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  • The document extracts reproduced here are from originals that are currently in the collection of Andy Callan
    allocate more than one platoon 36 to 40 men to follow immediately each tank as the path crushed down through the wire by the two tracks of the tank will only permit of men along them in single file and any crowding of the points of penetration may result in unnecessary casualties This allotment of one platoon per tank does not prevent several other platoons following on behind and making use of the paths created If the enemy s fire is not heavy it should generally be feasible to traverse one path by four platoons without undue delay Hurried crossings must however be avoided for if the men catch their feet in the crushed wire and pull it up delay to those in rear will delay 11 Formation of the Infantry see Diagram 2 In order to facilitate this approach Infantry should be organised in Section Single Files These single files can advance either in small Platoon Columns of four single files abreast or in two of two abreast or singly They can also be rapidly formed into line should it be necessary to use their rifles Whoever is at the head of the file is automatically file leader This system enables command to be maintained during the approach and is most suitable for working with Tanks as eventually single files have to be formed to cross the enemy s wire 12 Organisation of the Infantry Formation See Diagram 3 The Infantry for each Trench Objective should be organised in three waves or lines 1 Trench Cleaners 2 Trench Stops 3 Supports Their duties will be as follows 1 To operate with the tanks and clear the trenches 2 To form stops in the trenches at various points and improve paths through the wire To mark these paths by means of flags so that those following may see where the gaps exist To place ladders in the captured trench or prepare the parados for rapid exit 3 To support 1 and 2 and form an Infantry Advanced Guard on the further side of the trench to protect the advance of the next Echelon Diagram 3 gives diagramatically the formation suggested for a company of Tanks and two Battalions of Infantry 13 The Organisation of the Trench Clearing Platoon The Trench Clearing Platoon should be organised on the lines laid down in S S 143 the bombers 1 section alone entering the trench the remaining three sections working with the Tank along the trench in the open 14 Forming Up for the Attack See diagram 3 Tanks and Infantry will usually have to form up during hours of darkness consequently if noise and confusion are to be prevented the most complete preparation for their assembly must be undertaken and the falling in and movements must be reduced to a simple drill The preparation will consist in marking out the exact places where Tank and Infantry will stand and in taping and preparing routes for the places of assembly Starting Points and

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/Pending/Archive/June03/Tanks/tanks.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • Amongst the varied delights of the 2003 Triples show at Sheffield was the exceptional Monte Cassino display presented by The Sherwood
    we had set up the battlefield at Sheffield Another late night Scenery was to prove more difficult with maps and reference material requiring many hours on the Internet to find Luckily a map in Advanced Squad Leader helped us to lay out a rough map to transfer to boards and it even showed the contours and heights With careful planning we were able between us to design a map which would include all the important features Having a map it soon became obvious the scenery would have to be built from scratch and it proved to be to an eight month project from start to finish We decided on MDF boards with beaded edges filled with extruded polystyrene to allow us to properly sculpt the rivers Hills would be built of the same material The boards are built in a standard manner with all roads rivers and streams exiting board edges at the mid points so that they are multi purpose This does mean that every battle is a close simulation with some liberties being taken over exact board layout but it does allow the terrain to be multi functional The hills are linked to each other by edging the boards in a standardised edge profile and this creates almost seamless joints Ruined buildings were available commercially but we had to scratch build the Monastery It had to be suitably ruined and we wanted it to be as accurate as possible even including the collapsed cellars We were able to get Monastery floorplans from its own web site and this helped us to position the internal walls whilst wartime photographs and film footage enabled us to get the shape of the external walls and the degree of damage correct The monastery alone was to take two months to build but luckily Lee Sharpe can do anything with wood whilst Dave s skills as a scratch builder enabled them to come up with a decent representation which matches the photographs quite well The Monastery was hand built from MDF cut to shape on a band saw and finished in filler to simulate stuco In order to simulate the collapsed cellars we put a 2 layer of insulation inside the walls which would allow us to cut down Stone and tiled floors were created from plasticard placed sparingly and then buried in a rubble mix concocted by Dave Wilson from filler gravel coal and PVA glue Once dry the rubble is extremely hard and resilient to gaming and looks very effective with the angular coal giving it the look of masonry Castle Hill came out of a bit of thought and a Pringle tube whilst other buildings were scratch built as needed The really awkward part of the boards for this particular battle was the construction of the hill on which we sit the Monastery A great deal of planning went into getting a height which allowed spectators to look into the ruin whilst also giving the effect of a towering hill

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/Pending/Archive/May03/MonteCassino.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • New Page 2
    or 32 figures 7 cavalry squadrons in 2 and a bit regiments 8 figure squadrons with artillery and command units as appropriate German allies are in similar sized or slightly larger units The only 18th century rule set I use is AOR Leaving aside competition gaming which is a world of its own with its own way of doing things I am slowly coming round to the view that one of the main problems with modern historical wargaming is the inherent dichotomy between rule writer and figure producers Many rule writers seem to regard the toy soldiers as a distraction from their smart little mechanisms and from the number of rule sets around which use tiny units I wonder how many rule writers actually LIKE the models at all It seems to me that the Holy Grail of these chaps is a rule set that allows the re fighting of Waterloo in 15 minutes on a budget of a tenner excluding the cost of the rules naturally Of course I overstate the case since by this analogy my Holy Grail as a figure producer would be a game requiring 20 000 figures Now there s a thought Of course it all depends on what you are trying to achieve but the more abstract the game the less the requirement for toy soldiers The DB s are quite playable with bits of card with the appropriate jargon written upon and not a soldier in sight The games player school of thought with the often decidedly dubious attitude to military history in my view negates the historical part of historical wargaming However since in recent months I ve heard our hobby called I write here only the pre watershed repeatables Historically inspired gaming and even worse Non Fantasy Gaming I wonder where it all will end What price Non War wargaming Sorry I digress There is no doubt that the DB s play well as games but they don t look or feel right Of course if the games the thing fine but to me ignoring the history is similar to only sipping the froth off your pint and leaving the rest Surely there is much more to this fascinating hobby than scoring cheap victories off your mates While I am not actually averse to cheap victories as I write this I wonder how the eponymous Joe Wargamer gets into a new period some of the remarks I hear at various shows go through my mind Got my figures got my Osprey got my Army List I m ready to go or Can t buy these they won t fit the bases or best of all Are your Maccabean Jewish Cavalry Knights I m still trying to work that one out What I m trying to illustrate here of course is the apparent lack of basic military history amongst some of our gaming bretheren in recent months I ve encountered Napoleonic players who don t know how a French infantry battalion was

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/RandomS/Library/andy2.htm (2016-02-16)
