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  • Active Reviewing for Leaders | ARTips 10.1
    s motivation changed during the period of their leadership One person s storyline may show that their motivation moved from high to low whereas another s may show the opposite Or each person s storyline may show much the same story Peaks and troughs in a storyline may not have been a direct consequence of what the leader said or did but the leader can obtain useful feedback by asking questions about cause and effect Also the leader can create their own storyline and show it to the group or to a partner to talk through their own ups and downs and how these affected or were affected by their leadership role http reviewing co uk learning cycle happy chart htm 4 Horseshoe Spectrum This an instant survey method in which the leader can get quick responses from the whole group in answer to their questions for feedback Questions might be How do you rate my overall performance as a leader Do you think I should have been more directive or more responsive How well did I handle the time pressure the conflict the unexpected Was I too task focused or too team focused Questions can be derived from any leadership or communication models that have been introduced as part of the course Questions can also emerge from other questions For example an initial question about overall performance can bring out other factors that can in turn be explored on the spectrum Questions can also be generated from a group brainstorm at the outset providing a handy menu from which each participant can choose the question they most want to ask http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm 5 Sim Survey As for Horseshoe each participant has questions on which they want feedback Limit each person to the one or two questions they really want to ask Each person then carries out their own survey throughout the whole group reflects on this feedback and reports back to the group on what they have learned and or on what they want to try doing differently in future This process can only work after everyone in the group has had at least one leadership opportunity Everyone should announce their questions before the survey begins This serves the dual purpose of giving people advance warning of questions they will be asked as well as providing a quality check and the opportunity to change questions http reviewing co uk archives art 9 4 htm SIMULTANEOUS SURVEY 6 Warm Seat Warm Seat works best towards the end of a leadership programme where everyone has witnessed each other in 2 or 3 different leadership roles For a group of 10 people Warm Seat takes 100 minutes The Warm Seat generates ideas for action points for the seated person Unlike the hot seat where individuals are put on the spot and face questions from others the warm seat is a comfortable seat from which the seated person asks the questions The most important feature of this reviewing method is that the seated person is in control if they feel too hot too cold or in any way uncomfortable they leave the seat to stop whatever is being said Sim Survey No 5 above is quicker but Warm Seat is more open and allows people to adjust what they say in relation to what others have said Sim Survey used 40 of the way into a programme is good preparation for Warm Seat used 80 into a programme http reviewing co uk feedback htm warmseat 7 Moving Stones Each person including the leader makes an arrangement of stones or other objects showing their view of how they worked together and of the leader s role in relation to the group Each stone represents a person The leader views all arrangements asking questions for clarification if needed and then voices their conclusions and what they might try differently This final stage is important not only because it leads to action but also because it is an opportunity to check whether any messages from the stones have been misinterpreted http www activelearningmanual com 8 Action Replay of Critical Incidents In some leadership tasks there may be one or two moments of special interest such as a moment where a poor decision was made or where a critical turning point was the key to success Much can be learned from restaging critical events and interviewing people to find out what they were thinking or feeling at the time Restaging much like reconstructions of the scene of a crime brings back people s feelings and memories from the original incident and makes for a more interesting and focused review http www activelearningmanual com 9 Participants leading a review What kind of reviewing can participants be asked to lead Maybe their organisation has a protocol for reviewing such as After Action Review If so they can simply practise the review style required or preferred by their organisation But do not assume that participants are only capable of leading discussions there are many other reviewing techniques that participants can quickly learn and apply For example most people developing their leadership skills should be able to rise to the challenge of directing an action replay whether or not you are able to provide them with a film director s chair If participants do take lead or shared responsibility in a review ensure they have the opportunity to self assess and to receive feedback 10 Reviewing tools for leaders Taking part in a leadership programme is one step in a lifelong journey of developing leadership skills Participants can benefit from thinking about how they will learn from future experiences as a leader How will they reflect How will they obtain feedback Will they keep a diary Will they hire a coach Will they re use or adapt any of the reviewing methods or principles that they have experienced during this leadership programme If time is short perhaps you will present them with a ready made reviewing toolkit to help them with their future development as a leader But with more time you can talk through the options as a group and encourage each person to adopt a strategy that best fits their preferred learning style and that is also realistic to sustain in their current workplace An individualised plan for future learning from experience as a leader is one of the most powerful tools people can take away because it helps to ensure continuing