPHOR Ages 18 22 A group of apprentices were talking a lot about football Perhaps they understood the world of football better than any other So I used their interest in football and their knowledge of the game for setting up and managing a feedback session The starting point was to identify the skills and qualities needed for different positions on the field of play I then asked them to put aside any knowledge they happened to have about each other s footballing skills Now they had to place each other physically on the field of play giving reasons why they were suited to a particular position For example a centre forward might be seen as a talented individual who does very little until someone shouts at them or a defender might be seen as someone who is reliable but is always cutting others down Once they got going the quality of feedback was surprisingly sophisticated much more so than if I had asked them to give straight feedback to each other Start from strengths and existing knowledge These apprentices knew about teamwork on the football field but had not so far applied these insights to their own teamwork and team roles REFLECTING ON WORKING RELATIONSHIPS AND CHANGE WITH MUSIC Ages 25 A participant in a management development programme told me We decided that in our drama we wouldn t use words we would just use drama and music and percussion and be fairly creative The theme was working relationships and change So we were thinking about chaos into harmony Percussion and wind instruments discord trees panic and fear and harmony and we brought together the rhythms and with the harmony and the tune at the end and that was very powerful because it wasn t constrained by jargon or language or anything That was why it was powerful because it was a totally different setting and yet we were asked to produce a drama on working relationships and change and we did Source http reviewing co uk research ivw9 htm m8 Using music for reflection removes the normal constraints of words and jargon and can lead to a deeper understanding For the use of music in organisation development see http www facethemusic com REFLECTING AND LEADING CREATIVELY Ages 25 The Center for Creative Leadership has explored and developed the use of creative methods in leadership development The research findings of Charles Palus and David North are described in The Leader s Edge Among their proposed six key competencies for leaders are imaging serious play and crafting Creative arts have a useful role to play both in reflecting on leadership and in being effective leaders The Leader s Edge is at the top of the list in the leadership section of the Active Learning Bookshop http reviewing co uk reviews leadership htm REVIEWING WITH A DEFENSIVE GROUP LETTING THE GROUP DECIDE Ages 25 35 Bill Krouwel writes Working with a group from the I T department of a financial institution we found that we just couldn t penetrate the rather defensive attitude which the group seemed to share At our wits end we shared our concerns with the group and gave them space 45 minutes and a place the group room to reflect on this After 20 minutes or so we heard thumps bumps and silly laughter A little later we ventured back into the room to find the group playing tig AKA tag After the game was over there was a relaxed and cheerful atmosphere On reflection I think they were probably a little wary of making fools of themselves in front of each other but after tig nothing we might inflict on them would look as silly So the group adopted a children s game Bill Krouwel Sometimes the smartest move is to share your concerns leave the room and let the group surprise you with their solution OLDER PEOPLE REFLECTION THROUGH MOVEMENT DANCE AND SONG Ages 70 100 Dr Richard Coaten finds that people with dementia may have difficulty with cognitive approaches because their cognition is damaged But they can access their remaining potential through other senses especially those which are embodied They are especially responsive to dancing movement singing and reminiscing with objects Stimulating memories through smells food music dance and pictures matters even more when people are so vulnerable and frail because reaching them through these senses may be the only route left to communicate with them The principles of active and creative reviewing seem to apply even more to people with dementia This conjuring up of memories through several sensory channels helps to instill a sense of well being which supports personhood in dementia Those who care for them can also be enlivened through such work because they can more readily connect when communicating in these enriched ways People with dementia do not like being referred to as patients They can be just as resistant to negative labelling as teenagers From the perspective of active learning labelling people in the passive role of patient instantly places them in an inactive role as a recipient of services rather than as an active participant in their own well being Thank you Richard for miraculously arriving in my office while I was writing this article about reviewing with different age groups These insights come from Richard s PhD thesis Building Bridges of Understanding the use of embodied practices with older people with dementia and their care staff as mediated by dance movement psychotherapy University of Surrey 2009 If chatting over a cup of tea isn t working remember that there are whole other worlds and channels through which people can recall reflect and discover REVIEWING WITH DIFFERENT AGES WHAT I HAVE LEARNED When I set out to write this article about Reviewing with Different Ages I thought I might end up with a reasonably tidy list of age related tips But looking through all these examples I have ended up with just one extra big age related tip which is to take care that you do not limit your choices based on assumptions about what is or is not age appropriate Of course what you choose needs to be appropriate for the people you are working with