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  • Naplist

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/Traders/Caliver/Nap15.html (2016-02-16)
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  • New Page 3

    (No additional info available in detailed archive for this subpage)
    Original URL path: /Traders/testudo/testudo%20top.htm (2016-02-16)

  • A SITE FOR WARGAME FANATICS Testudo is a new Italian company producing miniature figurines for wargamers
    war which are in the 15mm series 15mm Series 30 Years The English Civil War De Bello Civili De Bello Gallico War A SITE FOR WARGAME FANATICS Testudo is a new Italian company producing miniature figurines for wargamers In this site you will find all the information about it such as photos and descriptions of the figurines order methods and prices In addition you can chat with other wargamers and

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/Traders/testudo/testudo_body.htm (2016-02-16)
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  • The Wargame Forum Library
    to use the information to create forces for other game systems To view or download the lists click on the underlined headings below Army Lists for Dates Covered Great Britain 1830 1904 Prussia Germany 1830 1904 Austrian Armies 1830 1904 French Armies 1830 1904 Confederate Infantry of the American Civil War from Dixon s Russian Armies 1830 1904 Italian Spanish Armies 1830 1904 American Armies 1830 1904 Armies of the

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/Library/Armies/Bandi3/BIarmies.html (2016-02-16)
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    that Scythians and Huns should be attacked during February and March when their horses are weakened by the hardships of winter To overcome the difficulties of rationing the Hans like the Mongols in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries lived on their horses In Genghis Khan s army Marco Polo informs us that each Mongol was obliged to take with him eighteen horses and mares so that he might have mare s milk and horse s blood for food and drink 14 Their steeds were not only mounts and remounts but self replenishing canned food 15 With this may be compared a remark made by T E Lawrence on operations in Arabia Our cards were speed and time not hitting power The invention of bully beef had profited us more than the invention of gunpowder but gave us strategical rather than tactical strength 16 From this self supplying base a cyclonic strategy was developed operations took the form of whirlwind advances and retirements Whole districts were laid waste and entire populations annihilated not only in order to establish a heat of terror which would evaporate opposition but also to leave the rear clear of all hostile manpower and so to facilitate withdrawals The tactics adopted may be defined as ferocity under authority Fury surprise elusiveness cunning and mobility and not planning method drill and discipline were its elements Try twice turn back the third time is as much a Hunnish as a Turkoman proverb and as Amedee Thierry points out The nomads unlike ourselves do not consider flight a dishonour Considering booty of more worth than glory they fight only when they are certain of success When they find their enemy in force they evade him to return when the occasion is more opportune Their master weapon was the bow mainly made of horn as the steppes were treeless Its value largely lay in the noiselessness of the arrows which were tipped with bone But in close quarter fighting they relied on the sword regardless of their own lives and while the enemy are guarding against wounds from the sabre thrusts they throw strips of cloth plaited into nooses lassos over their opponents and so entangle them that they fetter their limbs and take from them the power of riding or walking 17 The weakness in their tactics lay in that they could seldom halt in any one place for long because forage was rapidly exhausted This and their inability to storm fortresses and walled cities rendered their occupation of any given area impermanent At Asemus Osma twenty miles south of Sistova in 443 Attila was easily repulsed and when he started plundering the neighbouring country sallies against him were made from that fortress In brief the Hunnish method of fighting though admirably suited for the steppes of Asia in the end failed in more civilised and topographically difficult Europe The first great incursion of the Huns came in 395 They crossed the frozen Danube and their hordes devasted Dalmatia and Thrace but their greatest effort was made far away to the east They passed through the defiles of the Caucasus overran Armenia devastated Cappadocia and parts of Syria and Cicilia and laid siege to Antioch and many other cities on the Halys Cyndus Orontes and Euphrates The terror caused by this extensive raid is vividly described by St Jerome Lo he writes suddenly messengers ran to and fro and the whole East trembled for swarms of Huns had broken forth from the far distant Maeotis Sea of Azov between the icy Tanais Don and the monstrous peoples of the Massagetae where the Gates of Alexander pen in the wild nations behind the rocks of Caucasus They filled the whole earth with slaughter and panic alike as they flitted hither and thither on their swift horses They were at band everywhere before they were expected by their speed they outstripped rumour and they took pity neither upon religion nor rank nor age nor wailing childhood 18 The next incursion of importance came in 441 immediately after Gaiseric s negotiations with Attila Again the Huns crossed the Danube and destroyed Viminacium Kostolacz Margus at the mouth of the Morava Singidunum Belgrade Sirmium Mitrovitz and many lesser places This lightning campaign compelled Theodosius to recall his fleet from Sicily and to abandon his projected attack on Gaiseric In 442 a truce was agreed upon but as Theodosius refused to hand over to Attila the fugitives demanded by him in the following year the war was renewed By occupying Ratiaria Anzar Palanka capital of the province of Dacia Ripensis and the base of the Roman fleet on the Danube Attila secured his rear and then advanced up the valley of the Margus Morava and destroyed Naissus Next he moved up the river Nischava and razed Sardica Sofia and Philippopolis to the ground By passing Adrianople and Heraclea because they were too strong for him to storm in the neighbourhood of Constantinople he defeated Theodosius s army under Aspar an Alan in a series of battles and finally exterminated it on the shores of the Dardanelles These defeats compelled Theodosius to seek peace which was granted by Attila The main terms were that all fugitives should be handed over to him that arrears of tribute calculated at 6 000lb of gold approx 28 000 000 should be paid and that the annual tribute should be fixed at 2 100lb This peace was agreed upon in August 443 In 447 Attila again invaded the Eastern Empire but on what pretext is unknown When he was about to advance a series of terrible earthquakes threw down the walls of many Greek cities and did such extensive damage to the fortifications of Constantinople that at first it appeared that the city was doomed To protect it the army of Theodosius advanced to the river Utus Vid and though it met with defeat it would seem to have inflicted such heavy losses on the Huns that after they had plundered and devastated the land as far south as Thermopylae Attila thought it better to withdraw His rear secured by these incursions Italy and Gaul lay at his mercy but as Gaiseric looked upon the former as his private preserves some time before the spring of 450 he pointed out to Attila how profitable it would be for him to raid the lands of the Visigoths This suggestion it would seem decided the question Attila had for some time been turning over in his mind namely how best to attack Gaul He fell in with Gaiseric s idea and as he knew that the Visigoths were the inveterate enemies of the Romans he decided to march against them in the guise of Valentinian s ally hoping thereby to neutralise Roman opposition Further Theodoric and Gaiseric were at loggerheads because Hunneric Gaiseric s son had recently repudiated his wife Theodoric s daughter and had returned her to her father minus her nose and ears Therefore with the Romans neutralised and Gaiseric hostile Theodoric would be completely isolated While this scheming was in progress on July 26 450 Theodosius was thrown by his horse and two nays later died of his injuries He was succeeded by Marcian 450 457 who had married Theodosius s sister Pulcheria and one of the first acts of the new emperor was to stop paying tribute to the Huns Enraged by this Attila sent two embassies one to Constantinople to demand the resumption of tribute which was emphatically refused and the other to Ravenna to make a request relative to an incident which had occurred sixteen years earlier In 434 Honoria Valentinian s sister when in her seventeenth year had been seduced by one of her chamberlains and was sent by her mother Placidia in disgrace to Constantinople She bitterly resented this and in a passion sent a ring to Attila begging