development as a leader Your stories of your successful application of these or related ideas are always very welcome whether or not they are offered for publication Please write to roger reviewing co uk For more sources links and research based findings about feedback see my recently updated page at http reviewing co uk feedback htm moreinfo 3 SHORT AND SWEET Active Learning Videos Would you call three training videos of just over one minute each Short and Sweet You can view my briefings for Action Replay Moving Stones and Talking Knot at http www activelearningmanual com Each briefing includes video clips showing people trying out these techniques If you are inspired to spend a total of 4 minutes viewing these video shorts please spend an extra minute entering your feedback comments in the form provided at http www activelearningmanual com A more ambitious 4th movie is on its way 4 SHORT AND SWEET Are you a one minute facilitator Ken Blanchard s One Minute Manager is short and sweet What could be shorter and sweeter than a one minute conversation including positive feedback and appreciation Active Reviewing can also be short and sweet Sometimes environmental conditions such as outdoor programmes in the middle of a British winter require that reviews should be short and sweet But even in a British summer the warm dry bits or in air conditioned rooms short and sweet can be more effective than long and balanced reviews Here s why SHORT can be more effective 1 It is easier to maintain attention and interest for short periods 2 People get to the point more quickly if time is short 3 It is easier to stay focused on what matters most 4 See Quick Reviews http reviewing co uk toolkit quick reviews htm Here s why SWEET can be more effective 1 Positive feedback helps people learn from what they do well 2 Positive feedback highlights good examples worth emulating 3 A positive climate creates the energy desire and support for further learning 3 See Reviewing Success http reviewing co uk success Short and sweet reviews can be used at almost any time on a training programme whether as quick process reviews during a meeting or as a refocussing exercise in the middle of an activity You also catch events while things are hot or fresh This helps to keep people tuned in and sharpens their awareness As a One Minute Facilitator you will be catching people doing things right and encouraging participants to be doing this for each other Short and sweet is a handy strategy but it is not a total philosophy Edward Tufte warns us that not all knowledge comes conveniently wrapped in bite sized bullet points Just as there is a limit to what and how you can learn from a Powerpoint slide so there is a limit to what and how you can learn from short and sweet review sessions So don t remove those longer review sessions from your programme just yet they can also be wonderfully valuable opportunities for learning And it takes time to follow a full sequence 5 DYNAMIC DEBREIFING SEQUENCING IN DEBRIEFING Dynamic Debriefing is the title of the chapter I wrote for Mel Silberman s Handbook of Experiential Learning 2007 The first four instalments were 1 What is Dynamic Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 1 htm 2 The Role of the Facilitator http reviewing co uk archives art 9 2 htm 3 Models of Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 3 htm 4 The Experience of Debriefing http reviewing co uk archives art 9 4 htm Here is Part 5 which was also available in Russian at www metodmaster ru articles dinamicheskii debrifing posledovatelnost v debrifinge SEQUENCING IN DEBRIEFING Several sequences have already been described in the preceding text Borton 1970 Greenaway 2002 Priest and Gass 1999 Thiagarajan and Thiagarajan 1999 so they will not be repeated here This section is an exploration of principles and issues associated with sequencing within a debrief Finding a starting point You can start a debrief with the experience and let issues or topics emerge or you can start a debrief by using a topic as a lens through which to select and view an experience If starting a debrief with the story or stories of what happened you can use techniques such as Action Replay described later that rerun the experience pausing to investigate key moments There is no law of debriefing that says you should give equal attention to everything that happened or that you should give equal time to each stage of a learning sequence It is in everyone s interest that you focus on what matters most even if this is not apparent until the debrief is under way At other times a debrief will start with a question that leads people to draw on whichever experiences best answer the question This might for example be a search for teamwork highs or lows in the exercise just completed or in a recent period at work Or you can simply ask the group to list issues questions or topics they wish to explore You can then introduce debriefing methods that will help them to explore their enquiries in ways that take them back into the experience Wherever they begin they are probably entering a learning cycle which strictly speaking has no start or finish point The role of debriefing in experiential learning Experiential learning is often presented in the form of a cycle in which an experience is followed by a sequence of different processes until the next experience after which the sequence is repeated until the next experience and so it continues Debriefing can assist any part of the learning sequence that comes after the experience from sharing feelings through to transfer planning With so many potential directions to take in a debrief a poorly sequenced debrief can become dissatisfying and chaotic Poorly sequenced debriefs can result in clichéd conversations with no questioning or learning meandering discussion going wherever the most dominant people happen to take it paralysis by analysis with learning stagnating at the investigation stage post mortems producing a distorted negative bias that drains energy jumping to false conclusions by missing out significant stages future planning that is not well grounded in what was learned from experience chaos and conflict with people being out of sequence with each other while one person is talking about the