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    under the walls of the Close the first in England The breach is defended all day but when night comes the Roundheads sue for terms April 21 Friday The garrison of Lichfield march out with the honours of war and safe passage to Coventry Rupert having appointed a governor immediately rides south to join Charles April 22 Saturday Cromwell establishes his headquarters at Peterborough where his troops commit acts of iconoclasm In the West Country the local truce is due to expire at midnight April 23 Sunday The King writes to Ormonde in Dublin authorizing him to treat with the Confederates for a cessation of arms for one year In private Ormonde is urged to bring over the Irish army to Chester as soon as peace has been agreed In the West Country the Parliamentarian army led by James Chudleigh attacks Hopton s position at Beacon Hill outside Launceston Both armies are reinforced during the course of the day and the Roundheads are eventually forced to fall back on Okehampton in some disorder April 24 Monday Charles leaves Oxford with the relief force for Reading although recognising the impossibility of saving the town they plan to help the garrison escape The House of Commons appoints a committee with authority to destroy superstitious or idolatrous monuments April 25 Tuesday At Reading Richard Fielding agrees to a truce and begins negotiations for surrender Meanwhile Rupert joins Charles relief force at Wallingford but the Royalist attempt to relieve Reading by seizing Caversham Bridge fails when Fielding refuses to break the truce with Essex In the Midlands Sir William Waller marches on Hereford from Gloucester In the West Hopton s Cornish army attempting a night march against the disordered Roundheads at Okehampton are ambushed by a small force under Chudleigh and put to flight at the Battle of Sourton Down Hopton s private papers are captured in the rout and detail Royalist plans for an advance into Somerset In East Anglia Cromwell joins forces with Sir Miles Hobart and Sir Anthony Irby in besieging Crowland In London iconoclasts invade Westminster Abbey and St Margaret s April 27 Thursday The garrison of Reading capitulates to the Earl of Essex In the Midlands Hereford surrenders to Waller April 28 Friday The garrison of Reading march out with the honours of war and safe passage to Oxford though they are harassed by the Parliamentary troops en route In the eastern theatre Crowland surrenders to Cromwell thus preparing the way for an attack on Newark April 29 Saturday News of Sourton Down reaches Parliament the victory is termed the Western Wonder by the London pamphleteers It is assumed that the King s position is now very weak but on the same day the Houses are warned that Essex s army cannot move for lack of pay Late April On the advice of Hamilton Charles directs six Scottish noblemen to return to Scotland and to stir up opposition to the Marquis of Argyll The Queen receives a party of Scottish Royalists at York including Montrose Lord Aboyne and Lord Ogilvie who offer to rise in arms in support of the King This plan has been officially rejected in favour of Hamilton s diplomatic methods Meanwhile the Earl of Antrim appears at York having escaped captivity in Ulster and offers to make peace in Ireland and raise an army of 20 000 men to march against the Covenanters in Scotland The Queen authorises him to proceed and at the same time surreptitiously encourages the Scots Royalists to continue with their projected rising Montrose refuses to take part in a scheme not approved by the King and leaves York at odds with the other Royalists Aboyne etc and under the Queen s disfavour May 1 Monday Pym moves that committees of both Houses should be sent to Holland to acquaint the Dutch with the true state of affairs and to Scotland to demand aid However the proposals are not immediately acted upon May 2 Tuesday The Commons order Cromwell Irby and others to secure Lincolnshire against Newcastle s advance Essex plans to combine forces from the Eastern Association Sir John Gell s Nottinghamshire forces and the Lincolnshire Roundheads In London Cheapside Cross is pulled down Charles authorises a City businessman to collect money in furtherance of the plot to seize the City Early May The Earl of Ormonde s troops mutiny in Dublin May 3 Wednesday The Royalists burn the town of Banbury May 6 Saturday Skirmish at Middleton Cheney Parliamentary forces marching to avenge the burning of Banbury are ambushed and driven off by the Royalists under the Earl of Northampton May 9 Tuesday A Parliamentary army under Cromwell Lord Willoughby and Sir John Hotham concentrates at Sleaford intending to attack Newark Cromwell May 10 Wednesday In Scotland a Convention of Estates is summoned to meet on June 22 under Argyll s influence to act as a sort of informal parliament It does not have Royal consent and is opposed by Hamilton May 11 Thursday The Parliamentarian army advances to Grantham there to sit inactive for two days May 13 Saturday The first Royalist convoy of arms and ammunition from York arrives safely at Woodstock Fielding court martialled for his part in the fall of Reading is finally spared the death sentence In Lincolnshire Lord Cavendish raids Parliamentarian troops at Belton Cromwell defeats a superior force of Royalists in a skirmish at Grantham but the Roundhead advance on Newark is abandoned May 14 Sunday In Ireland Monro s Scots covenanter troops skirmish with Confederate forces near Loughall County Armagh The Scots burn all Catholic property between Armagh and Charlemont May 15 Monday The first convoy of arms and ammunition from the north arrives at Oxford bringing the King s army up to par with that of Essex The Earl of Stamford having strengthened and reorganised the Parliamentary army in the West Country crosses once more into Cornwall and establishes himself in a strong position at Stratton The cavalry are sent to Bodmin to prevent the gathering of the Cornish militia May 16 Tuesday The Battle of Stratton Hopton s Cornishmen storm a hill held by the Earl of Stamford and rout the Parliamentarian army During the battle Sir James Chudleigh is captured and later changes sides In the Midlands Brereton s Roundheads take Stafford in a surprise attack May 17 Wednesday The Commons despatches 15 000 borrowed from the City to enable Essex to pay his troops however his army is now beset by disease In the Midlands Brereton takes Wolverhampton Mid May The Cornish now unopposed advance throughout Devon raiding Totnes on market day to seize horses May 18 Thursday The Parliamentarian garrison of Hereford abandons the town and falls back on Gloucester In Ireland Newcastle in County Down surrenders to Monro s covenanters after a siege May 19 Friday A Royalist plot develops Charles despatches Alexander Hampden as an emissary to Parliament ostensibly to request a response to his demands of 12 April At the same time another supporter Lady d Aubigny smuggles the Commission of Array into the City to be proclaimed as soon as the King sends word of an advance on London The Tower is then to be secured and the leading Parliamentarians arrested In the West the Marquis of Hertford and Prince Maurice march from Oxford to occupy Salisbury Their aim is to affect a juncture with the advancing Cornish forces of Sir Ralph Hopton May 20 Saturday Sir Thomas Fairfax attempts to seize Wakefield with troops from the Puritan cloth making villages of the West Riding in a surprise night attack The defenders are alerted and the attempt fails In the Midlands the Royalists re occupy Hereford In Ireland the second Confederate General Assembly opens and meets until 19 June May 21 Whit Sunday Wakefield falls to Fairfax s Parliamentary forces who infiltrate the town The Royalist commander Lord Goring is taken prisoner Having achieved their immediate aims the Fairfaxes fall back separately on Leeds and Bradford Newcastle establishes Royalist forces at Pontefract occupies Rotherham and Sheffield and pillages the West Riding May 22 Tuesday The royal plot with their suspicions aroused the Commons order the King s emissary Alexander Hampden to be detained in custody May 23 Wednesday The House of Commons refuse Charles demands of 12 April and pass a motion demanding the impeachment of the Queen May 26 Friday The county of Huntingdon is added to the Eastern Association May 28 Sunday The royal plot a spy is set by the Committee of Safety to find evidence In the West Waller leads Parliamentary forces from Gloucester in a night march on Worcester May 29 Monday Worcester refuses the Parliamentarian summons to Surrender and Waller opens a bombardment Flags from GMB May 31 Wednesday The royal plot Parliament orders the arrest of Edmund Waller and other suspect conspirators on the evidence provided by the spy The King s Commission of