him to accept her as his wife Now that she had returned to Ravenna the mission of the second embassy was not only to claim her as Attila s bride but also to demand half the Western Empire as her dowry No sooner was this demand refused than an event occurred which further widened the breach between Attila and Valentinian The king of the Ripuarian Franks died and a succession quarrel broke out between his two sons the elder appealed to Attila for aid and the younger to Aetius As the latter was well received and adopted by Aetius as his son it must have become apparent to Attila that he could no longer rely on Aetius s former friendship to maintain Roman neutrality during his projected attack on Gaul therefore that before he could deal with Marcian he must first settle his account with the Western Empire where he had many supporters among the Bagaudae again in revolt where the Visigoths were still hostile to the Romans and Vandals and where the Ripuarian Franks were in the throes of a civil war To Attila Ravenna seemed impotent but as so often happens the unexpected lurked round the corner Again a single man was destined to change the course of the apparently inevitable this man was Aetius called The last of the Romans Renatus Frigeridus has left us the following brief description of him Of middle height he was manly in appearance and well made neither too frail nor too heavy he was quick of wit and agile of limb a very practised horseman and skilful archer he was indefatigable with the spear A born warrior he was renowned for the arts of peace without avarice and little swayed by desire endowed with gifts of the mind not swerving from his purpose for any kind of evil instigation He bore wrongs with the utmost patience and loved labour Undaunted in danger he was excelled by none in the endurance of hunger thirst and vigil From his early youth he seemed forewarned of the great power to which he was destined by the fates 19 Early in 45 when war between Attila and Aetius became certain the problem the latter had to consider was would the kingdoms and tribes of Gaul set aside their quarrels and unite against the invader Above all would Theodoric the most powerful of the kings join hands with him his old and persistent enemy Attila s aim clearly was to prevent this and being a subtle man and one who fought with craft before he made war 20 he sent an embassy to both Valentinian and Theodoric To the former he proclaimed that his invasion was but a continuation of the former campaign of Roman and Hun against the Visigoths and to the latter he pointed out the danger of an alliance with Rome Valentinian guessed what Attila had in mind and sent ambassadors to Theodoric to warn him against Attila Among other things these ambassadors said Since you are mighty in arms give heed to your own dangers and join hands with us in common Bear aid also to the Empire of which you hold a part If you would learn how such an alliance should be sought and welcomed by us look into the plans of the foe 21 While Theodoric hesitated Attila struck and early in 451 he set out from beyond the Rhine and marched westward His army is reputed to have numbered 500 000 men a figure obviously exaggerated by panic It was a conglomerate force for besides the Huns there were in it Ostrogoths and Gepids who formed its kernel as well as Sciri from Riga Rugi from Pomerania Franks from the Neckar Thuringi from Bavaria and Burgundians from east of the Rhine His first objective was probably the lands of the Ripuarian Franks and his next Orleans for located as it is at the apex of the great bend in the river Loire once in his hands he could sweep into Gothia Aquitania His army poured through Belgic Gaul in three columns of fighting groups and advanced on a wide front its right moving on Nemetacum Arras its left up the Moselle to Mettis Metz and its centre on Lutetia Parisiorum Paris and Aureliani Orleans The devastation was appalling fire smoke murder and rapine swept through the lands Rheims Metz Cambrai Treves Arras Tongres Tournai Therouanne Cologne Amiens Beauvais Worms Mainz and Strasbourg were sacked and burnt Paris then but a small town built on an island in the Seine was saved so the story goes by a young girl of the neighbouring village of Nanterre Genovefa by name better known to posterity as Saint Genenieve When its inhabitants in panic were about to flee she urged them to place their trust in God and through her simple prayers held them to the city walls Meanwhile Valentinian s embassy had failed to win Theodoric over and the vita question remained could a coalescence of the tribes be effected As usual there was no reserve army in Italy which the year before had been devastated by a terrible famine For twenty five years Aetius had relied upon the Huns to fill his ranks now they were his enemy and nothing but blank files met his anxious gaze He hurried to Gaul and collected together such feoderati as were to be found there apparently checked the impulse of the Alans at Valence to open the gates of that city to Attila and then went to Arverni Clermont in Auvergne and sent to the Gothic court at Tolosa Toulouse a Roman Senator named Avitus the future Emperor of the West 454 456 who won Theodoric s support Meanwhile the hordes of Huns swarmed toward Orleans in the neighbourhood of which Sangiban king of the Alans who had been settled there by Aetius in 442 promised to betray the city to Attila When a report of this came to the ears of Aetius and Theodoric they set out at top speed to occupy the city before Attila could seize it but the Huns arrived first and at once besieged the city According to Gregory of Tours it was saved through the intercessions of the blessed bishop Anianus St Aignan 22 In the Vita Aniani as quoted by Amedee Thierry the story is as follows He visited Aetius and impressed upon him the fact that Orleans could not hold out beyond June 14 Early in May Attila appeared and for five weeks pounded at the walls with his rams and poured an unceasing hail of arrows into the city As the walls crumbled the worthy bishop restored them by perambulating certain holy relics round and round the battlements Toward the middle of June all seemed lost when one morning a soldier ascended the highest turret and spied in the distance a tiny cloud of dust it hid Aetius and Theodoric As it grew bigger out of it gleamed the eagles of the legions and the embroidered banners of the Goths Lastly the armies met in a fierce fight in the suburbs Driven from street to street beaten down by the stones hurled at them by the inhabitants from the roofs of the houses the Huns no longer knew what was to become of them when Attila sounded the retreat The patrician Aetius had not failed in his word it was the i4th ofJune Such was that famous day which in the West saved civilisation from total destruction 23 Whatever happened it would appear that Attila experienced a disastrous defeat for instead of pressing the attack he and his horde slipped away during the night passed by Sens and made for the valleys of the Seine and the Aube where the country was open and called Campania Champagne On the former river probably in the vicinity of or at Mery sur Seine he established his rearguard a horde of Gepids and retired his main body a little east of it on to the Catalaunian Plains which are also called Mauriacian 24 Against the rearguard Aetius launched a night attack which must have crushed it out of existence for according to Jordanes his enemy lost in killed and wounded 15 000 men which though an impossible number suggests heavy fighting Presumably on the next day June 20th the battle opened 25 It would appear from Jordanes that Attila was in no way confident of success and to shorten the engagement so that he might continue his retreat under cover of night he did not issue out of his wagon laager until the early afternoon when he formed up his horde in the following order He took command of the centre with his bravest troops with Walamir and the Ostrogoths on the left and Ardaric and the Gepids etc on the right Apparently his idea was to charge his enemy s centre to drive it back in confusion and then to withdraw to his camp and await nightfall In his turn Aetius who presumably realised what was in his opponent s mind decided upon two outflanking attacks the aim of which was to cut off the Huns from their laager He drew up his most unreliable troops the Alans under Sangiban in the centre placed Theodoric and his Visigoths on his right to oppose the Ostrogoths and himself took command of the left wing with his Romans When the armies were being marshalled a skirmish for a rising piece of ground took place in which Thorismund son of Theodoric threw the Huns advanced guard back in confusion Disconcerted by this attack Attila according to Jordanes addressed his troops He pointed to the Alans and said Seek swift victory in that spot For when the sinews are cut the limbs soon relax nor can a body stand when you have taken away the bones No spear shall harm those who are seen to live and those who are sure to die Fate overtakes even in peace 26 Their hearts being warmed by these words they all dashed into battle Next Jordanes writes Hand