And if you are not sure what is appropriate then try letting the people choose Some of the above examples show how groups and individuals have chosen how to reflect on their experiences and made good choices A recurring theme in the examples above is the value and richness of moving beyond purely verbal approaches and making reflection a more active and creative process In some of the examples there are no words at all but the usual story is that the greatest power comes from a mix of methods that engage the whole person in the process of reflection Here are the key points again They make more sense if you can relate them to the original example And they make even more sense if you can relate them to your own experiences Given my extra big age related tip above I have removed most references to age in the summary below Learning from experience appears to be an innate quality that can last a lifetime Enquiry and reflection for all ages You are unlikely to discover the participants wisdom unless you provide them with an opportunity to demonstrate their wisdom Reflecting on values using pictures and deciding line Deciding Line generates high involvement and the use of pictures and appreciation makes it easier to achieve consensus Changing a negative peer culture with creative feedback methods If everyone knows that they will each have their own turn at both giving and receiving feedback they will readily become more responsible and conscientious about doing so Creating a safe place to talk frankly the Diary Room A change of context can help to engage people more deeply especially if the context is both novel and familiar Letting people explore their world through improv drama Finding an active way in which these people could reflect on their experiences helped to engage them in the learning process Genuinely believing that they had the ability to create and perform a play was also an essential ingredient Communicating with the help of a clay model A creative process such as the making of a clay model promotes reflection and dialogue with all who see the product Giving feedback using a football metaphor Start from strengths and existing knowledge These football enthusiasts knew about teamwork on the football field but had not so far applied these insights to their own teamwork and team roles Reflecting on working relationships and change with music Using music for reflection removes the normal constraints of words and jargon and can lead to a deeper understanding Reflecting and leading creatively Creative arts have a useful role to play both in reflecting on leadership and in being effective leaders Reviewing with a defensive group letting the group decide Sometimes the smartest move is to share your concerns leave the room and let the group surprise you with their solution Reflection through movement dance and song If talking isn t working remember that there are whole other worlds and channels through which people can recall reflect and discover If you wish to add in your own examples it is never too late because this is a web text to which I will be more than happy to include your own contribution to this growing document Please write with your comments or contributions to roger reviewing co uk The full article including all examples received so far is at http reviewing co uk articles reviewing for different ages htm 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL NEW VIDEOS WANTED The Active Learning Manual demonstrate active learning methods using short videos You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos at http www activelearningmanual com Do you have access to the equipment and skills to take and edit 2 minute videos of a similar style and quality to the pilot videos at http www activelearningmanual com For a limited period I am offering a third day s training free in exchange for two minute videos that I can add to the Active Learning Manual collection To discuss this or other possibilities please write to me at roger reviewing co uk 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP FREE UK DELIVERY UNTIL 2010 Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised over 1 500 for Save the Children since January 2006 Thank you for your purchases Christmas shoppers may like to know that you can get FREE UK DELIVERY for the rest of 2009 there is no minimum purchase for Super Saver Delivery Super Saver excludes 3rd party sellers where the product is not despatched by Amazon Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via the Active Learning Bookshop and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help Please support them by buying your books and any other Amazon goods via Roger s Active Learning Bookshop at http reviewing co uk reviews 5 STORYLINE MAKING THE EXPERIENCE CENTRAL TO THE REVIEW Storyline is a chart made by participants showing their ups and downs over a period of time The chart can serve as a personal record of their journey through a course or programme Or it can chart their ups and downs during a challenge that is relevant to their learning goals People talk quite naturally of their ups and downs highs and lows being as high as a kite or down in the dumps A Storyline is a timeline showing these fluctuations Storyline was originally used to chart emotional ups and downs but it can also be used for charting anything that fluctuates such as involvement motivation effort difficulty understanding relevance confidence performance or a specific emotion The real power of Storyline is when it is used as a communication aid A chart makes it easier for speakers to communicate It also makes it easier for listeners to follow the story and to ask good questions to the storyteller Why would I use Storyline To give participants thinking and preparation time before telling their story This is especially useful for people who lack the vocabulary or the confidence to tell their story To help participants focus on a particular theme in the telling of their story eg involvement