future another is still in the exercise another is speaking their mind another is excited about a personal insight Sequencing is not the only answer to the above problems but having an understanding of sequencing can certainly help identify the problem and indicate solutions worth trying There is no best sequence for debriefing There is no single correct or best sequence to follow There are many different theories each promoting a particular sequence and there is no standard best practice that can be routinely applied to all opportunities for experiential learning Facilitators should be familiar with a variety of useful debriefing sequences as well as having a variety of debriefing tools that enable learners to fully engage with any sequence that is adopted Decisions about sequencing What should be included in the sequence In what order should these items be included What should be the pace of the sequence Should the sequence be followed once or several times during the debrief How strictly should the sequencing be adhered to How dynamic should the process be Who should make these decisions and how is this decision made What to include in a sequence It may not be realistic to include all of the features listed below in every debrief but over a series of debriefs it would usually be important to include all of these aspects clarification and or negotiation about the process and purpose of the debrief which changes from one debrief to the next past future and present perspectives plus minus and interesting perspectives suitably balanced individual and group perspectives both I and we statements feedback to everyone and to individuals you statements opportunities for all learning style preferences to be included and engaged both for the sake of inclusiveness and to extend everyone s learning skills support and challenge in a spirit of inquiry opportunities for connection and transfer to the wider world a debrief of the debrief so that everyone can contribute to improving the experience and quality of their debriefing sessions Begin at the very beginning Beware of assuming that a debrief begins at the start of the official debriefing session Some important informal or independent reflection may have already taken place For example if participants have already spent time independently on stage one and stage two of your particular sequence they may be ready to dive into stage three at the start of your debriefing session Also the more that participants get into the habit of debriefing the greater the chances that they will be doing debriefing formally or informally during the training exercises So even if you start your debrief immediately after a training exercise you may still discover that the learning process is already well under way The best starting point is not always stage one It is always worth checking where people are at and there can be wide variation in any group Whose agenda Whose cycle Whose pace One decision you need to make is whether the whole debrief is to be structured as an agenda possibly equivalent to one tour of a learning cycle or whether the goal or goals of the debrief would be better achieved by participants making several journeys round a learning cycle A related issue is whether each participant is travelling around their own unique learning cycle and if so do they each travel at their own pace or in unison with others If working with a group your answer to the above questions will necessarily be a compromise This is because experiential learning theory is about how individual learners learn rather than about how facilitators work with learning groups But there are clever ways of making this compromise If you keep the whole group together all of the time it is practical and convenient if everyone moves at the same time at the same pace But if you include individual and paired work this gives more opportunity for individuals to move at their own pace and the group session can be used for finding out where each person has got to In this approach debriefing happens in ones and twos and the whole group is used for sharing information rather than for moving round the cycle The clever compromise is to move between the two approaches Many debriefing methods described later in this chapter have this compromise built in How important is the original experience when debriefing The more stages there are in a sequence the more layers of separation there can be from the original experience For example Wight 1991 describes an eight stage experiential learning cycle with from three to five topics per stage That moment of action and experiencing is receding into the distance as each new stage adds at least one more filter This distancing can be beneficial But even if it is beneficial the chances are that a multistage debrief does not feel experiential when the original experience is no longer central to the debrief This does not necessarily mean that it is better to keep referring back to the experience at every

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  • Innovations in Reviewing: Creating New Facilitation Techniques | ARTips 7.5
    it would be tough on the last storyteller and on their audience So all the audience became performers in each other s story Unexpected benefits resulted FOOTBALL METAPHORS searching for a common language while working with a group of apprentices who knew their way around the world of football more than any other world and so drawing on their interest and knowledge Turning principles into practice OBJECTIVE LINE now BACK TO THE FUTURE wanting to create a physical way of applying the principles of solution focused thinking ORBITS to give control of rounds to learners in keeping with the principle of encouraging learners curiosity and responsibility for their learning APPRAISAL REPORTS redesigning the structure of these souvenir reports so that they aligned more closely with the programme philosophy of self development aided by peer appraisal FUTURE WALKING wanting to generate a realistic experience of the future to make it just possible to apply experiential learning principles and methods to the future Turning research findings into practice MAKING LEARNING STICKY a practical application of principles I have found in my study of the transfer