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/Library/ArticlesH/Chalons.html (2016-02-16)
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  • In the Military Museum in Berwick, there is a very impressive Diorama showing an 18th century regiment of foot drawn up on the parade ground, on a one to one ratio, each man in his place
    In popular imagery the English infantrymen fought through the North American summers in bewigged and scarlet splendour In practice however the hair was frequently cropped short the stock was loosened or discarded and the brims of the hats were cut off close to the crown It was also an English habit to shorten the coats to jackets and the colour which in any case was a dull brownish red was at least as serviceable as anything worn by the American Continentals and the French regiments of the line A Boston Newspaper reported in 1758 You would laugh to see the droll figures we all cut Regulars and Provincials are all ordered to cut off the brims their hats off The Regularsas well as the Provincials have left off their proper regimentals that is they have cut off the coats so as to scarecly reach to their waist you should not distinguish us from common ploughmen Harman In the middle of the century the cut of the coat was still ample enough in most armies to permit the lapels and turnbacks to be undone and fastened across the front in cold weather and the cuffs to be lowered over the fingers The Russians enjoyed the additional protection of their cloaks which when not required were rolled up and worn in traditional style like a bandolier In summertime both the Russian and Polish soldiers did without the coat altogether and on occasion some of the Austrians did the same The gaiters were said to give better protection against cold wet and mosquitoes than did the half boots which came into fashion in the later part of the century Mirabeau and Mauvillon 1788 and the Prussian gaiters were softer and more comfortable than is generally believed We should not bother if they do not lie smoothly for gaiters are not intended for display but for the convenience of the soldiers Frederick quoted in Kling 1902 12 Your author can confirm the surprising utility of gaiters having worn them as part of his Redcoat uniform for several days filming in Scotland a few years ago during extremely inclement weather As in all periods some of the worst damage to health was caused by damp penetrating through outer coverings to the legs and feet The woollen stockings of the German armies became soggy and dangerous but when the Prussians were on campaign they cut off the bottoms and followed the Russian custom of wrapping the feet in strips of cloth impregnated in tallow Marshal Saxe writes that a similar practice was to be found among the French veterans who knew from experience that grease gave the best protection against damp and chafing Saxe 1732 When the soldier was fully equipped for the field he was festooned with the great variety of objects which enabled him to live and fight Most of his needs of a domestic kind were carried in his knapsack which was a bag of canvas or untanned calfskin or goat skin suspended