motivation effort difficulty understanding relevance confidence performance To help participants notice similarities and differences in each other s stories and to stimulate interest empathy and support between them To provide you with greater insights into what makes each participant tick and some important clues about what motivates and demotivates each person To give participants a framework for presenting content that is relevant to all such as when a participant is reporting back on an individual project Tip When first using Storyline use it for stories with a happy ending or a successful outcome because stories of frustration or disappointment may not be suitable for paired work What do I need for setting up Storyline For making individual Storylines each participant needs pen and paper Blank paper is easier for you but graph paper squared paper or a customised chart template is easier for participants For a more active version provide participants with ropes of 4 or 5 metres for charting their story on the floor or ground which they then walk along while telling their story For paired work with ropes you need one rope between two and plenty of space If ropes or space are limited participants can tell their stories one at a time to the whole group You will need a good supply of suitable questions if you want to go beyond storytelling and encourage the analysis and discussion of the stories Exploring a Storyline After a participant has told their story ideally while walking along their line these questions can be asked by a partner or facilitator to help the student analyse their story 1 Can you name five emotions that you were feeling at different points in your story 2 What caused your high points How did you or others contribute to these high points

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  • Reviewing for Starters | ARTips 11.2
    of asking the appreciative question What is working well around here 2 BRIEF ENCOUNTERS Everyone receives a card with the instructions on one side and two unique questions on the other side Following their instructions people quickly pair up and choose one of their questions to ask to their partner The questions are designed to bring out short stories of success related to the overall theme of the event After answering each other s question partners swap cards and find a new partner And so it continues for as long as you want It is also suitable for any size of group from 10 to 100 or more One ready to use example of Brief Encounters is at http reviewing co uk success icebreaker htm 3 SIM SURVEY Simultaneous Survey This looks much the same as Brief Encounters from a distance but it tends to be a little more serious and needs more time In Sim Survey people do not swap cards they keep their unique question and report back to the whole group with an anonymous summary of what they have learned from their interviews Best suited to groups of 10 30 people To reduce the time needed for interviews and for reporting back keep to a maximum of ten unique questions This means that some people may have identical questions in which case people with the same questions can meet up to collate their answers into a joint verbal report ACTIVE AUDITS These three success focused auditing exercises allow participants to reflect on the talents they have and on how these talents can be applied towards achieving an individual goal or a group task 4 TALENT SHOW Find an object or picture postcard representing a talent you have that you would like to bring to the next activity or to the rest of the programme Each person gives an example of where they have used this talent and of how they now hope to use it or develop it Alternatively where people are overly modest participants first share their talents in twos or threes before introducing each other s talents in the larger group After each talent is presented it is put on show on a low table in the centre of the group or wherever the growing collection can readily be seen by everyone This may not be everyone s idea of a talent show but it is a useful reviewing technique for focusing energy and talent towards a common goal 5 AUDITIONS AND INTERVIEWS Where a group task requires specific roles or responsibilities show these in a list of vacancies and invite applications from the group two or three people per vacancy Those choosing not to apply for any vacancy automatically acquire the responsibility of serving on the interview panel Now provide time for applicants to prepare for their audition At the same time the interview panel meet to elect a chair and prepare for how they will manage the auditions Or you can appoint yourself as the chair Because this is an audition rather than an interview each applicant should be prepared to do a brief cameo performance demonstrating their suitability for the role Applicants can also expect questions from the interview panel Expect fun and humour but ensure that humour is not of the humiliating kind 6 BACK TO THE FUTURE paired version The original individual version of this exercise Objective Line was described in some detail in the previous issue of Active Reviewing Tips If you would like a pdf copy of the new improved version complete with a series of questions to ask the traveller please write to roger reviewing co uk with back to the future in the subject line 7 BACK TO THE FUTURE group version You ask much the same questions as in the paired version to the group as a whole For example What experiences knowledge skills values confidence achievements etc do you already have as a group that will help you tackle this next challenge successfully Lay a rope of at least 5 metres on the floor and place a chair at the far end of the rope Explain that for every convincing point they make you will move the chair towards the near end of the rope Once they get the chair to the near end of the rope the group switch from audit mode to planning mode The far end of the rope now becomes their target and as they talk about how they