of learning THE ACTIVE REVIEWING CYCLE arose from studying how experienced colleagues were intuitively sequencing their reviews And finally A VOTE OF THANKS the only beer fueled invention on this list A hilarious climbing club dinner where nobody was to be left out of speech making or of having a speech made about them It just happened this way The reviewing technique is more deliberate and is alcohol free That s how these 36 reviewing techniques were born sometimes as a result of careful planning sometimes due to quick thinking sometimes it s just a happy accident or pure inspiration But none of these ways of innovating would come to pass if they were not driven by a determination to do a job well together with an understanding of the basic principles of how to bring the process of experiential learning alive Such determination is usually sensed by participants most of whom in my experience will appreciate customised innovation over standardised routines For further reference Section 8 below tells one of the above stories in greater detail Most of the above techniques listed above are described at http reviewing co uk Enter the name of the technique in the search box INNOVATIONS IN REVIEWING The most cost effective way of receiving training in reviewing skills new and old is to get a group of people together with this common interest and get in touch wherever you are in the world If you prefer to do the calculations in advance see http reviewing co uk profile htm cli or just ask Email roger reviewing co uk 3 TIPPLES New Stories in Reviewing Why are stories so important when learning and developing through experience New experiences are most valuable when there are also opportunities to create new stories How learners talk about their experiences indicates what they are learning and how the experience is affecting their development Telling stories is the method that we naturally use to tell others about our experiences There are of course many ways in which a facilitator can intervene in this natural process and there are many good reasons for doing so In the age of sound bites instant communications and crash courses for quick learning do we have time for the telling of stories Both story making and story telling can be the key to learning from experience These processes can be enhanced by a variety of story based reviewing methods 30 such methods are described in this section follow the link below But given that learning through stories has been happening throughout human evolution what you find here is a very small sample of what is possible http reviewing co uk stories intro htm 4 BOOKSHOP New Books New Deals NEW BOOK REVIEW Outdoor and Experiential Learning An Holistic and Creative Approach to Programme Design Andy Martin Dan Franc and Daniela Zounkova 2004 Roger s detailed review of this fascinating approach to programme design dramaturgy sounds like a word from a Gilbert and Sullivan song http reviewing co uk reviews outdoor and experiential learning htm NEW BOOKS RECENTLY ADDED http reviewing co uk reviews new htm A Widening Field Journeys in Body and Imagination Miranda Tufnell Chris Crickmay This is a handbook for working in the creative arts with an emphasis upon imagination and receptivity to our bodies to our surroundings our materials and to what we create Asking the Right Questions A Guide to Critical Thinking M Neil Browne Stuart M Keeley This book helps readers bridge the gap between simply memorizing or blindly accepting information and the greater challenge of critical analysis and synthesis Beyond Traditional Training Develop Your Skills to Maximize Training Impact Ken Marshall A self improvement guide for trainers showing how to develop personal skills to increase the impact and effectiveness of training Developing Intuition Practical Guidance for Daily Life Shakti Gawain Most people learn to suppress the natural connection to their intuition and were trained to solely rely on their logical rational mind The Hidden Intelligence Using Intuition for Critical Business Decisions Sandra Weintraub Explores what intuition is and is not and why it is often hidden All of these books are listed and reviewed on one page at http reviewing co uk reviews new htm NEW BOOK ADDED to the UNDER A FIVER section Tune Your Brain Using Music to Manage Your Mind Body and Mood Elizabeth Miles Explores the power of music in relation to motivation mood and behavior while explaining how different types of music create varying levels of power in the mind and body The full categorised UNDER A FIVER list is at http reviewing co uk reviews bargain books htm DO YOU PREFER READING BOOKS TO READING COMPUTER SCREENS I don t ask for donations for Active Reviewing Tips but I do ask you to visit the Active Learning Bookshop Just like high street bookshops you are welcome to browse without

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  • Economical Reviewing: How to Save and Make Time for Reflection | ARTips 7.4
    thoughts are shared with the wider group This helps people to get to the point more quickly very economical The audience are also far more attentive when they know the speaker has put careful thought into a concise statement GIVE SUFFICIENT PREPARATION TIME For example after asking a question to the whole group ask for two minutes silence before anyone replies The effect and outcome is similar to Finding the Bones above but it is a much quicker process USE QUESTIONNAIRES If you want people to consider more than one question at a time give them questionnaires Ask them to interview each other and or record their answers to the questions This is useful preparation for a focused groups discussion USE GUIDED REFLECTION If done well Guided Reflection can produce deeper reflection than interviews partly because the pace can be much slower partly because any answers are unspoken The quality of sharing following a well pitched guided reflection can be quite extraordinary depending on the nature of the script and on what you ask to be shared ENCOURAGE WRITING Before a review or part of a review writing by participants helps them to crystallise thoughts and or to clarify what they want to give or get During a review writing helps people to share ideas For example everyone s statement can be