Array is found hidden The discovery of the plot at a time when Charles is ostensibly offering to entreat effectively ends any chance of a negotiated peace and Charles is now generally regarded as conspirator against the peace and safety of the nation In the Midlands Waller abandons the attack on Worcester and falls back on Gloucester withdrawing the Parliamentary garrison from Tewkesbury en route End May The Earl of Antrim is captured whilst returning to Ireland from his visit to the Queen at York Sir Robert Monro commander of the Scots Covenanter army in Ireland learns of the plan to encourage an armed rising in Scotland and proposed invasion by Irish Catholic troops Early June Montrose spends three days in Aberdeen with Huntly whose son Aboyne had participated in the discussions at York unsuccessfully trying to persuade him to take part in a Royalist rising After this second failure Montrose withdraws in anger June 2 Friday A Parliamentary army 6 000 strong is gathered at Nottingham under Lords Grey of Groby and Willoughby of Parham Cromwell Gell the younger Hotham and others intending to march against Newcastle in Yorkshire They lose heart however and claim that the expedition is made unnecessary by Newcastle s weakness June 4 Sunday The Queen departs from York on her march to join the King at Oxford She brings with her 4500 reinforcements In the West Country Hopton s Cornish army unites with the forces of the Marquis of Hertford and Prince Maurice at Chard Early mid June Waller failing to prevent the union of Hertford and Hopton establishes himself at Wells and tries to raise the Somerset men in his support Taunton surrenders to the Royalists The garrison of Bridgewater flees from the Royalists whilst the garrison of Dunster Castle surrenders At Glastonbury the remnants of Stamford s cavalry are driven off in a skirmish June 5 Monday News reaches the Commons of Charles activities in Ireland the supercession of the late Lord Justice and the despatch of Lord Taffe to communicate with the Irish Confederates at Kilkenny This news finally ends any serious opposition to Pym and the war party At Oxford Hamilton dissuades Charles from prohibiting the meeting of the Scots Convention of Estates June 6 Tuesday Pym presents his report on the royal plot to the Commons which in response accepts the imposition of a vow of support for Parliament the covenant At the same time the Lords pass an ordinance for an Assembly of Divines to consider the reform of the Church of England in accordance with the examples set by other Protestant countries June 7 Wednesday Parliament passes an ordinance authorising a body of censors without whose license nothing is to be published June 9 Friday The sixteen peers present in the House of Lords take the new vow of support for Parliament the covenant after which it is sent forth to the country as a test of loyalty In Scotland the Scottish Council alerted by Antrim s revelations and suspicious of Montrose s activities in Aberdeen announce the detection of the Royalist plot Mid June Waller retreats from Wells in the face of the Royalist advance June 10 Saturday The Earl of Essex his army hampered by sickness and lack of pay leaves Reading to march on Oxford He occupies Thame in an attempt to shield Buckinghamshire from plunder and to prevent the Queen s convoy from arriving at Oxford In the West Sir William Waller has now fallen back to Bath though his rearguard is caught by Prince Maurice and the cavalry in a running fight at Chewton Mendip June 12 Monday Parliament passes the ordinance to set up the Westminster Assembly to discuss reform of the Church of England Meanwhile the conspirator Edmund Waller fails in an attempt to implicate Northumberland and others in the Royal plot June 13 Tuesday Essex reinforced occupies Wheatley near a Royalist post on Shotover Hill In Ireland Sir Robert Stewart defeats Confederate forces under Owen Roe O Neill at Clones county Monaghan June 14 Wednesday Parliament passes an ordinance to impose more stringent licensing of the press This is to control the pamphleteers but has little real effect June 15 Thursday The City of London observes a day of official thanksgiving for deliverance from the recent Royalist plot The Parliamentary covenant of support is freely taken in the City Prince Rupert June 16 Friday The Queen arrives at Newark where she will remain until 3 July whilst the route across the Midlands to Oxford is secured June 17 Saturday A detachment of Essex s Army fails in an attempt to cross the Cherwell at Islip Rupert launches a raid through the Parliamentarian army aiming to disrupt Essex s advance and intercept a convoy of money sent from London June 18 Sunday Rupert falls on outposts of the Parliamentary army at Postcombe and Chinnor but the convoy of money is successfully concealed from him He falls back to Oxford turning on his pursuers and defeating them at Chalgrove Field John Hampden is mortally wounded in the fight Essex his forces in some disorder abandons the attempt to blockade Oxford In the North Captain Hotham is arrested at Nottingham on suspicion of plotting with the Royalists However he manages to escape to Lincoln June 19 Monday In Ireland the second Confederate General Assembly closes June 20 Tuesday In response to the Parliamentary covenant or vow of support the King issues a proclamation making all who abet it liable to the penalty of high treason a penalty to be waived for any presenting themselves at Oxford with certain exceptions From this point the King regards the Houses of Parliament at Westminster as officially non existent In Ireland the Castle of Galway under siege since April 1642 capitulates to the army of the Irish Confederates Mid late June In Ireland Sir Charles Vasavour is defeated in Munster June 21 Wednesday In Ireland Ormonde tells the Lords Justices that he is willing to break off negotiations with the Irish Confederates if they can find any possible way of maintaining the troops June 22 Thursday Newcastle aiming to clear the last remnants of Roundhead resistance in the West Riding storms Howley House the residence of Lord Savile In Scotland the first session of the Convention of Estate begins under the guidance of Chancellor Loudoun Alexander Henderson offers to give the King s approval for discussion of domestic legislation if they consent to abstain from military preparations In Ireland an attempt by the Lords Justices to draw money or supplies from the impoverished citizens of Dublin ends in complete failure June 24 Saturday John Hampden dies from wounds inflicted at Chalgrove Field In the North Captain Hotham writes to the Commons from Lincoln to protest his innocence In Ireland Ormonde begins truce negotiations with the Confederates having at least the tacit consent of the government in Dublin June 25 Sunday A Royalist detachment under Colonel Urry strikes around the rear of the Parliamentary army and across the Chilterns to raid West Wycombe the raid causes great alarm in London where the Trained Bands stand to arms all night June 26 Monday The Commons looks to find Essex a scapegoat for the Royalist raid Pym sends him a letter of remonstrance and bids Essex tender the new covenant to his army In Scotland the Scots Estates declare themselves a free Convention they are alarmed at the Royalist successes and suspicious of the King s plans to raise an Irish army Late June Captain Hotham leaves Lincoln to join his father at Hull June 27 Tuesday The Queen still at Newark hopes to encourage the Hothams to betray Hull The House of Commons is horrified to receive advance news of the Royalist plot in Scotland as learned from Antrim after his capture Pym persuades the Lords to join with the Commons to send a deputation of both Houses to Edinburgh to negotiate a closer understanding with the Scots June 28 Wednesday Essex weakened by desertions and short of money threatens resignation Pym restrains the condemnation of the Commons and placates him In the north the Mayor of Hull receives information of a plot by the Hothams to betray the town to the Royalists Meanwhile the Scots Convention determines to communicate the details of the plot for a Royalist rising in Scotland to London June 29 Thursday The plot to betray Hull to the royalists is foiled A naval party from the warship Hercules secures the town and magazines and Captain John Hotham is arrested The elder Hotham affects an escape but is recaptured and returned as a prisoner after a fall from his horse at Beverley Meanwhile the Earl of Newcastle advances on Bradford In London the Committee of Safety spares Lady D Aubigny and another held responsible for smuggling the Commission of Array into the City Thomas Fairfax June 30 Friday Newcastle s army advances on Bradford At Adwalton Moor outside the town the Parliamentarian forces under Lord Fairfax are routed in a hard fought battle