will use what they already have making their plan you gradually move the chair closer towards their target This exercise provides a graphic and memorable way of getting a group into the habit of carrying out an audit before making a plan When I am the chair mover I am happy for the group to overrule any moves I make but I would try to insist on evidence for the audit and clarity for the plan CREATIVE CUSTOMISING Up to this point all of the Reviewing for Starters exercises have had a strong positive focus These next three exercises allow for a more balanced approach Missing Person is a creative way of looking at the strengths and weaknesses in a group Solo Challenge starts by encouraging each individual to commit themselves to a task or activity that they would find particularly challenging and personally relevant Snakes and Ladders is a more artistic version of Force Field Analysis or SWOT analysis It is about how existing strengths and weaknesses might come into play in the next challenge 8 MISSING PERSON As with most reviewing methods Missing Person is suitable for all ages with a little tweaking here and there It is best used after a group have already carried out a number of different activities together so that they have a range of group experiences to draw upon The method is future focused the key question being What kind of person would you welcome into your group to help you achieve your goals But to answer this question the group looks back over their experiences together thinking about what has been missing from their performance so far and how a new person could help to bring about improvements A more detailed description is in this month s extract from Dynamic Debriefing in Section 5 below 9 SOLO CHALLENGE For Solo Challenge group members all need to know each other fairly well Solo Challenge starts as an appraisal exercise in which the group of up to around 10 people generate ideas for suitably challenging 30 minute tasks for each individual Each challenge is tailored to the perceived needs of each individual Anyone in the group including the facilitator and the individual being offered a challenge has the power of veto over any proposal For example proposals have been vetoed because they are unsafe too easy too hard not interesting enough not related to the person s needs unlikely to be fulfilling etc Vetoes help to raise the quality of the whole process If it is proving too difficult to find acceptable challenges within about 30 minutes take a break or postpone Solo Challenge until later in the programme I have included Solo Challenge in Reviewing for Starters because the facilitator can use their veto to ensure value and relevance for each individual right from the start of this exercise A full description of the whole process is at http reviewing co uk toolkit solo challenge htm 10 SNAKES AND LADDERS Before an activity ask What snakes do you each bring to this activity that could cause you or others to slide back down What ladders do you each bring to this activity that could assist the process or raise your game And like Missing Person you can ask about the group as whole What snakes lurk in this group s way of doing things that could cause you to slide back down What ladders does the group have that could assist the process or raise your game With some groups you may want to go the whole way with this method and have them make a snakes and ladders board and play the game Snakes and Ladders is just one example of a Metaphor Map described in Section 5 below A Metaphor Map is a graphic way of representing past experiences It can then be used to help people anticipate and prepare for navigating future challenges or it can be repeatedly used as a reviewing tool to reflect on the journey taken IS IT A BIRD IS IT A MAN In which section of the facilitator s toolbox does Snakes and Ladders really belong Is it a reviewing technique Is it a game Is it a planning technique Is it a structure for an appraisal session Is it a skills development exercise Is it a team building exercise My answer it could be all of these If the naming of the snakes and the ladders arises from past experience rather than being plucked from thin air then it qualifies as a reviewing exercise The fact that it leads so well into anticipating the future does not disqualify it from being a reviewing exercise In fact like all of the methods described in Reviewing for Starters it encourages people to connect with past experiences before rushing into the next activity By choosing or creating a suitable review before the next activity you are adding value to past experience in a way that is also likely to add value to what is just about to happen This is what I mean by Reviewing for Starters If you would like to add any of your own Reviewing for Starters to the list above please write to roger reviewing co uk with starters in the subject line AND FINALLY ANOTHER WAY TO BEGIN Ask a group to review the activity they are about to do as if they had just completed it Stepping into the world of imagination can be a welcome change to the normal routine and it can readily provide breakthroughs in learning If your review of an imagined forthcoming event goes well you might find that there is no need to review the event after it has happened for real And if your review of an imagined event goes really really well you might not even need to do the activity REFERENCES and NOTES Try not to be confused by the Starters page at http reviewing co uk stories starters htm which describes storytelling methods for starting a review This is a different concept to Reviewing for Starters which is about priming an activity or programme by preceding it with a review Schon D The Reflective Practitioner How Professionals Think in Action 1991 www amazon co uk exec obidos ASIN 1857423194 reviewingskillst Peer Assist is described in Collison and Parcell s Learning to Fly 2001 which is reviewed at http reviewing co uk reviews learning to fly htm Dewey J Experience and Education 