put on display After a review writing helps to remind people about what they have learned or promised to themselves or to others Timely use of writing helps to sharpen the whole process of reviewing AVOID WRITING If you write on a board or easel while others are talking it can be distracting If you write when there is a pause you are slowing down the review process It is far better to encourage participants to make good quality notes If you are heavy user of flip charts or similar take a critical look at the paper you are using Wasted paper is also wasted time and is a sign of uneconomical reviewing TALK LESS EXCEPT WHEN FACILITATING The primary process in learning from experience is just that learning from experience The facilitator s role is to assist this primary process Guided Reflection is an example of where the facilitator assists this primary process The telling of a well chosen story might also assist reflection But if facilitating slips into lecturing however good the lecture the process is based on a different theory of learning Working and learning depend on each other We can work as we learn and we can learn as we work whether the work is real work or practice work such as a training exercise Reviews often focus on the doing part trying to make the doing more effective efficient economical and even more enjoyable But what about the reviews themselves being more effective efficient economical and even more enjoyable If people regard reviewing as a waste of time or as something that keeps them away from more important or more interesting things then somehow sometime you need to answer these objections and demonstrate that reviewing is time well spent and is too important to miss out or postpone ARTICLES about economical reviewing QUICK REVIEWS 25 techniques each taking 1 2 5 10 or 20 minutes http reviewing co uk toolkit quick reviews htm HOW TO REVIEW A LOT IN A SHORT TIME Creative Thinking about End of Course Reviews http reviewing co uk toolkit 1000endings htm COMPARATIVE BOOK REVIEW A comparative review of Learning to Fly and Common Knowledge http reviewing co uk reviews learning to fly htm TECHNIQUES for economical reviewing HORSESHOE http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm FINDING THE BONES http reviewing co uk stories starters htm finding For learning about other techniques mentioned in the above article use the search box at http reviewing co uk 3 TRANSFER OF LEARNING Making Learning Sticky Imagine a sticky seed blowing around in the wind looking for fertile soil in which to grow The chances of the seed finding suitable soil are greater if both the seed and the soil are sticky In other words to maximise the transfer of learning the learner needs to seek out opportunities for using as well as recognising the potential value of what they have learned Stickiness facilitates connection making Without connection there is no transfer Plans create connections and so does stickiness Here are 15 exercises that will help to make learning sticky They are ideas to choose from Be selective MAKING THE SEED STICKY 1 Recognise its value List 5 reasons why this learning is important for you or for others 2 Consider its potential uses List 5 ways in which you could use this learning without adapting it 3 Imagine other possibilities List 5 different ways in which the learning could be used if adapted 4 Identify any internal barriers to transfer List 5 things you could unlearn in order to help you use this learning 5 Explore the boundaries List 5 situations in which you would be unlikely to use this learning If your answer is none that s OK MAKING THE SOIL STICKY 1 Spread the learning Create understanding List 5 people who may benefit from learning something like this and see if they want to 2 Find create and use support List 5 people who would readily support you in your efforts to use this learning 3 Find stony ground and try to understand it List 5 people who will be skeptical or lukewarm until they have seen the results 4 Prepare the ground List 5 factors within your control that would make you more likely to use this learning 5 Create the climate List 5 factors you can influence but which are outside your direct control that would make you more likely to use this learning WHAT IFS FOR EVEN STICKER LEARNING 1 What if you could use this learning wherever you wanted Where would you use it and why 2 What if you discovered that this learning was

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  • Reviewing by Numbers: facilitation tools for small & large groups | ARTips 7.3
    Reviewing Tips It is not in the archive but you can find a full copy of the main article HERE Active Reviewing Tips 7 3 Reviewing by Numbers Little and Large EDITOR Learning is Active TIPS ARTICLE Reviewing by Numbers TIPPLES Octopus Pie BOOK REVIEW Junkyard Sports TRAINING CALENDAR WHAT S NEW at http reviewing co uk QUOTE Growing from Strength to Strength EXTRA Very Quiet Reviewing INTERACTIVE Readers Questions

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  • Big Picture Reviewing: seeing wholes not parts, woods not trees | ARTips 7.2
    more than two positions encourages lateral thinking and builds up a bigger picture of the subject being discussed I have never used music with this method just the idea of moving round in a circle For Turntable let s assume a convenient group size of 12 Divide the group circle into four separate sections with spaces between each arc You now need four basic perspectives on the review topic that you want to discuss The perspectives might be off the shelf perspectives such as the SWOT model Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Or the perspectives might be perspectives that you think the group may not be paying enough attention to Customers Creative Thinking Time Constraints Past Success If you struggle to find a good fourth perspective make it a three way discussion or use the fourth position for any questions or for listening Once you have established the 3 or 4 basic positions you now facilitate a discussion in which all the normal rules or principles of good discussion apply except that when people are seated in a particular position they may only contribute comments that belong to that position To help get the discussion going give