The Roundheads are forced to retreat in separate directions the elder Fairfax to Bradford and Sir Thomas with some of the cavalry to Halifax Sir Thomas rejoins his father in Bradford before nightfall where they are almost immediately besieged by Newcastle However they then receive news of events at Hull which they had previously thought to be lost to Parliament In London the trial opens of Alexander Hampden and five other conspirators in the royal plot to seize the City End June In Scotland Alexander Henderson tries to persuade Montrose to join the Covenanting army that is to be raised to quell the Irish and possibly invade England Montrose refuses and rides to join the King In the Midlands Parliamentary forces from Stafford and Cheshire invest Eccleshall Castle July 1 Saturday The Westminster Assembly The Assembly of Divines meets to consider reform of the Church of England along Presbyterian lines It sits until 1649 In the Centre Rupert moves to Buckingham to shield the advance of the Queen s convoy from Newark In the North the Royalists begin to assault Bradford The Fairfaxes resolve to abandon the West Riding Lord Fairfax leaves for Leeds immediately gathering the remnants of Roundhead support en route Sir Thomas Fairfax breaks out of the town during the night and rides for Hull July 2 Sunday The King consents to discuss proposals for a free Irish parliament with Confederate agents on the understanding that they will agree to a cessation This is against the wishes of members of the Privy Council in Dublin In the Midlands moves to secure the Queen s route to Oxford continue Rupert skirmishes with and disperses Parliamentary troops concentrating outside Buckingham and Lord Cavendish storms Burton on Trent However a Royalist plot to seize Lincoln is foiled In the North Bradford falls to the Earl of Newcastle The Royalists hot in pursuit of Sir Thomas Fairfax foil his plan to cross the Ouse at Selby forcing him south onto the Lincolnshire shore of the Humber estuary In the West Country Hopton crosses the Avon and turns northwest to cut Waller s communications with London July 3 Monday The Earl of Essex establishes himself at Aylesbury having abandoned his advance post at Thame The Queen leaves Newark to continue her march to Oxford In the North Sir Thomas Fairfax takes his cavalry across the estuary into Hull where his father is already established as governor Sir Thomas infantry are left on the Lincolnshire shore With the exception of Hull all Yorkshire is now in Newcastle s hands In the West Waller s attempts to ambush the Royalists at Monkton Farleigh fail The Royalists attempt to swing round to the north of Bath but halt for the night at Batheaston July 4 Tuesday Waller occupies Lansdown ridge north of Bath whilst Hopton attempts to draw him out by moving further north to Marshfield Edmund Waller is called to the bar at the House to explain why he should not be court martialled for his part in the Royalist plot he is spared a trial but expelled from the House and forced to remain in prison without trial for many months July 5 Wednesday Battle of Lansdown Drawn into an engagement the Royalists force their way into Waller s positions on Lansdown Hill suffering heavy losses in the process including the death of Sir Bevil Grenville During the night the Parliamentarians fall back on Bath leaving the exhausted Royalists in possession of the battlefield In London two of the conspirators in the Royalist plot are executed July 6 Thursday In the aftermath of the battle of Lansdown the explosion of a powder wagon seriously wounds Hopton the Royalists fall back to Marshfield July 7 Friday Waller having made good his losses at Lansdown with reinforcements from Bristol marches out again against the Royalist Army which is making its way to Devizes July 8 Saturday Failing to bring Rupert to battle Essex falls back on Brickhill to secure his communications July 9 Sunday The Queen s convoy marches from Daventry to Burton on Trent where the town is stormed and sacked by her escort In the West Waller s advance guard falls on the Royalists three miles outside Devizes Maurice s cavalry fight a rearguard action allowing the Royalist infantry fall back into the town During the night Maurice the Marquis of Hertford and the Earl of Carnarvon ride to Oxford with the cavalry to obtain help An ammunition convoy under the command of the Earl of Crawford has already been despatched from Oxford to the Western Army Meanwhile a frustrated Essex writes to the Commons suggesting that they once again offer peace terms This polarises politics in London encouraging the peace party in the House of Lords and provoking the extreme war party in the commons led by Harry Marten July 10 Monday Waller occupies Roundway Down above the town of Devizes at the same time intercepting the Earl of Crawford s Royalist ammunition convoy between Marlborough and Devizes The Queen continues her progress towards Oxford marching from Walsall to Kings Norton July 11 Tuesday The Queen arrives at Stratford upon Avon where she is met by Prince Rupert In the West Waller opens the siege of Hopton in Devizes Maurice arrives in Oxford looking for reinforcements for Hopton but finds it fairly empty of troops However a relief expedition is quickly put together and despatched late the same day under the command of Henry Lord Wilmot and Sir John Byron In London the House of Commons refuses to re open negotiations with the King and despatches reinforcements to Essex July 12 Wednesday Truce at Devizes whilst terms of surrender are negotiated July 13 Thursday Battle of Roundway Down Waller s besieging forces are destroyed on the downs above Devizes when they are caught between Wilmot Byron and Maurice Royalist relief force and the Cornish infantry advancing out of Devizes The remnants of Waller s army fall back towards Bristol Elsewhere the Queen is reunited with the King at Kineton on the battlefield of Edgehill Mid July In Ireland Papal agent Pier Francesco Scarampi arrives at the Confederate capital Kilkenny Ormonde having found the Supreme Council of the Confederates less yielding to diplomacy then he hoped resolves to resort to arms once more Ormonde launches a campaign against the Irish leader Preston but is unable to bring him to battle and is forced by lack of provisions to return to Dublin He is forced to renew negotiations Owen Roe O Neill defeats the English forces at Trim In the north Monro lead an expedition to Dungannon July 14 Friday The King and Queen accompanied by Prince Rupert enter Oxford in triumph In the West Country the Royalists occupy Bath Waller falls back to Bristol and then takes refuge in Gloucester In the Eastern theatre Cromwell storms Burghley House to complete the clearance of Royalists from Stamford and its neighbourhood Parliament passes the Doubling Ordinance promising land to all who double previous loans to help secure victory in Ireland July 17 Monday The King issues a proclamation ordering naval officers and seamen to carry their ships into Falmouth where they form the core of a new Royal Navy under the command of Sir John Pennington July 18 Tuesday The Excise Ordinance is again proposed in Parliament In Kent a Royalist rising begins and continues for a week threatening the Thames estuary and the port of London Armed crowds seize Parliamentarian property in Tonbridge and Sevenoaks mobs are raised to oppose taxation and religious changes but are more interested in plunder than political gain Prince Rupert marches on Gloucester from Oxford aiming to capitalize on the defeat of Waller s army in the west July 19 Wednesday The Parliamentary commissioners including the Earl of Rutland and Sir Henry Vane the younger are given orders to go to Scotland to discuss an alliance and the intervention of a Scots Army on the side of Parliament July 20 Thursday Lord Willoughby of Parham surprises and captures Gainsborough for Parliament Newcastle made Marquis for his victory at Adwalton Moor despatches Sir Charles Cavendish to re take it July 21 Friday Rupert abandons plans to besiege Gloucester on learning that Waller and the survivors of Roundway Down are inside Instead he swings south towards Bristol July 22 Saturday Parliament issues Pym s Excise Ordinance imposing a purchase tax on various items to establish the finances on a sounder footing 7000 additional horse are to be raised immediately Lord Fairfax is confirmed as governor of Hull July 23 Sunday Troops from London suppress the Royalist rising in Kent Rupert joins the Western Army two miles from Bristol before the end of the day he has taken an advance party of his troops into position north of the town whilst Maurice and the Western Army begin to erect batteries to the south July 24 Monday Rupert summons Bristol Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes the governor declines to capitulate and the Royalist