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/RandomS/Library/Soldierdoll.html (2016-02-16)
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    the booklet No figures are available for the 3rd Scots Guards the 26th Cameronians the 70th Glasgow Lowland Regiment and the 73rd and 75th Highlanders By way of contrast in these returns the author gives the figures of two Irish and one English Regiment of the period and these also we attach The author advances an interesting theory to explain the large proportion of Irish in Scots Regiments and indeed it furnishes a reason for the large proportion of them in English Regiments also He gives the figures of the population of the three countries in 1811 England and Wales 10 150 000 Scotland 1 805 000 Ireland 5 937 000 He then points out that during this period there was one Scots Cavalry regiment The Greys and nineteen regiments of Foot of which latter several had second battalions one the 21st had as many as four battalions During the same period Ireland had only four regiments of Horse and nine regiments of foot In effect his argument is that the population of Scotland was not able to maintain the large number of regiments supposed to be recruited in that country In the case of Ireland on the other hand with its then very large population most of which was on the verge of starvation the country had a potential recruiting strength far in excess of the requirement of its regiments The effect of economic pressure coupled with the naturally adventurous and militant spirit of the Irishmen tended to fill English and Scots regiments with them In some cases the author gives returns of the religious denomination of the men composing a regiment and it is of interest that the number of Catholics always approximated to the number of Irishmen Regiment Scots English Irish Foriegn 1st Royal Scots 3rd Bn