1938 As If reviewing an imaginary event is described in my article on Big Picture Reviewing http reviewing co uk articles big picture reviewing htm asif 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL HOW TO SAVE MONEY WITH A CAMERA The Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to demonstrate active learning methods You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos Action Replay Moving Stones Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com If you are a client or potential client who has access to the equipment and skills to take and edit 2 minute videos of a similar style and quality to the pilot videos at http www activelearningmanual com For a limited period I am now offering a third day s training free in exchange for two minute videos that I can add to the Active Learning Manual collection To discuss this or other possibilities please write to me at roger reviewing co uk 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP FREE UK DELIVERY FOR 2 MONTHS Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised over 1 350 for Save the Children since January 2006 Thank you for your purchases Christmas shoppers may like to know that you can get FREE UK DELIVERY for the rest of 2009 there is no minimum purchase for Super Saver Delivery Super Saver excludes 3rd party sellers where the product is not despatched by Amazon Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the value and quality of the work they do Please support them by buying your books and any other Amazon goods via ROGER S ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP at http reviewing co uk reviews 5 DYNAMIC DEBREIFING METAPHOR MAPS MISSING PERSON METAPHOR MAPS Recommended use for individuals or groups to map their world and use their maps to help them reflect on individual or team experiences Resources flipchart paper and coloured markers Participants create metaphor maps that represent the kind of places they visit avoid or seek in their working day Map making can be a group or individual exercise Places might include Field of Dreams Stormy Seas Safe Haven Mountains of Work Pool of Relaxation Stretch Zone Swampland Play Area Road to Nowhere Stream of Ideas Point of No Return Terra Incognita Short Cut Black Hole Magic Spot Site of Antiquity Stadium of Light Great Wall Greener Grass Fountain of Knowledge Bridge Under Construction Warning People generally seem to be full of ideas for unpleasant and frightening places to put on a map so be sure to ask people to check that their maps are reasonably balanced and include places they like to visit and want to visit It is meant to be a map of their own territory so it should include places that are familiar as well as a few strange ones Map making is itself a reflective exercise Once a map is created it can be used as a more focused debriefing tool Participants tell their story about an experience while tracing their journey across their map with a finger The listener prompts as necessary to help the person tell their story using the map Did you visit any of these places Where did you spend most time Can you trace the journey you took Do you need to create new places on the map After the story is told or during its telling the listener asks questions that help the storyteller to consider alternative or preferred routes on the map and how they could succeed in making these journeys Metaphor Map is a tool that can be readily combined with most debriefing sequences Variations With more resources and imagination Metaphor Map can be scaled up to room size or field size These larger versions allow people to walk around their maps with a facilitative partner The floor size map is a good scale for demonstrating the method MISSING PERSON Recommended use for helping a group to assess its strengths needs and priorities This exercise achieves the same as when a group discusses its strengths and weaknesses but in a more powerful and memorable way Resources flipchart paper and coloured markers Inform the group that their task is to create a new person to join their group Ask participants to think creatively about the kind of person they would like this to be The person will probably share some of the characteristics already in the group e g sense of humour good looks friendly enthusiastic and may also represent some characteristics that are missing e g timekeeping leadership telling decent jokes Suggest they start by giving the person a name and some interests before thinking about their strengths and weaknesses as this provides a fun and intuitive way into the process Creating a missing person is an activity that typically takes a group through a full debriefing sequence without much or any prompting The new character represents the skills roles and qualities that the team have so far lacked and now aspire to Some groups so like their missing person that you will find that they later call out their name when they need help or keep them on display for inspiration Warning Take care with how the image of the missing person is treated Do not put their team mascot in the bin As in all creative work the creators should dispose of their own work in their own way and when they are ready to do so This is the 8th of 11 instalments from Dynamic Debriefing a chapter I wrote for Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning Previous instalments were 1 What is Dynamic Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 1 htm 2 The Role of the Facilitator http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm 3 Models of Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 3 htm 4 The Experience of Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 4 htm 5 The Sequencing in Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 10 1 htm 6 Action Replay http reviewing co uk archives art 10 2 htm 7 Objective Line Back to the Future http reviewing co uk archives art 11 1 htm The remaining instalments of Dynamic Debriefing will provide further examples of debriefing methods Dynamic Debriefing is my chapter in Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning 2007 See Amazon co uk http digbig com 4rwnf or Amazon com http digbig com 4rwng 6 EVENTS If you are a provider of facilitation training please send me the details if you would like the details included in future issues of Active Reviewing Tips REVIEWING SKILLS TRAINING WORKSHOPS If you would like to host an open event or arrange for an in house customised trainer training programme please get in touch Write to roger reviewing co uk 7 FOREWORD TO REVIEWINGTECHNIEKEN These are