guns begin a day long cannonade July 25 Tuesday A Royalist council of war determines to storm Bristol rather than engage in a prolonged siege or mining operation Waller arrives back in London to receive a hero s welcome His defeat at Roundway Down is imputed to Essex s inactivity July 26 Wednesday Early morning the Royalists begin the storm of Bristol The attacks to the south and north are repulsed but Rupert s troops are able to force a breach in the outer defences to the west After a further struggle the defenders send out for a parley and ask for terms of surrender Parliament gives directions to Sir John Meldrum in Nottingham and Cromwell in East Anglia to go to the aid of Lord Willoughby besieged in Gainsborough by the Royalists July 27 Thursday The defenders of Bristol march out with the honours of war but are taunted and plundered by the victors The owners and masters of eight merchant ships in the harbour agree to serve the King thus forming the nucleus of a Royalist fleet on the Severn In the Eastern theatre Cromwell hurries northwards leaving his infantry behind him to join Meldrum and the Lincolnshire Roundheads at Scarle ten miles from Gainsborough In London Waller is received enthusiastically at Merchant Taylors Hall and acclaimed by the extreme war party as the saviour of Parliament LateJuly The King issues a general declaration of his devotion to the Protestant religion and the liberties of his subjects and offers a pardon to all who had been misled by his enemies The King writes to Ormonde commanding him to arrest four of his fellow councillors in Dublin Sir William Parsons Sir John Temple and two others to ensure the loyalty of the Dublin government and allow a peace treaty to be negotiated with the Irish Confederates A proposal for a formal alliance reaches Westminster from Edinburgh July 28 Friday Essex addresses Parliament describing the poor condition of his army its size drastically reduced by sickness In the Eastern theatre Meldrum and Cromwell fight Sir Charles Cavendish at Gainsborough the Royalists are swept from the field Cavendish killed and the town relieved However the victorious Parliamentarians are soon after faced with the main body of the Marquis of Newcastle s army on its way to besiege Gainsborough Willoughby falls back on the town whilst Cromwell conducts the retreat of the Eastern Association horse to Lincoln In Scotland the Scots Convention orders the raising of the Levied Regiment of foot and three troops of horse July 29 Saturday Parliament votes command of new forces raised by the City to be given to Waller and that he is to be independent of the control of the Earl of Essex The new army is to oppose the Royalist army of the West under the Earl of Caernarvon and Prince Maurice This appointment riles the Earl of Essex who sees this as a snub to his role as commander in chief The Parliamentary command is split and demoralized Meanwhile news arrives from Gloucester that the state of the town is very ill In the Eastern theatre Gainsborough is summoned to surrender by the Marquis of Newcastle July 31 Monday Lord Willoughby surrenders Gainsborough to the Royalists The defenders march out with terms and fall back to Lincoln Early August The Cornish troops begin their return march to Cornwall from Bristol In the Eastern theatre Willoughby is forced to abandon Lincoln and retire to Boston A Royalist newsletter announces that Sir john Pennington is ready to go to sea with the Royalist fleet In Ireland Ormonde has Sir William Parsons and other Parliamentary sympathisers removed from the Council board in Dublin in order to smooth the way for a truce with the Irish rebels In the north Scots and British forces besiege Charlemont and raid Irish territory August 1 Tuesday The King enters Bristol to the popular acclaim of the citizens August 2 Wednesday Parliament appoints a Council of War at the instigation of John Pym to replace the slow and difficult Committee of Safety The Council comprises a small group of members of Parliament together with merchants and soldiers to offer practical advice They grant all Essex demands for reinforcements and pay and confirm his position as Commander in chief Meanwhile Essex is redeploying part of his army to the north east of Oxford In Gloucestershire the local Royalist forces call upon the city of Gloucester to surrender August 3 Thursday The peace party of the House of Lords who hope to win support for what is basically a capitulation make approaches to Essex Their proposals are rejected and the Earl re confirms his support for Pym and the existing policy At Bristol the King presides over a council of war at which a decision is made to march on Gloucester August 4 Friday The peace party gain the assent of the House of Lords and demand that the proposals are laid before the Commons In the west Dorchester deserted by its puritan fathers after the fall of Bristol surrenders to the Earl of Caernarvon to remain in Royalist hands until the Summer of 1644 Early mid August The Parliamentarian army under Sir Walter Erle abandons its siege of Corfe Castle and shuts itself up in Poole Surrender of Weymouth and then Melcombe to the Royalists under Lord Caernarvon August 5 Saturday The Commons resolve to take the Lords peace proposition into consideration In the West a Committee for Defence is set up at Gloucester Portland Castle is surrendered to the Royalists under Lord Caernarvon August 6 Sunday The City of London is roused in opposition to the peace propositions At Gloucester the Royalist army sets up its first camp to the east of the city August 7 Monday Parliament s commissioners arrive at Edinburgh In London the Common Council presents a petition urging the rejection of the Lords proposals A mob demanding peace appears at Westminster but after renewed consideration the House of Commons finally rejects the peace proposals The three peers behind the peace proposals the Earls of Holland Bedford and Clare flee to Oxford The Earl of Essex commissions Waller to command the new forces raised by the City August 8 Tuesday In the Scots Assembly negotiations are opened with Vane and the Parliamentary Commissioners The formula for the Solemn League and Covenant is laid down In the West the King s army reaches Berkeley in its advance on Gloucester August 9 Wednesday At Westminster a violent mob of women appear for the second day demanding peace soldiers open fire and cavalry are called upon to disperse them The Commons resolves to raise more troops for the Eastern Association and calls upon the divines to rouse the people of the counties in their own defence August 10 Thursday The King s army under the command of Lord Ruthven Earl of Forth complete the encirclement of Gloucester The King appears before the city and summons the garrison who are thought to be willing to surrender The summons is brusquely rejected The Earl of Essex is instructed to appoint the Edward Montagu Earl of Manchester as Major General of the Eastern Association with orders to block any advance on London by the Northern Royalists under the Marquis of Newcastle August 12 Saturday The Royalists establish a redoubt opposite the East Gate at Gloucester August 14 Monday At Gloucester the bombardment makes a breach in the south east corner of the defences but the defenders quickly shore it up Royalist attempts to mine the walls are rendered useless by a sudden downpour Mid August Prince Maurice lays siege to Exeter An attempt to relieve the city by sea is driven off by the Royalist batteries ashore leaving three ships on fire and three captured in the narrow channel King s Lynn under the command of Sir Hamon Lestrange declares for the King after having refused to pay Parliaments tax assessment The Earl of Manchester s Eastern Association forces besiege it August 16 Wednesday At Westminster a direct attack on the monarchy leads to the imprisonment of Marten The King returns to Oxford to discuss the situation in Scotland with his advisors Whilst there he debates whether he should accepts the submission of the three renegade peers Holland Bedford and Clare At Gloucester the Royalists extend their entrenchments within musket shot of the walls August 17 Thursday The Solemn League and Covenant is agreed between Parliament and Scotland The formula ratified by the Scots Convention of Estates after intense negotiation by Argyll and Vane the covenanters insist on the establishment of Presbyterianism in England The Estates order the levy of a general taxation to pay for an army August 18 Friday The Scots Convention orders all fencible able bodied men to stand ready for service at twenty four hours warning The text of the Covenant is despatched to Westminster Charles returns to Gloucester followed by Holland Bedford and Clare At Rupert s urging he reluctantly accepts their submission Meanwhile