small groups a little preparation time to think of the points they could make from their starting position Every minute or so during the whole group discussion the facilitator gives a signal e g by standing up and everyone moves round one seat to the left If appropriate the facilitator also joins in as a participant After about 15 minutes everyone is back in their original seat having spent around 3 or 4 minutes experiencing each of the four positions They now have a bigger picture especially if they have found themselves speaking up from an unfamiliar perspective More about Turntable Revolver discussions Revolver a revolving discussion http reviewing co uk discuss discuss2 htm Revolver when people sit still and the rope does the revolving http reviewing co uk articles ropes htm AS IF experiencing different perspectives At the east end of Loch Tay is the Scottish Crannog Centre The main focus of interest is the Crannog itself a reconstructed thatched dwelling standing on stilts in the water and connected to the shore by a long wooden bridge Inside the Crannog it was like being in a huge tepee The guide sat us around the central fireplace and spoke to us as if we ourselves were the extended family that used to live in the Crannog two and a half thousand years ago We started to think feel and even talk as if we were that family The guide took us into the past by bringing the past into the present and then helping us to see think and feel what life in the Crannog was like The guide put us in the picture by treating us as if we were the people who used to live there 2 500 years ago We then had the chance to handle and use their tools for making fire shaping stones and making flour Through these experiences we were beginning to appreciate something about what life was like in a Crannog You can bring the recent past alive using similar principles Give your group an opportunity to experience something of what it is like to be in another group or culture one which they need to understand better Visit or create the place where these other people meet or live or simply speak to them as if they are these other people By experiencing something of what it is like to be in another group they get a fresh perspective and a bigger picture You can also bring the future alive by speaking to the group as if they are already in the future Perhaps in this imaginary future they have overcome a challenge or have become better team players or perhaps the future scenario is a warning that they have continued to make the same mistakes or have ignored safety guidelines The more interactive these imaginary worlds become the more they help people reflect deeply on what it is like in another group or in another time But even simply speaking to a group as if they are in a different reality can transport them into an imaginary perspective from which they see a bigger picture and learn from the experience of visiting the as if world that you have created with them METAPHOR MAP a fresh perspective on past and future Participants create metaphor maps that represent the kind of places they visit avoid or seek in their working day Places might include Sea of Possibilities Safe Haven Mountains of Work Pool of Relaxation Stretch Zone Swampland Play Area Road to Nowhere Stream of Ideas Point of No Return Terra Incognita Short Cut Black Hole Site of Antiquity Stadium of Light Great Wall Greener Grass Fountain of Knowledge Bridge Under Construction To use the map as a reviewing tool participants tell their story while tracing their journey across their map with a finger The listener prompts as necessary to help the person tell their story using the map e g Did you visit any of these places Where did you spend most time Can you trace the journey you took Do you need to create new places on the map After the story is told or during its telling the listener asks questions that help the story teller to consider alternative or preferred routes on the map and how they could make this happen Metaphor Map is a tool that can be readily used at all stages of the Active Reviewing Cycle http reviewing co uk learning cycle index htm There are many other ways in which visual reviewing techniques can be used to create big pictures Also see http reviewing co uk articles visible reflection htm THE REALLY BIG PICTURE All reviewing could be seen as big picture reviewing because re viewing means looking again it involves re viewing experience from a different perspective

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  • Facilitation and Reviewing to Scale | Active Reviewing Tips 6.2
    more interesting and dynamic you can encourage people to move if they change their minds IN OR OUT OF THE PICTURE Do you want participants to step back into the experience to relive the experience and appreciate more about it or do you want them to step out of the experience to see the bigger picture from the outside looking in I once took part in a die in where thousands of people were lying down on the ground pretending to be dead It was a very strange sight Stranger still was the fact that nearly everyone else had brought their cameras along to get a picture of this spectacle Have you anticipated what happened next Arguments quickly erupted between all these peaceful people who were spoiling each other s pictures Everyone who stood up to take a picture was spoiling someone else s picture by not lying down dead In or out Example Action Replay with Interviews You can never escape this problem entirely of trying to be both in and out of the picture but here is a creative compromise Ask the group to perform an action replay of the event that you are reviewing During the action replay everyone is in the picture and cannot readily step out of the picture to see what is happening They may simply be going through the experience again and are achieving very little new learning from doing so This is where interviews can help At any point during the replay anyone can call pause and request the dummy microphone to interview one or two people who are taking part in the replay At this point all of the players except those being interviewed become spectators and are out of the picture If the interviewer s questions are good new information will come out that was unnoticed