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  • Turntaking in group reviews | ARTips 11.1
    quick round gives everyone a chance to check in while informing the facilitator and everyone else about what s on top for each person A quick round early in a review helps to establish full participation at what is likely to be a relatively easy starting point Can be used at any time beginning middle or end to give everyone a quick say As a sounding board it permits a greater range of responses than say a show of hands MINUS The first people have little reflection time before speaking though you can provide this People may be thinking about what they will say rather than paying attention to what is being said The last people to speak often feel that everyone else has stolen their lines even if the facilitator assures them that repetition is OK Creeping Death the structure and predictability of Rounds can readily drain the life out of reviews if used too much or if people are allowed to speak at length when it is their turn Rounds is not designed to stimulate free flowing discussion though an occasional quick round can help to include consideration of all views within a free flowing discussion WHAT IF we could find a way of achieving full participation without breaking up the flow of a good discussion It is interesting to listen to others but not when they are talking simply because it is their turn rather than because they have something they want to say RANDOM TURN TAKING Random turn taking such as spin the bottle spin the arrow or picking a name out of a hat You spin the arrow and the person the arrow points to answers the question PLUS It keeps everyone alert and awake Some people think in advance and prepare a response in case they are chosen by the random process More will do so if you give them reflection time for this purpose MINUS Some people sit back preferring to improvise an instant response should they happen to be chosen The game like qualities of spin the arrow produce game like responses rather than reflective ones People with something they want to say may not get a chance to do so Some people may never be asked for a response although name out of a hat gives everyone a go if names are not returned into the hat The random choosing process becomes the focus of attention and distracts attention from the content WHAT IF we were to keep to reviewing methods that avoid distraction minimise frustration include everyone encourage choice set a suitable tone and erm oh yes encourage reflection RANDOM QUESTIONS Random questions typically come from question cards that are picked out of a hat This does not refer to questions asked by the facilitator who would usually have some kind of rationale for asking a particular question at a particular time PLUS Some people enjoy the surprise the challenge and the quick thinking of being expected to answer a random question Random questions may by chance of course just happen to trigger a really interesting response and even a breakthrough MINUS If random questions work better than questions asked by the facilitator the facilitator should feel ashamed or find another job Some people get completely thrown by a random question because the question does not speak to the place they have reached in their reflection And then they go quiet or try hard to respond or ramble or disregard the question and say what they wanted to say anyway The use of random questions challenges the idea that reviews benefit from having a sequence that moves people through various stages such as reaction sharing analysis consequences WHAT IF random questions were reserved for situations in which they serve a useful purpose such as for creative thinking for developing improvisation skills for looking at things differently or for creating a spirit of play What if random questions were reserved for times when they assist learning RANDOM QUESTIONS WITH RANDOM TURNTAKING Introduces even more randomness into the reviewing process than either of these strategies on their own PLUS Totally random reviews might work well The odds are slightly better than a monkey typing the complete works of Shakespeare MINUS A time filler that brings out random comments from random people in a random sequence Also see the minus points for random questions and random turn taking above WHAT IF a review session could be informed by a bit of learning theory and conducted in a way that allows the facilitator and participants to draw on their skills and experiences TALKING TOKENS Everyone has the same number of tokens e g matchsticks giving everyone the same number of opportunities to speak You discard a token after speaking for more than 5 seconds or for more than one sentence PLUS People tend to be more thoughtful about what they want to say if they have a specific number of turns available Everyone can see that it is fair and that it is designed to encourage the people who usually speak to speak less leaving room for quieter people to speak up more So it usually gets off to a good start MINUS and then the discussion falters when those who want to contribute have run out of tokens and those with tokens remaining have nothing they want to say It brings attention to unbalanced participation but does not necessarily result in better discussions or wider participation The pressure on quieter people to speak up often happens when there is not a lot left to say WHAT IF we could