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  • Lord of the Rings
    from the same sources and yet the models are amazingly popular I remember years and years ago when I was still using Airfix conversions for my gaming that the talk was of someone finding a way of producing high quality plastic figures in a more rigid material that the flexible Airfix plastic and that who ever did this would clean up Well Games Workshop have done this I recently received for review a couple of boxes of The Two Towers battle game figures They represent the Riders of Rohan and the Uruk Hai half orcs of Saruman s army The models themselves are moulded from a high density plastic in a light grey colour The figures are attached to a variety of sprues and have to be carefully removed using a modelling knife The figures themselves need to be glued together with arms having been cast separately holding weapons this enables a range of poses to be adopted adding to the variety of the unit The horses are also cast in two sections and need to be glued together and fixed to their base before undercoating The Riders of Rohan set contains enough parts to construct 6 cavalry for 12 The Uruk Hai set enough for 20 models also for 12 The figures themselves are highly detailed and by any standard are exceptionally crafted and fine models In fact if there is to be any criticism from my part it is that they are too delicate looking in some cases for my liking simply not chunky enough But that is a matter solely of personal taste Although it might be argued that the cavalry figures are too expensive at 2 per model the same cannot be said about the foot at 0 60p per figure The colourful packaging is enhanced by full colour photographs of the models painted to the highest standards used in a gaming situation Click here for the Games Workshop Website Also available is the The Two Towers boxed strategy game for your 40 you ll uncover a 160 page full color rulebook detailing the characters events and sieges that are all part of the motion picture Also included are 12 plastic Riders of Rohan Spearmen Bowmen and Swordsmen on horseback 20 Fighting Uruk Hai Pikemen and Swordsmen plastic ruins to battle amongst and dice everything you ll need to continue your ongoing struggle in Middle Earth Now 40 may seem a lot of money and I am sure that some will say that is a rip off But consider more closely what you get The equivalent of 36 in figures dice rule and small terrain feature worth another couple of pounds and the rule book separate review under preparation which would retail by itself for at least 12 On that basis alone the price for this starter set is reasonable If we then compare in with the price of other leisure activities such as 39 99 for a PC game of 30 for a ticket to

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  • Why YOU should use 6mm figures
    in size and bulk 25mm really means a minimum of 30mm while 15mm figures are topping out around 20mm A fascinating symptom of all this is the adoption of the 28mm figure In the good old days the 25mm standard was used by most As the heavy and thickset style of figures produced by Games Workshop and followed by Wargames Foundry came in vogue it became a little ludicrous to call a casting standing 32mm tall a 25mm figure So instead of coming clean and admitting that 30mm scale was the new standard it was decided to call these giants 28mm scale Now its no more accurate to call them 28mm as 25mm but I suppose it dupes the buyer into thinking that they are not really that far oversized Back in the 1980 s the British government renamed the rather leaky nuclear facility at Windscale It became transformed into Sellafield and we were all supposed to believe that changing its name made it more acceptable and less leaky Now the general UK populace wasn t really fooled by this name change but wargamers seem to have accepted 28mm as an accepted fact When one person on a Newsgroup tried to to describe them more accurately as 30mm figures he was called a pedant and laughed out of court I m afraid changing a name still doesn t change a nature and I m obviously in a minority in the wargames population as evidenced by my crazed interest in very small soldiers But I digress There are no real problems with increasing the size so long as everyone is doing it But remember that increased bulk means increased mass means increased weight and increased cost It is a very fortunate person who can go and buy an entire army at one go We are sold the increased cost on the grounds of the increased quality Unfortunately very few of us can really do the superb sculpting the justice it deserves when it comes to wielding our paint brushes The increased cost also manifests itself in how we wargame One of the main selling points of DBA was that you didn t need to use a lot of figures to make an army Fine but the sight of a DBA game played with 25mm figures is ludicrous Similarly Fire and Fury have swept all before them but once again you can reach the ridiculous heights of having a dozen figures represent a whole Brigade Another manifestation of this is in rule sets like the Warhammer series in which increased emphasis is placed on individual figures as they are given special characteristics rendering the game more like a big skirmish than a battle The result of this reduction in numbers of figures is to make us put more effort into what we have got Hence we go to ridiculous lengths to emulate the beautifully painted figures in the glossy wargames magazines and lavish care and attention on painting and detailing and basing

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  • John Normansell is a wargamer and military history enthusiast of many years standing
    Kilkenny with the laity also invited to attend May 12 Thursday The King issues a warrant summoning the Yorkshire gentry to attend him in arms on 3 June The parliamentary commissioners lodge a protest In Ireland Monro s campaign in Armagh Newry and Down reaches a conclusion May 13 Friday The meeting of the Irish Catholic clergy at Kilkenny ends They resolve to draft an Oath of Association and choose a Supreme Council of nine members to act as a provisional government bringing the insurgents together as the Catholic confederates Mid May Charles orders removal of the law courts to the North Parliament orders the despatch of reinforcements to Munster May 17 Tuesday Parliament declare the attempt to remove the law courts to the north illegal with the initial approval of Littleton Lord Keeper of the Great Seal However Littleton the senior law officer in the kingdom later flees to the King with the Great Seal which poses a serious challenge to Parliament s legal position May 24 Tuesday Monro leads the Scots Covenanter forces on raids through Bannside and the Glens of Antrim May 27 Friday Parliament declare the King to be seduced by evil counsellors and intent on making war on his own people They insist henceforward the lawful authority for preserving the peace and governing the kingdom must rest with the two Houses of Parliament and the King s subjects must accept no laws except those made by Parliament May 28 Saturday In Ireland the Lord Justices prohibit all communication with Catholics End May The government s campaign in Ireland grinds to a halt for want of victuals and supplies However reinforcements arrive in in Munster in the form of two English regiments June 1 Wednesday Parliament issues the Nineteen Propositions as a final ultimatum to the King These demand control of all high military and civil offices control of all fortresses the prosecution of laws against Catholics church reform support for the protestant cause in Europe and the clearing of all charges against the five members June 2 Thursday The Nineteen Propositions are sent to the King June 3 Wednesday The King meets with a great gathering of the Yorkshire gentry on Heworth Moor outside York with the aim of securing their support and recruiting troops The peers are supportive of the King but there is opposition from some Sir Thomas Fairfax presents a petition to the King urging him to come to terms with Parliament and return to London June 5 Sunday The peers of the realm publicly declare loyalty to the King at York June 6 Monday The King begins to issue Commissions of Array to county authorities with the aim raising bodies of armed loyalists Officers of the state will be forced to decide whether to obey the King s Commissions or Parliament s Ordinance The first Commission is issued to the county of Warwickshire In Ireland Monro s expedition through Bannside and Glens of Antrim comes to an end Early June Ireland the Confederate Oath of Association is drawn up and a provisional Supreme Council nominated The Scots army marches on Lisnagarvey Newry and Armagh The Catholic confederates besiege Limerick There is an alleged massacre of Protestants at