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/RandomS/Library/Cscots1.html (2016-02-16)
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  • Random Shots
    in the main was composed of 1 inch rolled iron plated bolted together to a thickness of 8 inches in the turret and 2 to 4 inches along her sides Guns Warriors main armament was of 30 8 inch smoothbores 15 per broadside throwing a 68lb ball with a rate of fire of a round every 55 seconds Additionally she carried 10 110lb Armstrong breechloading rifles 6 of which could bear on a single broadside These fired a bolt or shell every 50 seconds Apart from being faster to re load the rifles were far more accurate especially at long range Monitor carried 2 11 inch turret mounted Dahlgren smooth bores These had a theoretical rate of fire of a 150lb solid shot every 2 3 minutes but in action against the Virginia managed only a round every 6 8 minutes In Combat We know from actual events that the Monitor s chosen tactic was to get as close to her enemy as possible and then pound away with her 11 inch Dahlgrens We also know something of Warrior s intended tactics from notes made by her commander Captain Cochrane about his plans for a possible encounter with Gloire He intended to use his superior speed to bring about an action but then remain at long range until French fire had been suppressed or at least reduced Similar tactics would probably have been used in the event of an engagement with Monitor One of Warrior s 110lb Guns If Warrior opened fire at 1 500 yards then even if she had remained stationary it would have taken Monitor at least 12 minutes to close And if Warrior had used her superior speed that time could have been extended indefinitely During a 12 minute exchange of fire Monitor could have fired at most 8 150lb solid shot Warrior could have fired 156 68lb solid shot and 72 110lb solid bolts During the Civil war USN ironclads achieved a hit rate of 33 against fort Sumter at ranges of upwards of 500 yards At 100 yards Monitor had hit Virginia with 20 of 55 shots fired So with luck Monitor may have hit warrior 3 times during the 12 minutes Warrior s task was far more difficult as Monitor made a very small target so 10 for the 68lbers and 15 for the rifles rather than 30 might be a fair guess This would mean during the same time period Monitor being hit by 16 68lb and 10 110lb shot During the engagement between Monitor and Virginia Monitor s 20 hits on Virginia s armour had caused dents to 6 of her 2 inch plates but failed to penetrate However her guns had been served with only half charges since they were not proofed We may assume the use of full charges against the Warrior Monitor in return had been hit by 24 shots from Virginia Hits on Monitor s pilot house and turret caused considerable plate damage and some crew casualties

    Original URL path: http://www.wargames.co.uk/RandomS/Library/Warrior.htm (2016-02-16)
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web-archive-uk.com, 2016-10-25