find better ways of helping quieter people to join in especially in the earlier stages of a discussion WHAT MAKES AN EFFECTIVE TURN TAKING STRATEGY I have converted the What Ifs above into a single list below Maybe these principles provide useful guidance for an effective turn taking strategy Everyone has reflection time before speaking Everyone is invited to speak Quieter people are readily able to join in especially in the earlier stages of a review We achieve full participation without breaking up the flow of a good discussion We use reviewing methods that avoid distraction minimise frustration include everyone encourage choice set a suitable tone and encourage reflection We are wary of methods that draw attention away from what we are talking about although on first use any new method will need some attention while participants are learning how to use it well We reserve random questions for situations in which they serve a useful purpose such as for creative thinking for developing improvisation skills for looking at things differently or for creating a spirit of play Everyone is able to use and develop their skills for learning in groups and is able to find a suitable level of challenge within the reviewing process itself It is unlikely that you would find all of these features and principles in a single method which is partly why it is handy to have a mix of methods The methods that follow generally score a little higher against the criteria listed above than the methods already described The full article in which seven more turntaking methods are presented and evaluated is available for Active Reviewing Tips readers at http reviewing co uk articles turntaking htm Since writing this article I have frequently revisited the topic of engaging learners in reviewing each time from a different perspective These articles are brought together in Active Reviewing Tips 12 2 3 ACTIVE LEARNING MANUAL Feedback The Active Learning Manual is a pilot project using video to demonstrate active learning methods You can view my introductory video and three one minute videos Action Replay Moving Stones Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com I have been receiving lots of interesting useful and positive comments via the feedback form This feedback has convinced me that this is a useful resource to develop further It is clearly ambitious to squeeze some methods into just one minute Many people liked this one minute format while others would prefer more detail The compromise is that future videos will be around two minutes each with links to written notes To speed up the generation of these videos I will be responding enthusiastically to clients who ask if they can take videos of my training workshops or of specific reviewing techniques If you are a client or potential client who has access to the equipment and skills to take and edit 2 minute videos of a similar style and quality to the pilot videos at http www activelearningmanual com please get in touch with me at roger reviewing co uk and ask how this can save you money 4 ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP NEW TOP TWENTY Roger s Active Learning Bookshop has raised over 1 316 for Save the Children since January 2006 thanks to everyone who has been shopping at the Active Learning Bookshop THANK YOU THE NEW TOP 20 AT ROGER S ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP This top twenty is revised annually It is interesting to look out for trends from year to year There are always several collections of TEAM ACTIVITIES in the top twenty books with lots of activities and a low price tag seem to sell best of all There also seem to be plenty of smart buyers around who avoid books with poor reviews simply collecting lots of activities is not enough to sell a book However this year many of the new entries and fast climbers belong to a different category which I would call EASY TO READ GUIDES to the skills of facilitating groups and workshops For example Zen of Groups has climbed 7 places to the top spot and a new entry at 19 is Once Upon a Group which has been around since the 1980 s and is still in my view the best book to read when first working with groups Perhaps No 20 is the start of a new trend it is one of a series of student workbooks on emotional intelligence The trend Buying books for participants as well as for the facilitator 1 The Zen of Groups 2 Quick Team building Activities for Busy Managers 3 Team Building Through Physical Challenges 4 The Big Book of Motivation Games 5 The Icebreakers Pocketbook 6 100 Training Games 7 Brilliant NLP 8 How to Run a Great Workshop new entry 9 Introducing NLP new entry 10 Team Building Activities for Every Group 11 The Big Book of Team Building Games 12 The Facilitator s Pocketbook new entry 13 Accelerated Learning Pocketbook 14 Experiential Learning comeback 15 More Team Building Challenges new entry 16 Practical Facilitation A Toolkit of Techniques 17 The Art of Facilitation new entry 18 The Big Book of Humorous Training Games 19 Once Upon a Group comeback 20 The Habits of Emotional Intelligence new entry The quickest way to find out more about or buy any of these books is to view this TOP TWENTY on its special page at http reviewing co uk reviews popular books htm Do ALL your Amazon shopping not just books via http reviewing co uk reviews and not only do YOU get a good deal so do CHILDREN around the world who need our help I worked for Save the Children for 4 years so I know about the value and quality of the work they do Please support them by buying your books and any other Amazon goods via ROGER S ACTIVE LEARNING BOOKSHOP at http reviewing co uk reviews 5 DYNAMIC DEBRIEFING OBJECTIVE LINE Some of you may know of this method as Back to the Future which is now my preferred title for it Recommended use for preparing for a journey towards a goal by reflecting on experience Resources A 5 metre rope for each pair Paper and marker pens if using written goals Demonstrate with a partner Lay a 5 metre