Kilmore June 9 Thursday Parliament passes an ordinance appealing for plate money and horses June 10 Friday The first meeting of the presbytery of Monro s Scottish army takes place at Carrickfergus Mid June The Lord Mayor of London has the Commission of Array read in the City He is deprived of office and clapped in the Tower Charles orders the replacement of the Lord High Admiral the Earl of Northumberland with the royalist Sir John Pennington who has instructions to bring the fleet to Bridlington June 17 Friday It is reported that the peers at York are ready to go down to the counties with the King s Commissions of Array and thus make a general call to arms June 18 Saturday Charles denounces and rejects the Nineteen Propositions and has the peers sign a protestation confirming his peaceable intentions June 21 Tuesday The Irish Parliament at Dublin resolves that all persons refusing the oath of supremacy should be debarred and expels forty one members as traitors It is now an entirely Protestant body July 2 Saturday The Earl of Northumberland appoints the Earl of Warwick as his deputy as the Lord Admiral The fleet in the Downs declares for Parliament The few ships that refuse obedience are overpowered July 4 Tuesday Pym creates the Committee of Safety with responsibility for the immediate conduct of the war The Committee consists of the Earls of Essex Northumberland Pembroke and Holland Viscount Saye and Sele and ten MPs led by Pym Hampden and Holles July 5 Wednesday With Parliament s approval Lord Brooke transfers the county magazine of Warwickshire to his castle at Warwick July 9 Saturday Parliament votes to raise an army of 10 000 volunteers July 11 Tuesday Oxford University sends money and plate to the King July 12 Wednesday Robert Devereaux 3rd Earl of Essex is appointed Lord General of the army by Parliament Early mid July Lord Digby persuades the vacillating Sir John Hotham to yield Hull to the King on condition that the royalists make sufficient display of strength Charles receives parliamentary commissioners led by the Earl of Holland who for the final time ask him to return in peace to London In return Charles asks that they give up Hull which they refuse July 15 Friday In Yorkshire the King appears before Hull and begins the construction of siege lines In Lancashire the royalist Lord Strange attempts to seize the magazine at Manchester He is driven out of the town but during the skirmish Richard Perceval a linen weaver becomes the first casualty of the Civil War in England The Royalists blockade Manchester At The Hague the Queen gives Prince Rupert his commission as General of the Horse Mid late July Charles appoints the Earl of Cumberland as his Lieutenant of the North In Scotland the Assembly of the Church appoints Lord Maitland to head a commission to consider reform of the Church throughout Great Britain This forges a link between the Scots covenanters and the English Parliament and threatens the King s hope of Scottish support In Ulster the number of Scots covenanter troops under Monro reaches 10 000 They take the Castle of Dunluce and capture the Earl of Antrim who claims to be acting in the King s interest with the promise of becoming general of all loyal Catholic forces in Ulster The Scots campaign continues with a march on Charlemont and raid on Creaghts from Newry Meanwhile Lord Forbes expedition financed by the Merchant Adventurers bill lands in Munster and conducts a campaign of arbitrary destruction through the south and west of Ireland The future confederate leader Owen Roe O Neill accompanied by veterans from Flanders lands at Doe Castle County Donegal July 27 Wednesday The Royalists raise the siege of Hull and retire to York Charles declares the Earl of Essex to be a traitor July 29 Friday A convoy of guns and ammunition sent by Parliament to support Lord Brooke at Warwick arrives at Banbury held for Parliament by Lord Saye and Sele s son John Fiennes July 30 Saturday Stand off in the Midlands Lord Brooke attempting to transfer the convoy of guns from Banbury to Warwick finds his way blocked by the Earl of Northampton After much posturing on both sides Brooke retires with the convoy to Banbury July 31 Sunday In Ireland the Catholic confederates request the Earl of Ormonde to forward their petition to the King Ormonde places it in the hands of the Lords Justices who suppress it August 1 Monday Parliament issues an ordinance requesting payment of the taxes outlined in the Tonnage and Poundage Bill even though the King has refused to ratify it August 2 Tuesday Colonel George Goring Governor of Portsmouth declares for the King Early August Prince Rupert and his brother Maurice sail from Holland with a staff of professional soldiers They out sail Parliamentary pursuers and land at Tynemouth In Ireland Owen Roe O Neill takes command of the Confederate Army of Ulster His rival Thomas Preston lands at Wexford and assumes command of the Confederate Army of Leinster August 4 Thursday The Royalists win an action at Marshall s Elm in Somerset August 8 Monday Five ships under the Earl of Warwick arrive to blockade Goring in Portsmouth In the Midlands the magazine at Banbury is surrendered to the Royalist Earl of Northampton August 9 Tuesday The Earl of Northampton besieges Warwick Castle with the guns captured at Banbury August 10 Wednesday At Cambridge Oliver Cromwell defeats an attempt by the King s supporters to remove the plate of the colleges August 13 Saturday Ormonde advises the King that the loyalty of the Council in Dublin is suspect At Oxford there is a review of the scholars under arms who express their loyalty to the King Mid August The King moves south from York marching on Nottingham and Leicester August 15 Monday At Cambridge the magazine is seized by Cromwell Parliament authorizes an expedition under Lord Brooke and John Hampden to ride to the relief of Warwick Castle The Earl of Northampton meets the King at Nottingham urging him to assist his siege of Warwick Castle August 16 Tuesday Isaac Pennington is chosen as Lord Mayor securing Parliament s hold over the City of London August 17 Wednesday The Cornish Cavaliers muster on Bodmin racecourse August 18 Thursday Parliament declares the King s supporters to be traitors In the Midlands the King s forces enter Warwickshire August 20 Saturday The King fails in an attempt to attack a weak detachment of enemy troops outside Coventry and falls back on Leicester August 21 Sunday Dover Castle is seized by Parliament There are disturbances throughout Kent The King falls back on Leicester where he is joined by Prince Rupert and his brother Prince Maurice August 22 Monday The King withdraws to Nottingham and raises the Royal Standard proclaiming the Commons and their soldiers to be traitors King and Parliament are now officially at war In Colchester Puritan rioters seize royalist property In the Midlands the Royalists abandon the siege of Warwick Castle on hearing news of the approach of the parliamentary relief force August 23 Tuesday In a skirmish at Southam Royalists retreating from Warwick defeat the relief force sent by Parliament Mid late August Bristol and Plymouth declare for Parliament Ireland Alexander Leslie Lord Leven takes Duncannon County Tyrone and campaigns with the Covenanter army in Newry and Down August 25 Thursday The King sends commissioners to offer peace proposals to Parliament in London In Ireland Murrough O Brien Lord Inchiquin wins a victory for the government forces at the battle of Liscarroll County Cork August 27 Saturday The King s peace proposals are rejected at Westminster August 28 Sunday Sir John Byron is driven out of Brackley He arrives in Oxford and attempts to fortify the city with the aid of the University staff August 30 Tuesday Charles raises Ormonde to the rank of Marquis September 1 Thursday Parliamentary forces in the Midlands now in considerable disarray move to regroup around Northampton and await the arrival of the Earl of Essex September 2 Friday In Dorset the Earl of Bedford and Denzil Holles attempt to seize Sherborne Castle for Parliament but their inexperienced force disintegrates under fire They settle down to besiege the castle Parliament passes an ordinance banning stage plays for the duration of the war the theatres actually stay closed until 1660 September 4 Sunday Sir William Waller storms weakly defended Southsea Castle near Portsmouth after a mutiny of the royalist garrison September 5 Monday The King despatches Viscount Falkland to the House of Commons with a second peace overture this time offering more concessions September 6 Tuesday The King s second peace offer is rejected out of hand by Parliament mistrustful of the King s motives Furthermore they makes a declaration of intent to seize the property of delinquents to repay loans made by those loyal to Parliament This further divides the country