or unspoken at the time After a minute or so everyone gets back in the picture and continues the replay until someone else requests a pause Not only is this a dynamic and focused reviewing technique It also develops people s ability to switch rapidly between different levels of awareness CONCRETE OR CLAY Do you want a snapshot a fairly permanent record of how things appeared at a particular time or do you want to work with more flexible and moveable images to makes it easier to represent and negotiate alternative views and possibilities Concrete Example Predictions Predictions is a versatile reviewing technique It is important for predictions to be recorded in some way so that they can be returned to after the event A written prediction serves this purpose well but making a audio recording or video recording of predictions has even greater impact Much the same is true for objective setting There are many other aspects of reviewing that are worth recording but this good habit sometimes goes much too far For example whenever you see a messy flip chart with lots of crossings out the chances are that the facilitator should

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  • Visible Reflection Techniques: Active Reviewing Tips 6.1
    is a reviewing method that allows people to see how others see them It is a combination of several techniques in one a feedback exercise a guessing game an empathy exercise fish bowl and a buddy system The basic concept is quite simple but the method is only suitable for groups where trust is well established and where individuals are open to personal feedback First set up a buddy system in which pairs A and B take it in turns to be doers and observers If there is an uneven number the person left on their own can get useful experience as a co facilitator A task is set up For the first few minutes A s are doers and B s observers After 5 or 10 minutes call a review break Those who have just been observers the B s sit in a circle facing inwards with their buddy A sat behind them in an outer circle The inner circle of B s can now talk while the outer circle of A s remains silent B s pretend that they are the person they were observing They participate in the review as if they are their buddy The facilitator encourages all of the inner circle to take part if necessary by directing questions to particular individuals or by conducting rounds or by asking everyone to show their feelings at particular moments in the exercise being reviewed e g by asking each person to use hand height as a feelings scale The facilitator may also invite questions from participants What everyone now wants to know is how well the inner circle represented the feelings and views of those in the outer circle Ask A s to assess how well B s did on a scale of 0 10 and ask B s to guess the mark that their buddy will give them When everyone is ready ask buddies to face each other and reveal their scores using hand height or finger count Anything can happen People are often surprised how well they have been represented but some guesses can be wildly wrong After a minute or two for buddies to talk things through return to the two concentric circles and give all A s a chance to correct any misrepresentations that they would like to These misrepresentations may include important information about how they are misperceived by their buddy that would not available if watching a video replay Changing Places has many benefits I use it mainly as an exercise for helping people to see how they are seen by others Seeing someone else trying to be you provides an intuitive kind of feedback that can be valuable information however right or wrong it might be For the inner circle it can be a very demanding empathy exercise Such exercises help people to see how they are perceived by others while also helping people to appreciate something about what it is like to be in the shoes of others It develops many useful skills and the increased interpersonal understanding accelerates group or team development Yes it is more ambitious than simply asking What went well and What didn t go well and How can you improve Changing Places provides a very different perspective on what s going on It helps to expose and correct false assumptions and to develop mutual understanding A useful but different route for improving teamwork 2 4 REPLAY noticing what was missed first time around Recommended use for easing conflict and for building trust and understanding I have introduced many people to no ball games A game of foot volley or base can be a whole lot more fun without the ball When such a strange activity is followed by video playback without a camera people are no longer surprised Whatever next Reviewing without a facilitator Of course But that s another story The video referee will become increasingly common in sports The referee does not see everything Neither do all the players Neither do the video cameras But by replaying the action from different angles it is possible to get a more complete understanding of what really happened Using action replay is another way of making visible what was not noticed first time round Critical moments during the activity are reconstructed and re enacted usually through mime rather than by doing the real activity again People do not simply see the activity again or from a different angle they also have the chance to stop the action and interview people to discover what was going on in their hearts or minds at the time This brings out new information that was not apparent at the time This new information can be critical and really does result in a re view of the incident and leads to people revising what they had originally learned Here are some examples of video replay without a video 1 In a replay of a trust exercise in which each team was tempted to cheat both teams were asked to enact a replay showing their moments of temptation The watching team was allowed to pause the replay at any point to ask questions about how people were thinking or feeling at the time As it happened one team did cheat and the other didn t but both were knife edge decisions Without the benefit of action replay all kinds of guilt and resentment would have continued simmering ready to fuel further mistrust Action replay revealed a more complete picture and brought out a level of honesty that helped both teams to overcome their differences partly by realising there wasn t a lot of difference between them after all 2 In a replay of an incident where a group had not confronted an individual for his selfish behaviour the group discovered what had been going on inside his mind This was not an instant solution but the start of a healing process that brought the individual back into the group and which