rope on the ground The near end represents their starting point on their journey towards their goal and the far end represents their goal for the programme or for the transfer of learning Your partner places an object or picture or word representing their goal at the far end of the rope describes it and returns to their starting point at the near end This is your skeleton script I don t think you are at the very start of this journey so let s check Take a few steps forwards and turn around to face your starting point What have you already done that will help you on this journey What knowledge skills resources experience motivation values support etc do you already have that will help you on this journey This is your side of a dialogue so pause for responses So where do you think you really are on this journey Further forwards A bit further back Allow you partner to move to the place they choose Following a good dialogue moving towards the goal is typical but moving closer to the start is also OK Now face your goal and tell us what the next step of your journey will be Now face your starting point What has helped you on your journey so far that might also be useful in the next step of your journey What other factors internal or external might help you on this next step Explain that this is the essence of the technique facing forwards to talk about your goal or about the next step towards it and then turning backwards to review the skills resources etc that you already have that will help you with the next part of your journey This exercise does not involve walking into an imagined future it is about recognising helpful factors in the past and present that are real and available It includes accessing relevant experiences and drawing confidence energy and learning from them precisely when these assets and strengths are needed It is just in time learning This process helps people to approach their goal more wisely and confidently It also develops the habit and skill of just in time learning After your demonstration and explanation pairs work together with one rope per pair taking turns in the different roles Much the same process can be used later in the programme with pairs returning to their rope and standing at a point that represents their current progress towards or beyond their goal Their conversations follow a similar pattern to the original exercise Objective Line above is the 7th of 11 instalments from Dynamic Debriefing a chapter I wrote for Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning The first six instalments were 1 What is Dynamic Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 1 htm 2 The Role of the Facilitator http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm 3 Models of Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 3 htm 4 The Experience of Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 4 htm 5 The Sequencing in Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 10 1 htm 6 Action Replay http reviewing co uk archives art 10 2 htm The remaining instalments of Dynamic Debriefing will provide further examples of debriefing methods 6 EVENTS FACILITATION TRAINING TIPS FOR TRAINERS CONFERENCE 2009 DATES 15 16 October 2009 pre conference 14th October VENUE Wallacespace Covent Garden London I presented workshops at the inaugural Tips for Trainers Conference last year It was such an energetic and inspiring event that I ll be there this year too Will you Do you want new interactive learner centred training ideas and techniques that involve your learners every step of the way yet still focus upon high retention and are totally content focused Then this is the conference for you A unique conference packed with ideas and techniques that you will experience from the actual trainers that have developed and used them Take these away to add further impact to your own workshops http www eureka tp com THE INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR ACTION LEARNING CONFERENCE DATES 27 28 October 2009 VENUE Scottish Youth Theatre Glasgow Breaking New Ground New ways and means in Action Learning Keynote speaker Ian McGill co author of The Action Learning Handbook IFAL Conference website http www ifal org uk annconf html FACILITATION FUNDAMENTALS DATES 2 3 November 2009 VENUE The Dower House Hotel Knaresborough North Yorkshire Freshen up your facilitation skills increase your confidence and have more tools and techniques to get the most out of meetings events This two day open programme has been designed for professionals who want to spend quality time exploring core facilitation roles and responsibilities when working with groups The course is dynamic packed with tools methods and techniques and provides insight into the key facilitation competencies You will enjoy a structured safe and creative environment in which to get to grips with and master many aspects of group facilitation Visit facilitate this to find out more http www facilitatethis co uk training fundamentals asp REVIEWING SKILLS TRAINING AROUND THE WORLD I am providing training events in England Wales Hungary Singapore and Denmark Details are on my news page at http reviewing co uk news htm If you would like to host an open event or arrange for an in house customised trainer training programme please get in touch Write to roger reviewing co uk 7 BOOK REVIEW BAD SCIENCE by BEN GOLDACRE Discover the scandalous ways in which stories about science are constructed by the media Ben Goldacre shows how even a rudimentary knowledge of statistics and the scientific method can help you see through it all Bad Science is humorous angry and very helpful guide to sorting true science from the sciency It is also a wonderfully topical introduction to the use and abuse of statistics especially for non scientists and humanities graduates like myself I am reviewing it here because Goldacre starts by investigating and ridiculing a particular approach to active learning Brain Gym He

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