into two camps and increases support for the King Meanwhile at Leicester Prince Rupert demands 2000 from the citizens of the town to guarantee their immunity from plunder They pay 500 but complain to the King In Dorset the Roundheads pull back from Sherborne Castle and march on Yeovil September 7 Wednesday Parliament assures the Scots that episcopacy will be abolished Goring surrenders Portsmouth castle to Waller and escapes to join the Queen in Holland A detachment of the Marquis of Hertford s Royalist army are defeated by the Roundheads at Babylon Hill near Yeovil The Parliamentary force falls back on Dorchester September 8 Thursday The King disavows Rupert s demand for money from the citizens of Leicester September 9 Friday The Earl of Essex leaves London to join the army He is given a rapturous citizens send off September 10 Saturday Essex joins the army 20 000 strong camped about Northampton He aims to march on the King at Nottingham Byron abandons Oxford and heads for Worcester taking with him volunteers a valuable consignment of money and the college silver September 12 Monday Parliamentary troops under Lord Saye and Sele occupy Oxford and muster the city s Trained Bands Most are happy to fight for Parliament However the students of the University are largely royalist supporters and they are neither disarmed nor interned September 13 Tuesday The King threatened by Essex superior force disbands the hostile Trained Bands in Nottingham seizes their weapons and heads towards Derby His aim is to march to Shropshire and the Welsh Marches gathering recruits en route September 14 Wednesday The Earl of Essex reviews the Parliamentary Army at Northampton The unpaid troops are unruly September 15 Thursday Essex appeals to the House for a loan to pay the troops to impose some sort of order September 16 Friday Byron arrives at Worcester pursued by a parliamentary force under Nathaniel Fiennes Fiennes is hoping to affect a link up with the Earl of Essex September 17 Saturday Parliament demands contributions to the war fund from the City of London September 18 Sunday The King is at Stafford September 19 Monday Charles marches to Wellington giving his manifesto to the troops en route Having received news of Byron s occupation of Worcester the Earl of Essex breaks camp at Northampton and marches into Warwickshire monitoring the King s progress In the south west Hertford abandons Sherborne Castle and heads for Minehead September 20 Tuesday The King enters Shrewsbury on the Welsh border where a force of 5000 infantry is mustering September 21 Wednesday Prince Rupert joins Byron at Worcester and prepares to fortify the city September 22 Thursday Essex troops demand an immediate march on Worcester Realising that the city is indefensible Byron falls back to join the King covered by Rupert s cavalry In the south west Hertford reaches Minehead September 23 Friday Prince Rupert attacks the Parliamentary force under Colonel Fiennes at Powicke Bridge outside Worcester The speed of the Royalist attack establishes Rupert s reputation and the superiority of the Royalist horse To the north the King enters Chester seizing the goods of local Puritans securing communications with Ireland and gathering supplies and loyal supporters from Cheshire In the south west Sir Ralph Hopton parts from Hertford at Minehead and makes his way to Cornwall with a small detachment of horse Hertford and his remaining troops cross the Bristol Channel with the aim of organizing resistance to Parliament in South Wales September 24 Saturday The Earl of Essex advances cautiously into Worcester where his troops desecrate the Cathedral Prince Rupert falls back to join the King in the Marches September 25 Sunday Hopton joins Sir Bevil Grenville at Stowe in Cornwall Late September A force detached by the Earl of Essex occupies Hereford In Ireland the Scots now under the command of Lord Leven conduct a campaign of desolation in Ulster September 29 Thursday The gentry of Yorkshire with opinion equally divided between the two sides elect to hold the county neutral in the struggle October 2 Sunday Lord Strange Earl of Derby since his father s death raises the royalist siege of Manchester October 4 Tuesday In Yorkshire Sir John Hotham breaks the truce with the Royalists by seizing Cawood Castle ten miles south of York from Archbishop Williams A ship bearing munitions and soldiers sent by the Queen from Holland is driven into Yarmouth by bad weather and seized by order of Parliament Meanwhile off Tynemouth the two remaining royalist warships Bonaventure and Swallow are surrendered to Parliament whilst trying to run the blockade In Cornwall Hopton reviews the royalist forces October 5 Wednesday In Ireland Thomas Preston s Confederate forces rout government troops under George Monck near Timahoe Queen s County October 6 Thursday The royalists fail in their attempt to raise the Devonshire Militia at Modbury and are forced to call off their proposed attack on Plymouth Early mid October The King is joined at Shrewsbury by the veteran Patrick Ruthven Earl of Forth October 12 Wednesday The King sets out from Shrewsbury to begin his march on London via Bridgnorth Wolverhampton and Kenilworth October 13 Thursday In Cornwall Hopton confronts the Parliamentary committee at Lostwithiel and calls out the forces of the county against them October 15 Saturday The Bill for the Assembly of Divines expected to reform the church is read for the first time in the House of Lords The House of Lords also gives assent to the Commons resolution that all who refuse to contribute to the charge of the Commonwealth are to be imprisoned and disarmed The revenues of bishops deans and chapters and all delinquents who have taken up arms for the King are to be sequestered for the use of the Commonwealth October 16 Sunday In

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  • This article has been extended and reproduced  by kind permission of the author
    in the full army City of Cremona a Piazza Piccola b Piazza Grande c Porta Ognissanti d Baterardi di S Michele e Porta Margherita f Piazza S Salvadore g Porta Po h S Lucia i S Maria Nuova By this time the French were battle weary and lethargy and inactivity led to debauchery and drunkenness of which Prince Eugene was very much aware Consequently he decided on a surprise attack on the two French garrisons at the Ognissanti gate now Venice and at the Margherita gate now Romana which when opened at speed would allow his army entry into the city They would then be in a position to seize the guard post of Piccola square now Cavour and the 2 barracks of the Po gate where the Irish soldiers in the service of France were quartered On the night of February 1st 1702 the operation began and by daylight Prince Eugene was enthroned in the Hotel de Ville The consternation which prevailed is described by an Italian historian Confusion terror violence rage flight and slaughter were every where Dreadful for all was the awakening Still more dreadful what they saw when awake The citizens believed their last hour had come The French between fury and surprise arming themselves hastily and irregularly seized their muskets sabres and bayonets and sallied out from their lodgings or posts naked and bare footed or covered only with a shirt ignorant of where they were rushing what enemy they were going to engage or what had reduced ill fated Cremona to such extremities during that horrible night The Austrians believed that victory was already in their grasp Marshall Villeroy was asleep in his lodgings at Offredi Palace today Cavalcabo He rushed out in his nightshirt and mounted his horse and went to the scene of the battle He was wounded and was captured by an Irish soldier in the Austrian army named Francis McDonnell who immediately took him to his commanding officer where he was then taken prisoner With the seizure of most of the town and with Marshall Villeroy taken prisoner it appeared that Cremona was doomed But the drama was only just beginning Two battalions of the Irish Brigade who could neither afford the debauchery of the French nor had the opportunity by virtue of their strict discipline were strongly entrenched near the Po gate The battalion from the Dillon regiment was commanded by Major Daniel O Mahoney who led a fierce assault on the Imperial troops when he learned that they were in the city and at the last moment he prevented them from opening the gate Colours of Galmays Foot Colours of Berwicks Foot Another battalion was attacked by the Austrian Grenadiers and the Irish allowed them to draw as close as possible and then poured volley after volley of hot lead into their ranks until they were repulsed The Irish were quickly able to reoccupy the emplacements of Santa Lucia and Santa Salvatore by burning the bridge of boats

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