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  • Reviewing with Ropes: Active Reviewing Tips 2002 5.2
    chart or a sales forecast Ensure that there is no misunderstanding about which way is up and which way is down This is most easily achieved if you happen to be on the side of a hill Each person now tells their story to a partner or to the whole group Happy Chart is a useful communication aid that helps people to express themselves emotionally and that brings out the richness of an experience It is much harder to learn from experiences when they are not expressed and shared Variation Encourage participants to add symbolic objects to their chart to help them tell the story Variation Each person draws their Happy Chart on an index card for one to one sharing or on a flipchart for sharing with the group Applications Happy charts are useful for bringing out individual differences during a group activity as well as for helping individuals talk about an experience outside the group e g an incident at school or at work 2 6 GROUP HAPPY CHARTS Recommended use to discover the degree of individual variation and to increase empathy within a group The group stand in a horseshoe all holding the same rope One end represents the start of the group event being reviewed The other end represents the end Each person in the group now represents a stage in the event e g planning preparation first attempt second attempt disaster conflict re planning bright idea time up Ensure that everyone is now standing in the order in which things happened The group now turn the rope into a Happy Chart This is the interesting bit There will probably be some disputes as people learn that there was individual variation in feelings at some points during the event Allow some conflict to develop if you feel it will be productive but be ready to offer a second rope A second rope allows the group to draw two lines showing the highest highs and lowest lows at each point Picture a temperature chart with two lines showing maximum and minimum temperatures 2 7 SKETCH MAP Recommended use for reliving a journey and discovering issues that deserve more detailed review After any event that has involved a journey ask participants to illustrate their journey with the help of a rope or ropes to trace the route taken Add labels with words e g tie on luggage labels or symbolic objects to mark out different parts of the journey This is best set up as a creative project in an area indoors or outdoors where suitable symbolic objects can readily be found Much informal reviewing takes place during the making of the map Once the map is complete it can be used as a means of re telling the story and or identifying key moments on the journey for more detailed review Variation Create a sketch map using more conventional materials e g paper pens paints and materials for collage 2 8 FORCE FIELD Recommended use for helping groups or individuals to get unstuck Symbolic Tug of War Safety Note discourage any real pulling because of the risk of friction burns Ask the group or an individual to set up two tug of war teams One team represents forces for change and the other team represents forces resisting change Each individual represents a force named by the group or individual setting up the teams This is simply an active way of reviewing forces that are in tension The key question to ask if change is wanted is how the forces can be changed to generate forwards momentum towards change The advantage of having individuals representing each force is that they can each think about solutions from the perspective that they represent Dialogue between forces is also possible Issue and Solution Having your whole group standing in a straight line is not good for eye contact between group members nor for generating discussion So have each person tie one rope onto a central rubber tyre or small rope circle This allows people to pull at different angles It may be appropriate for some people to pull sideways if they are representing distracting or unknown forces rather than being forces that are clearly for or against change Variation Start and finish with written diagrams Use the tug of war to bring the diagrams alive and to encourage empathy seeing feeling and being the forces and creative thinking 2 9 ACTIVITY MAP Recommended use to find out what makes people tick or not This is an active and game like way of sharing likes and dislikes and getting to know each other s values At the beginning of a course it can also be a useful way of finding out participants experiences of and attitudes towards activities or processes that you are expecting to use in your course Use two long ropes Mark the ends of one rope Past and Future Mark the ends of the other rope Happy and Sad This creates a quadrant in which the zones represent Past Sad Activities I ll never do again Past Happy Activities I like doing Future Sad Activities I ll never try Future Happy Activities I d like to try Call out the name of an activity and ask everyone to go to the zone where that activity would belong on their own personal map Keep calling out activities pausing now and again for comments and questions To make it more of a game and more risky let participants call out names of activities Define activities as narrowly or broadly as you like 2 10 ACTIVE REVIEWING CYCLE Recommended uses for enabling well paced and well sequenced reviewing and for developing learning skills A full explanation of the active reviewing cycle is at http reviewing co uk learning cycle but you can adapt the exercise described below to your own preferred reviewing debriefing sequence Create a huge circle with the longest rope that you can find or create four circles representing the

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